Pectinoidea

Orange-mouth thorny oyster Spondylus varius, a cemented pectinoid, from here.


Belongs within: Pteriomorphia.
Contains: Aviculopecten, Claraia, Chlamys, Pecten, Mimachlamys, Cyclopecten.

The Pectinoidea are the scallops, a group of bivalves that first appeared in the Ordovician. Members of the group are distinguished by the development of dorsolateral expansions of the shell, the auricles, on either side of the hinge. Many scallops are attached to their substrate by a byssus, some are cemented, but others are unattached and may swim by pumping the valves of the shell. In many members of the family Pectinidae, as well as some other families, the shell has one valve distinctly more inflated than the other. The hinge of the shell may be edentulous, or it may have small teeth when young that become obsolete in maturity (Cox et al. 1969). The thorny or spiny oysters of the genus Spondylus, which live cemented to a rocky substrate, have a distinctive ball-and-socket arrangement to the hinge. The Dimyidae, which similarly live attached to their substrate, are small, suborbicular or oval, bivalves with a thin, rather compressed shell.

See also: Bivalves born free (Taxon of the Week: Pectinoidea).

Characters (from Cox et al. 1969): Adult shells generally orbicular, monomyarian, subequilateral, with winglike extensions of hinge margin (auricles); pleurothetic, with right valve underneath when at rest; free, byssate or cemented, with byssal notch below right anterior auricle in most genera, at least in juveniles; sculpture commonly radial, becoming plicate in some advanced forms; main inner layer of shell nacreous or crossed-lamellar aragonite in Paleozoic, becoming foliate calcite in Mesozoic, usually with thin outer prismatic layer, especially in right valve; ligament area alivincular, diverging upward in most Paleozoic forms, becoming internal in most post-Paleozoic shells.

