Propeamussium lucidum, copyright National Museum Wales.

Belongs within: Aviculopectinoidea.
Contains: Pterinopectinidae, Entolioididae, Entoliidae, Pectinidae, Cyclopecten.

The Pectinoidea, scallops, are a group of bivalves that first appeared in the Ordovician. Members of the group are distinguished by the development of dorsolateral expansions of the shell, the auricles, on either side of the hinge. Many scallops are attached to their substrate by a byssus, some are cemented, but others are unattached and may swim by pumping the valves of the shell. In members of some families, the shell has one valve distinctly more inflated than the other. The hinge of the shell may be edentulous, or it may have small teeth when young that become obsolete in maturity. Representative families include the Propeamussiidae which are mostly small, thin-shelled, colourless scallops that are free-swimming recliners on deep-water sediments. Propeamussiids have relatively simple filibranch gills with free gill filaments lacking connecting ciliary junctions (Waller 2006). The Dimyidae are small, suborbicular or oval scallops with a thin, rather compressed shell that live attached to their substrate.

See also: Bivalves born free (Taxon of the Week: Pectinoidea).

Pectinoidea [Pectinacea]
    |--Pernopecten Winchell 1865 [incl. Protoentolium Yanishevksi 1960; Pernopectinidae, Protoentoliidae] W06
    |    |--*P. limaformis (White & Whitfield 1862) W06
    |    |--P. clypeatus Newell1 938 W06
    |    |--P. ohioensis Newell 1938 W06
    |    |--P. sowerbyi (McCoy 1844) W06
    |    |--P. wunstorfi Amler 1995 W06
    |    |--P. yini Newell & Boyd 1995 W06
    |    `--P. zhuzhouensis ZP86
    `--+--Entolioididae W06
       |--Entoliidae W06
       |--+--Pectinidae W06
       |  `--+--Neithea [Neitheidae] W06
       |     |    |--N. alpina (d’Orbigny 1847) SB93
       |     |    |--N. quinquecostata (Sowerby 1814) W06
       |     |    `--N. regularis (Schlotheim 1813) SB93
       |     `--Tosapectinidae W06
       |          |--Janopecten Arkhipov & Trushchelev 1980 W06
       |          |--Nevadapecten Waller in Waller & Stanley 2005 W06
       |          `--Tosapecten Kobayashi & Ichikawa 1949 W06
       |               `--T. (Indigiropecten Trushchelev 1984) W06
       `--Propeamussiidae W06
            |--Cyclopecten W84
            |--Catillopecten Iredale 1939 W84
            |--Bathypecten vulcani Schein-Fatton 1985 W06
            |--Similipecten Winckworth 1932 W06
            |    `--S. similis (Laskey 1811) W84
            |--Amussiopsis Andreeva 1966 W06
            |    |--*A. pamirica Andreeva 1966 W06
            |    `--A. paradoxa (Münster in Goldfuss 1836) [=Pecten paradoxus] W06
            |--Varientolium Andreeva 1966 W06
            |    |--*V. horridum Andreeva 1966 W06
            |    `--V. laeviradiatum (Waagen 1867) [=Pecten laeviradiatus] W06
            |--Filamussium Waller 2006 W06
            |    |--*F. schafhaeutli (Winkler 1859) (see below for synonymy) W06
            |    |--F. klushaense (Lees 1934) [=Pecten (Variamussium) klushaensis] W06
            |    `--F. yukonensis (Lees 1934) [=Pecten (Variamussium) yukonensis] W06
            |--Parvamussium Sacco 1897 [incl. Variamussium Sacco 1897] W06
            |    |--*P. duodecimlamellatum (Bronn 1831) [=Pecten duodecimlamellatus] W06
            |    |--‘Amusium’ cancellatum Smith 1885 [=*Variamussium cancellatum] W06
            |    |--P. cristellatum (Dautzenberg & Bavay 1912) MG-H11
            |    |--P. lucidum (Jeffreys 1876) W06
            |    |--P. maorium Dell 1956 P61
            |    |--‘Variamussium’ olenekense Bodylevksky in Bodylevsky et al. 1968 W06
            |    |--‘Variamussium’ pumilum (Lamarck 1819) W06
            |    `--P. sayanum (Dall 1886) W84
            `--Propeamussium de Gregorio 1884 W06
                 |--P. brevicostatum (Vörös 1971) W06
                 |--P. hyalinum PP64
                 |--P. incomparabile PP64
                 |--P. izmailicus Romanov 1985 W06
                 |--P. lucidum M96
                 |--P. nonarium (Quenstedt 1858) W06
                 |--P. sibogai (Dautzenberg & Bavay 1912) MG-H11
                 |--P. sokolowi (Retowski 1893) W06
                 |--P. vitreum PP64
                 |--P. watsoni (Smith 1885) MG-H11
                 `--P. yubarense (Yabe & Nagao 1928) AJH07

