Devil's claw Proboscidea louisianica, from here.

Belongs within: Lamiidae.
Contains: Avicennia, Ligustrum, Oleoideae, Jasminoideae, Calceolariaceae, Gesneriaceae, Plantaginaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Pedaliaceae, Acanthaceae, Phrymaceae, Lamiaceae, Orobanchaceae, Verbenaceae, Bignoniaceae, Lentibulariaceae.

The Lamiales is a large clade of flowering plants. The greatest diversity of species are herbs or shrubs, but members include large trees and parasites of other plants. Members include the Stilbaceae, a group of African trees and shrubs with funnel-shaped or tubular, often small flowers.

Synapomorphies (from Cornoside, verbascosides, methyl- and oxygenated flavones present; eglandular hairs multicellular; leaves opposite; endosperm with micropylar haustorium; fruit a septicidal capsule; cotyledons incumbent; protein bodies in nuclei; mitochondrial coxII.i3 intron absent.

Lamiales (see below for synonymy)
    |--Oleaceae [Oleales] OP01
    |    |  i. s.: Myxoporum H03
    |    |           |--M. nervosum H03
    |    |           `--M. ovatum H03
    |    |         Ligustrum OP01
    |    |         Chionanthus zeylanicus SR07
    |    |         Forestiera pubescens [incl. F. neomexicana] H93
    |    |         Osmanthus MH98
    |    |           |--O. asiaticus MH98
    |    |           |--O. heterophyllus [incl. Olea aquifolium] LO98
    |    |           |--O. ilicifolius MH98
    |    |           `--O. suavis SN88
    |    |         Nestegis Raf. 1838 ME70 [incl. Gymnelaea (Endl.) Spach 1839 A61]
    |    |           |--N. apetala (Vahl) Johnson in Degener 1958 ME70 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |           |--N. cunninghamii (Hooker) Johnson 1958 ME70 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |           |--N. lanceolata (Hooker) Johnson 1958 ME70 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |           `--N. montana (Hook. f.) Johnson 1958 ME70 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |         Syringa BR65
    |    |           |--S. emodi SN88
    |    |           |--S. oblata S00
    |    |           |--S. persica C55
    |    |           `--S. vulgaris BR65
    |    |         Phillyrea latifolia Linnaeus 1753 PL04 [incl. P. media Y98]
    |    |         Haenianthus oblongatus J87
    |    |         Linociera P03
    |    |           |--L. domingensis SWK87
    |    |           `--L. ramiflora P03
    |    |         Forsythia P93
    |    |         Oleiphyllum boreale Conwentz 1886 CBH93
    |    |         ‘Retitricolporites’ oleoides CBH93
    |    |--Oleoideae T00
    |    `--Jasminoideae T00
    `--+--Calceolariaceae OP01
       `--+--+--Gesneriaceae OP01
          |  `--Peltanthera floribunda APG16, J00
          `--+--Plantaginaceae OP01
             `--+--Scrophulariaceae OP01
                |--Stilbaceae OP01
                |    |--Halleria lucida OP01
                |    |--Nuxia [Nuxioideae] OP01
                |    |    `--N. congesta DVC08
                |    |--Stilbe [Stilboideae] OP01
                |    |    `--S. vestita OP01
                |    `--Retzia [Retziaceae, Retzioideae] OP01
                |         `--R. capensis OP01
                `--+--+--Pedaliaceae OP01
                   |  `--Acanthaceae OP01
                   |--+--Phrymaceae OP01
                   |  |--Lamiaceae OP01
                   |  `--+--Orobanchaceae OP01
                   |     `--Paulownia [Paulowniaceae] OP01
                   |          `--P. tomentosa OP01 [incl. P. imperialis LO98]
                   `--+--+--Verbenaceae OP01
                      |  `--Proboscidea [Martyniaceae] OP01
                      |       |  i. s.: P. jussieui [incl. Martynia proboscidea] BR65
                      |       |--P. sect. Proboscidea H93
                      |       |    |--P. althaeifolia [=P. altheaefolia] H93
                      |       |    |--P. louisianica H93 [=Martynia louisiana BR65]
                      |       |    `--P. parviflora [incl. P. parviflora var. hohokamiana] H93
                      |       `--P. (sect. Ibicella) lutea H93
                      `--+--Schlegeliaceae OP01
                         |    |--Gibsoniothamnus T00
                         |    |--Synopsis T00
                         |    `--Schlegelia OP01
                         |         |--S. brachyantha J87
                         |         `--S. parviflora OP01
                         `--+--Petreaceae T00
                            |    |--Petrea [Petreae] T00
                            |    |--Casselia T00
                            |    |--Lampayo T00
                            |    `--Recordia T00
                            `--+--Bignoniaceae OP01
                               `--+--Lentibulariaceae T00
                                  `--Cyclocheilaceae T00
                                       |--Cyclocheilon T00
                                       `--Asepalum T00