<==Pectinoidea [Pectinacea]
    |--Posidonia Bronn 1828 [Posidoniidae] F99
    |    |--P. nahwisi K79
    |    `--P. obliqua (Hauer 1857) [=Posidonomya obliqua, Posidonia oblicua (l. c.)] F99
    |--Aviculopectinidae [Aviculopectininae] F99
    |    |--Aviculopecten F71
    |    `--Leptochondria Bittner 1891 F99
    |         |--L. alberti (Goldfuss 1836) (see below for synonymy) F99
    |         `--L. seebachi TE01
    |--Dimyidae S98
    |    |--Dimyodon Munier-Chalmas in Fischer 1886 S98
    |    |    `--*D. schlumbergi Munier-Chalmas in Fischer 1886 S98
    |    `--Dimya (Dimyarina Iredale 1936) P61
    |         |--D. (*D.) corrugata Hedley 1902 P61, MG-H11
    |         `--D. (D.) maoria Powell 1937 P61
    |--Propeamussiidae MG-H11
    |    |--Propeamussium GW02
    |    |    |--P. sibogai (Dautzenberg & Bavay 1912) MG-H11
    |    |    `--P. watsoni (Smith 1885) MG-H11
    |    `--Parvamussium Sacco 1897 MG-H11, SY85
    |         |--*P. duodecimlamellatum [=Pecten duodecimlamellatus] P61
    |         |--P. cristellatum (Dautzenberg & Bavay 1912) MG-H11
    |         `--P. maorium Dell 1956 P61
    |--Entoliidae S98
    |    |--Syncyclonema S98
    |    |    |--S. nilssoni (Goldfuss 1835) S98
    |    |    `--S. socialis F71
    |    `--Entolium Meek 1865 S98
    |         |--E. corneum (Young & Bird 1828) [incl. Pecten demissus Phillips 1829, *E. demissum] S98
    |         |--E. membranaceum (Nilsson 1827) (see below for synonymy) S98
    |         `--E. orbiculare (Sowerby 1817) S98
    |--Pterinopectinidae Z80
    |    |--Pterinopecten Z80
    |    `--+--Dunbarella Z80
    |       `--+--Claraia Z80
    |          `--Pseudoclaraia Zhang 1980 Z80
    |               |--*P. aurantiformis Zhang 1980 Z80
    |               |--P. amygdaliformis Zhang 1980 Z80
    |               |--P. bioni (Nakazawa 1977) [=Claraia bioni] Z80
    |               |--P. himaica (Bittner 1899) [=Pseudomonotis (Avicula) himaica] Z80
    |               |--P. hunanica (Hsü 1938) [=Claraia hunanica] Z80
    |               |--P. occidentalis (Whiteaves 1889) [=Pseudomonotis occidentalis] Z80
    |               |--P. pulchella (Nakazawa 1953) [=Claraia pulchella] Z80
    |               |--P. siberiensis Zhang 1980 (see below for synonymy) Z80
    |               `--P. wangi (Patte 1935) [=Pseudomonotis wangi] Z80
    |--Spondylus Linnaeus 1758 [Spondylidae] LK95
    |    |--*S. gaederopus Linnaeus 1758 LK95
    |    |--S. americanus SC62
    |    |--S. anacanthus Mawe 1823 MG-H11
    |    |--S. aucklandicus Marshall 1918 F27a
    |    |--S. barbatus Reeve 1856 LK95
    |    |--S. butleri Reeve 1856 LK95
    |    |--S. castus Reeve 1856 LK95
    |    |--S. cuneus Reeve 1856 [incl. S. reevei] LK95
    |    |--S. ducalis Röding 1798 LK95
    |    |--S. flabellum Reeve 1856 LK95
    |    |--S. foliaceus H09
    |    |--S. gaderopoides McCoy 1876 DK10
    |    |--S. groschi Lamprell & Kilburn 1995 LK95
    |    |--S. imbutus Reeve 1856 [incl. S. nux Reeve 1856] LK95
    |    |--S. latus (Sowerby 1815) S98
    |    |--S. microlepos Lamarck 1819 LK95
    |    |--S. multisetosus Reeve 1856 H09
    |    |--S. nicobaricus Schreibers 1793 [incl. S. hystrix Röding 1798, S. igneus Fulton 1915] LK95
    |    |--S. occidens Sowerby 1903 LK95
    |    |--S. pacificus Reeve 1856 BW09
    |    |--S. regius Linnaeus 1758 LK95
    |    |--S. sanguineus Dunker 1852 LK95
    |    |--S. santonensis d’Orbigny 1846 S98
    |    |--S. sinensis Schreibers 1793 LK95
    |    |--S. spectrum Reeve 1856 BD86
    |    |--S. squamosus Schreibers 1793 LK95
    |    |--S. tenebrosus Reeve 1856 H09
    |    |--S. tenellus M54
    |    |--S. tenuispinosus Sowerby 1847 LK95
    |    |--S. ursipes Berry 1959 PP78
    |    |--S. varius Sowerby 1827 BW09
    |    |--S. victoriae Sowerby 1843 MG-H11
    |    |--S. violascens Lamarck 1819 LK95
    |    `--S. zonalis Lamarck 1819 H09
    `--Pectinidae LK95
         |--Chlamys MG-H11
         |--Pallium mariae Finlay 1927 [=Pecten semiplicatus Hutton 1873 non Alth in Favre 1869] F27b
         |--Pecten MG-H11
         |--Mimachlamys MG-H11
         |--*Euvola ziczac (Linnaeus 1758) F27a, L58 [=Ostrea ziczac F27a, Pecten ziczac F27a]
         |--Excellichlamys histrionica (Gmelin 1791) BW09
         |--Pedum spondyloideum (Gmelin 1791) BW09
         |--Phialopecten triphooki B61
         |--Cryptopecten bullatus (Dautzenberg & Bavay 1912) MG-H11
         |--Serratovola pallula Dijkstra 1998 MG-H11
         |--Veprichlamys MG-H11
         |--Cyclopecten F27a
         |--Mizuhopecten yessoensis (Jay 1856) KC11, V89
         |--Delectopecten MG-H11
         |    |--D. alcocki (Smith 1904) MG-H11
         |    `--D. zacae (Hertlein 1935) PP78
         |--Scaeochlamys MG-H11
         |    |--S. livida (Lamarck 1819) HJ08 [=Pecten lividus H09, Chlamys livida HJ08]
         |    `--S. squamea (Gmelin 1791) MG-H11
         |--Talochlamys Iredale 1929 DK08
         |    |--T. eyrei (Tate 1886) [=Pecten eyrei] DK08
         |    `--T. pulleineana (Tate 1887) MG-H11
         |--Decatopecten radula BW09
         |    |--D. r. radula BW09
         |    `--D. r. griggi (Webb 1957) BW09
         |--Gloripallium BW09
         |    |--G. pallium (Linnaeus 1758) BW09
         |    `--G. speciosum Reeve 1833 BW09
         |--Laevichlamys BW09
         |    |--L. cuneata Reeve 1833 BW09
         |    `--L. squamosa (Gmelin 1791) BW09
         |--Palliolum Monterosato 1884 P61
         |    |--*P. testae [=Pecten testae] P61
         |    `--P. fosterianum Powell 1933 P61
         |--Semipallium MG-H11
         |    |--S. aktinos (Petterd 1886) MG-H11
         |    |--S. dianae (Crandall 1979) BW09
         |    `--S. tigris (Lamarck 1819) BW09
         |--Eburneopecten Conrad 1865 S98
         |    |--*E. scintillatus (Conrad 1865) [=Pecten scintillatus] S98
         |    |--E. imperfectus (Marwick 1928) S98
         |    `--E. freneixae Stilwell 1998 S98
         |--Argopecten KC11
         |    |--A. gibbus GS79
         |    |--A. irradians KC11
         |    `--A. purpuratus KC11
         |--Sectipecten Marwick 1928 B61
         |    |--S. diffluxus (Hutton 1873) B61 [=Pecten diffluxa B61; incl. P. delicatulus H86]
         |    `--+--S. grangei Boreham 1961 B61
         |       `--+--*S. wollastoni (Finlay 1927) (see below for synonymy) B61
         |          `--S. allani Marwick 1928 B61
         |--Hinnites LK95 [=Hinnita RC78]
         |    |--H. corioensis McCoy 1879 F27b
         |    |--H. ercolianus (Cocconi 1873) LK95
         |    |--H. giganteus (Gray 1825) (see below for synonymy) RC78
         |    |--H. mulderi Chapman 1922 F27b
         |    |--H. tatei Cossmann 1907 [=Pecten deformis Tate 1887 non Gabb 1864] F27b
         |    `--H. trailli H86
         |--Mesopeplum Iredale 1929 MG-H11, P61
         |    |--*M. caroli [=Pallium (*Mesopeplum) caroli] P61
         |    |--M. burnetti M49
         |    |--M. convexum (Quoy & Gaimard 1835) [=Pallium (Mesopeplum) convexum] P61
         |    |--M. costatostriatum B61
         |    |--M. crawfordi B61
         |    `--M. fenestratum (Hedley 1901) MG-H11
         `--Camptonectes Agassiz in Meek 1864 S98
              |--*C. lens (Sowerby 1818) [=Pecten lens] S98
              |--C. bellistriatus W77
              |--C. laminatus E01
              |--C. platessa White 1874 W77
              |--C. selwynensis Finlay 1927 [=Pecten (Camptonectes) hectori Woods 1917 non P. hectori Hutton 1873] F27b
              `--C. stygius White 1874 W77