Pectinoidea incertae sedis:
  Posidoniidae F99
    |--Didymotis variabilis Gerhardt 1897 SB93
    |--Pseudodidymotis lamberti Gillet 1924 SB93
    `--Posidonia Bronn 1828 F99
         |--P. belcheri Bronn 1828 SB93
         |--P. nahwisi K79
         `--P. obliqua (Hauer 1857) [=Posidonomya obliqua, Posidonia oblicua (l. c.)] F99
  Dimyidae [Dimyoidea] S98
    |--Proostrea SB93
    |--Dimyodon Munier-Chalmas in Fischer 1886 S98
    |    `--*D. schlumbergi Munier-Chalmas in Fischer 1886 S98
    `--Dimya S98
         |  i. s.: D. westonensis Maxwell 1978 S98
         `--D. (Dimyarina Iredale 1936) P61
              |--D. (*D.) corrugata Hedley 1902 P61, S98
              `--D. (D.) maoria Powell 1937 P61
  Pterinopectinidae Z80
  Crassadoma Bernard 1986 W06
  Indopecten Douglas 1929 W06
    `--I. seinaamensis (Krumbeck 1924) W06

*Filamussium schafhaeutli (Winkler 1859) [=Pecten schafhaeutli, Parvamussium schafhaeutli, Variamussium schafhaeutli; incl. Pecten velatus Schafhäutl 1852 non Goldfuss 1833] W06

*Type species of generic name indicated


[AJH07] Amano, K., R. G. Jenkins & Y. Hikida. 2007. A new gigantic Nucinella (Bivalvia: Solemyoida) from the Cretaceous cold-seep deposit in Hokkaido, northern Japan. Veliger 49 (2): 84–90.

[F99] Freneix, S. 1999. Bivalves du Trias tariquide de Los Pastores (Algésiras), Espagne. Leur signification. Geodiversitas 21 (2): 137–146.

[K79] Kauffman, E. G. 1979. Cretaceous. In: Robison, R. A., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt A. Introduction. Fossilisation (Taphonomy), Biogeography and Biostratigraphy pp. A418–A487. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[M96] Morton, B. 1996. The evolutionary history of the Bivalvia. In: Taylor, J. D. (ed.) Origin and Evolutionary Radiation of the Mollusca pp. 337–359. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

[PP64] Peres, J. M., & J. Picard. 1964. Nouveau manuel de bionomie benthique de la mer Mediterranee. Recueil des Travaux de la Station Marine d'Endoume, Bulletin 31 (27): 5–137.

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[SB93] Skelton, P. W., & M. J. Benton. 1993. Mollusca: Rostroconchia, Scaphopoda and Bivalvia. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 237–263. Chapman & Hall: London.

[S98] Stilwell, J. D. 1998. Late Cretaceous Mollusca from the Chatham Islands, New Zealand. Alcheringa 22 (1): 29–85.

[W84] Waller, T. R. 1984. The ctenolium of scallop shells: functional morphology and evolution of a key family-level character in the Pectinacea (Mollusca: Bivalvia). Malacologia 25 (1): 203–219.

[W06] Waller, T. R. 2006. Phylogeny of families in the Pectinoidea (Mollusca: Bivalvia): importance of the fossil record. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 148 (3): 313–342.

[ZP86] Zhang, R., & J. Pojeta Jr. 1986. New bivalves from the Datang Stage, Lower Carboniferous, Guangdong Province, China. Journal of Paleontology 60 (3): 669–679.

[Z80] Zhang Z.-M. 1980. On the ligament area, systematic position and evolutionary relationships of Claraia. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica 19 (6): 433–444.

Last updated: 6 November 2021.

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