Lamiales incertae sedis:
  Euthystachys K01
  Polypremum [Polypremaceae] OP01
    `--P. procumbens J00
  Plocosperma [incl. Lithophytum; Plocospermataceae, Plocospermeae] T00
    `--P. buxifolium J00
  Tetrachondra Petrie 1892 A61 [Tetrachondraceae OP01]
    `--T. hamiltonii Petrie ex Oliver 1892 [=Tillaea hamiltonii Kirk in Hamilton 1885 (n. n.)] A61
  Avicennia OP01
  Trapella [Trapellaceae] T00
  Nesogenes [Nesogenaceae] T00
  Mazaceae APG16
  Wightia APG16
  Carlemannia T00 [Carlemanniaceae APG16]
  Byblis T00 [Byblidaceae APG16]
    |--B. filifolia LK14
    |--B. gigantea N70
    |--B. liniflora LK14
    `--B. rorida LK14
  Thomandersia SV00 [Thomandersiaceae APG16]
  Coptocheile APG16

Lamiales [Antirrhinidae, Bignoniales, Personales, Pseudosolanoideae, Rhinanthideae, Rhinanthoideae, Scrophulariales, Scrophularineae, Scrophularioideae]

Nestegis apetala (Vahl) Johnson in Degener 1958 ME70 [=Olea apetala Vahl 1794 A61, *Gymnelaea apetala (Vahl) Johnson 1957 A61]

Nestegis cunninghamii (Hooker) Johnson 1958 ME70 [=Olea cunninghamii Hooker 1854 A61, Gymnelaea cunninghamii (Hooker) Johnson 1957 ME70]

Nestegis lanceolata (Hooker) Johnson 1958 ME70 [=Olea lanceolata Hooker 1854 A61, Gymnelaea lanceolata (Hooker) Johnson 1957 ME70]

Nestegis montana (Hooker) Johnson 1958 ME70 [=Olea montana Hooker 1854 A61, Gymnelaea montana (Hooker) Johnson 1957 ME70]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[APG16] Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. 2016. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 181: 1–20.

[BR65] Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae–Compositae. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[CBH93] Collinson, M. E., M. C. Boulter & P. L. Holmes. 1993. Magnoliophyta (‘Angiospermae’). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 809–841. Chapman & Hall: London.

[DVC08] Darbyshire, I., K. Vollesen & H. M. Chapman. 2008. A remarkable range disjunction recorded in Metarungia pubinervia (Acanthaceae). Kew Bulletin 63 (4): 613–615.

[H03] Heads, M. 2003. Ericaceae in Malesia: vicariance biogeography, terrane tectonics and ecology. Telopea 10 (1): 311–449.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[J00] Jensen, S. R. 2000. Chemical relationships of Polypremum procumbens, Tetrachondra hamiltonii and Peltanthera floribunda. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 28: 45–51.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1–136.

[K01] Kårehed, J. 2001. Multiple origin of the tropical forest tree family Icacinaceae. American Journal of Botany 88 (12): 2259–2274.

[LO98] Lack, H. W., & H. Ohba. 1998. Die Xylothek des Chikusai Kato. Willdenowia 28: 263–276.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[ME70] Moore, L. B., & E. Edgar. 1970. Flora of New Zealand vol. 2. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Monocotyledones except Gramineae. A. R. Shearer, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[MH98] Morikawa, H., A. Higaki, M. Nohno, M. Takahashi, M. Kamada, M. Nakata, G. Toyohara, Y. Okamura, K. Matsui, S. Kitani, K. Fujita, K. Irifune & N. Goshima. 1998. More than a 600-fold variation in nitrogen dioxide assimilation among 217 plant taxa. Plant, Cell and Environment 21: 180–190.

[N70] Norris, K. R. 1970. General biology. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 107–140. Melbourne University Press.

[OP01] Olmstead, R. G., C. W. dePamphilis, A. D. Wolfe, N. D. Young, W. J. Elisons & P. A. Reeves. 2001. Disintegration of the Scrophulariaceae. American Journal of Botany 88 (2): 348–361.

[P03] Paul, T. K. 2003. Botanical observations on the Purulia pumped storage hydropower project area, Bagmundi Hills, Purulia district, West Bengal. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 45: 121–142.

[P93] Pittaway, A. R. 1993. The Hawkmoths of the Western Palaearctic. Harley Books: Colchester.

[PL04] Pohl, G., & I. Lenski. 2004. Zur Verbreitung und Vergesellschaftung von Pennisetum orientale Rich. in Nordeuböa (Griechenland) (Poaceae, Paniceae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 83 (2): 209–223.

[SR07] Sankar, R. V., K. Ravikumar, N. M. Ganesh Babu & D. K. Ved. 2007. Botany of Anapady MPCA, Palghat district, Kerala with special emphasis on species of conservation concern. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49: 165–172.

[SV00] Scotland, R. W., & K. Vollesen. 2000. Classification of Acanthaceae. Kew Bulletin 55 (3): 513–589.

[S00] Siddiqi, M. R. 2000. Tylenchida: Parasites of plants and insects 2nd ed. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[SWK87] Snyder, N. F. R., J. W. Wiley & C. B. Kepler. 1987. The Parrots of Luquillo: Natural history and conservation of the Puerto Rican parrot. Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology: Los Angeles.

[SN88] Suzuki, M., & S. Noshiro. 1988. Wood structure of Himalayan plants. In: Ohba, H., & S. B. Malla (eds) The Himalayan Plants vol. 1. The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 341–379.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441–647.

[Y98] Yannitsaros, A. 1998. Additions to the flora of Kithira (Greece) I. Willdenowia 28: 77–94.

Last updated: 13 September 2019.

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