Entolium membranaceum (Nilsson 1827) [=Pecten membranaceum, P. (Syncyclonema) membranaceus; incl. P. wichmanni Feruglio 1935] S98

Hinnites giganteus (Gray 1825) [=Lima gigantea, Hinnita gigantea, Pecten giganteus; incl. P. (Chlamys) multirugosus Gale 1928, Hinnites multirugosus; incl. Hinnites crassa Conrad 1857 (preoc.), Pecten (Chlamys) multirugosus var. crassiplicatus Gale 1928] RC78

Leptochondria alberti (Goldfuss 1836) [=Monotis alberti, Chlamys (Velata) albertii, Pecten albertii, Velopecten albertii] F99

Pseudoclaraia siberiensis Zhang 1980 [=Pseudomonotis permiana Lutkevich & Lobanova 1960 non Maslennikov 1935] Z80

*Sectipecten wollastoni (Finlay 1927) [=Pecten wollastoni, P. secta Hutton 1873 non Goldfuss 1836, P. (Patinopecten) sectus] B61

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BD86] Barash, A., & Z. Danin. 1986. Further additions to the knowledge of Indo-Pacific Mollusca in the Mediterranean Sea (Lessepsian migrants). Spixiana 9 (2): 117–141.

[B61] Boreham, A. U. E. 1961. The New Zealand Tertiary genus Sectipecten Marwick (Mollusca). Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 88 (4): 655–668.

[BW09] Bryce, C., & C. Whisson. 2009. The macromolluscs of Mermaid (Rowley Shoals), Scott and Seringapatam Reefs, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 177–208.

Cox, L. R., N. D. Newell et al. 1969. Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt N. Bivalvia vol. 1. The Geological Society of America, Inc. and The University of Kansas.

