Figwort Scrophularia nodosa, photographed by Carl Farmer.

Belongs within: Scrophulariaceae.

The Scrophularieae is a clade of mostly northern temperate flowering plants within the mostly Southern Hemisphere or tropical Scrophulariaceae. As well as by molecular phylogenetic analysis, the clade is supported by seed and embryo characteristics, and the presence of idioblasts in the leaves (Olmstead et al. 2001). Species of Scrophularia, the figworts, are herbs with square stems, opposite leaves and open two-lipped flowers borne in terminal clusters. Verbascum, mulleins, have a basal rosette of often densely hairy leaves from which extends a tall flowering stem bearing flowers with five symmetrical petals.

<==Scrophularieae [Verbasceae]
    |--Verbascum OP01
    |    |--V. blattaria OP01
    |    |--V. chinense VB02
    |    |--V. euboicum Murb. & Rech. 1936 PL04
    |    |--V. gaillardotii HF03
    |    |--V. lychnitis C55b
    |    |--V. phlomoides H91
    |    |--V. sinaiticus HF03
    |    |--V. sinuatum C55a
    |    |--V. speciosum H93
    |    |--V. spinosum SL06
    |    |--V. thapsus OP01
    |    `--V. virgatum BR65
    `--Scrophularia OP01
         |--S. arguta C55b
         |--S. atrata H93
         |--S. californica OP01
         |    |--S. c. ssp. californica H93
         |    `--S. c. ssp. floribunda H93
         |--S. canina Linnaeus 1753 BR65
         |--S. desertorum H93
         |--S. heterophylla S98
         |--S. lanceolata H93
         |--S. minutiflora J87
         |--S. nodosa C55a
         |--S. pauciflora O88
         |--S. peregrina PT98
         |--S. variegata C55a
         |--S. vernalis C55b
         `--S. villosa H93

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BR65] Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae–Compositae. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

[C55a] Candolle, A. de. 1855a. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C55b] Candolle, A. de. 1855b. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[HF03] Halperin, J., & J. Fremuth. 2003. Contribution to the knowledge of Curculionoidea (Coleoptera) and their host plants in Israel. Zoology in the Middle East 29: 93–100.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[H91] Hubálek, Z. 1991. Biogeographic indication of natural foci of tick-borne infections. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 255–260. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1–136.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: an introductory note. In: Ohba, H., & S. B. Malla (eds)The Himalayan Plants vol. 1. The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19–46.

[OP01] Olmstead, R. G., C. W. dePamphilis, A. D. Wolfe, N. D. Young, W. J. Elisons & P. A. Reeves. 2001. Disintegration of the Scrophulariaceae. American Journal of Botany 88 (2): 348–361.

[PT98] Panitsa, M., & D. Tzanoudakis. 1998. Contribution to the study of the Greek flora: flora and vegetation of the E Aegean islands Agathonisi and Pharmakonisi. Willdenowia 28: 95–116.

[PL04] Pohl, G., & I. Lenski. 2004. Zur Verbreitung und Vergesellschaftung von Pennisetum orientale Rich. in Nordeuböa (Griechenland) (Poaceae, Paniceae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 83 (2): 209–223.

[S98] Salmeri, C. 1998. Allium brulloi (Alliaceae), a new species from Astypalea (Aegean Islands, Greece). Willdenowia 28: 69–76.

[SL06] Schulz, H.-J., & P. Lymberakis. 2006. First contribution to the knowledge of the Collembola fauna of the White Mountains (Lefká Óri) in west Crete (Insecta, Collembola, Isotomidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 86 (2): 229–234.

[VB02] Vijay, S. K., & T. N. Bhardwaja. 2002. Vegetation and phenodynamics of wetlands of central Rajasthan. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 573–581.

Last updated: 5 September 2019.

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