[DK08] Darragh, T. A., & G. W. Kendrick. 2008. Silicified Eocene molluscs from the Lower Murchison district, Southern Carnarvon Basin, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 24 (3): 217–246.

[DK10] Darragh, T. A., & G. W. Kendrick. 2010. Eocene molluscs from the Merlinleigh Sandstone, Carnarvon Basin, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 26 (1): 23–41.

[E01] Eagle, M. K. 2001. A new species of Cottreauaster (Asteroidea: Echinodermata) from the Middle Jurassic of New Zealand. Records of the Auckland Museum 37: 93–100.

[F27a] Finlay, H. J. 1927a. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320–485.

[F27b] Finlay, H. J. 1927b. New specific names for austral Mollusca. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 488–533.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[F99] Freneix, S. 1999. Bivalves du Trias tariquide de Los Pastores (Algésiras), Espagne. Leur signification. Geodiversitas 21 (2): 137–146.

[GW02] Giribet, G., & W. Wheeler. 2002. On bivalve phylogeny: a high-level analysis of the Bivalvia (Mollusca) based on combined morphology and DNA sequence data. Invertebrate Biology 121 (4): 271–324.

[GS79] Gore, R. H., & L. E. Scotto. 1979. Crabs of the family Parthenopidae (Crustacea Brachyura: Oxyrhyncha) with notes on specimens from the Indian River region of Florida. Memoirs of the Hourglass Cruises 3 (6): 1–98.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[HJ08] Huisman, J. M., D. S. Jones, F. E. Wells & T. Burton. 2008. Introduced marine biota in Western Australian waters. Records of the Western Australian Museum 25 (1): 1–44.

[H86] Hutton, F. W. 1886. The Mollusca of the Pareora and Oamaru systems of New Zealand. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (1): 205–237.

[K79] Kauffman, E. G. 1979. Cretaceous. In: Robison, R. A., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt A. Introduction. Fossilisation (Taphonomy), Biogeography and Biostratigraphy pp. A418–A487. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[KC11] Kocot, K. M., J. T. Cannon, C. Todt, M. R. Citarella, A. B. Kohn, A. Meyer, S. R. Santos, C. Schander, L. L. Moroz, B. Lieb & K. M. Halanych. 2011. Phylogenomics reveals deep molluscan relationships. Nature 477: 452–456.

[LK95] Lamprell, K. L., & R. N. Kilburn. 1995. The Recent Spondylidae of South Africa and Mozambique, with the description of a new species (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Pectinoidea). Molluscan Research 16: 81–95.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[M54] Macpherson, J. H. 1954. Molluscs (sea shells and snails). In: Willis, J. M. (ed.) The Archipelago of the Recherche pp. 55–63. Australian Geographical Society: Melbourne.

[M49] Mason, B. 1949. The geology of Mandamus-Pahau district, north Canterbury. Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand 77 (3): 403–428.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[PP78] Poorman, F. L., & L. H. Poorman. 1978. Additional molluscan records from Bahía de Los Angeles, Baja California Norte. Veliger 20 (4): 369–374.

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[RC78] Roth, B., & E. V. Coan. 1978. Nomenclatural notes on Hinnites giganteus (Gray). Veliger 20 (3): 297–298.

[SY85] Sha J.-G. & Yuan F.-S. 1985. Buchia fauna from Dong’anzhen Formation near Dong’an of Raohe County, Heilongjiang. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica 24 (6): 651–662.

[SC62] Starck, W. A., II & W. R. Courtenay, Jr. 1962. Chorististium eukrines, a new serranid fish from Florida, with notes on related species. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 75: 159–168.

[S98] Stilwell, J. D. 1998. Late Cretaceous Mollusca from the Chatham Islands, New Zealand. Alcheringa 22 (1): 29–85.

[TE01] Tong, J., & D. H. Erwin. 2001. Triassic gastropods of the southern Qinling Mountains, China. Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology 92: 1–47.

[V89] Vermeij, G. J. 1989. Habitat and form of Crepidula grandis in Japan, with comments on habitat specialization in calyptraeid gastropods. Nautilus 103 (3): 89–91.

[W77] White, C. A. 1877. Report upon the invertebrate fossils collected in portions of Nevada, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona, by parties of the expeditions of 1871, 1872, 1873, and 1874. U.S. Geographical Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian 4 (1): 1–219, pls 1–21.

[Z80] Zhang Z.-M. 1980. On the ligament area, systematic position and evolutionary relationships of Claraia. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica 19 (6): 433–444.

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