Lamiales

Devil's claw Proboscidea louisianica, from here.


Belongs within: Gentianidae.
Contains: Ligustrum, Oleoideae, Jasminoideae, Calceolariaceae, Gesneriaceae, Veronicaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Acanthaceae, Pedaliaceae, Lamiaceae, Phrymaceae, Orobanchaceae, Verbenaceae, Bignoniaceae, Lentibulariaceae.

The Lamiales is a large clade of flowering plants. The greatest diversity of species are herbs or shrubs, but members include large trees and parasites of other plants.

Synapomorphies (from www.mobot.org): Cornoside, verbascosides, methyl- and oxygenated flavones present; eglandular hairs multicellular; leaves opposite; endosperm with micropylar haustorium; fruit a septicidal capsule; cotyledons incumbent; protein bodies in nuclei; mitochondrial coxII.i3 intron absent.

<==Lamiales [Bignoniales, Pseudosolanoideae, Rhinanthoideae, Scrophulariales, Scrophularioideae]
    |--Oleaceae [Oleales] OP01
    |    |  i. s.: Myxoporum H03
    |    |           |--M. nervosum H03
    |    |           `--M. ovatum H03
    |    |         Ligustrum OP01
    |    |         Chionanthus zeylanicus SR07
    |    |         Forestiera YY22
    |    |         Osmanthus MH98
    |    |           |--O. asiaticus MH98
    |    |           |--O. heterophyllus [incl. Olea aquifolium] LO98
    |    |           |--O. ilicifolius MH98
    |    |           `--O. suavis SN88
    |    |         Nestegis MM04
    |    |           |--N. apetala D95
    |    |           |--N. cunninghamii D95
    |    |           |--N. lanceolata MM04
    |    |           `--N. montana MM04
    |    |         Syringa BR65
    |    |           |--S. emodi SN88
    |    |           |--S. persica C55
    |    |           `--S. vulgaris BR65
    |    |         Phillyrea latifolia Linnaeus 1753 PL04 [incl. P. media Y98]
    |    |         Haenianthus oblongatus J87
    |    |         Linociera P03
    |    |           |--L. domingensis SWK87
    |    |           `--L. ramiflora P03
    |    |--Oleoideae T00
    |    `--Jasminoideae T00
    `--+--Calceolariaceae OP01
       `--+--Gesneriaceae OP01
          `--+--Veronicaceae OP01
             `--+--Scrophulariaceae OP01
                |--Stilbaceae OP01
                |    |--Halleria lucida OP01
                |    |--Nuxia [Nuxioideae] OP01
                |    |--Stilbe [Stilboideae] OP01
                |    |    `--S. vestita OP01
                |    `--Retzia [Retziaceae, Retzioideae] OP01
                |         `--R. capensis OP01
                `--+--+--Acanthaceae OP01
                   |  `--Pedaliaceae OP01
                   |--+--Lamiaceae OP01
                   |  |--Phrymaceae OP01
                   |  `--+--Orobanchaceae OP01
                   |     `--Paulownia [Paulowniaceae] OP01
                   |          `--P. tomentosa OP01 [incl. P. imperialis LO98]
                   `--+--+--Verbenaceae OP01
                      |  `--Proboscidea [Martyniaceae] OP01
                      |       |--P. jussieui [incl. Martynia proboscidea] BR65
                      |       `--P. louisianica OP01 [=Martynia louisiana BR65]
                      `--+--Schlegeliaceae OP01
                         |    |--Gibsoniothamnus T00
                         |    |--Synopsis T00
                         |    `--Schlegelia OP01
                         |         |--S. brachyantha J87
                         |         `--S. parviflora OP01
                         `--+--Petreaceae T00
                            |    |--Petrea [Petreae] T00
                            |    |--Casselia T00
                            |    |--Lampayo T00
                            |    `--Recordia T00
                            `--+--Bignoniaceae OP01
                               `--+--Lentibulariaceae T00
                                  `--Cyclocheilaceae T00
                                       |--Cyclocheilon T00
                                       `--Asepalum T00

Lamiales incertae sedis:
  Campsis K01
  Euthystachys K01
  Polypremum [Polypremaceae] OP01
  Monarda BL04
  Plocosperma [incl. Lithophytum; Plocospermataceae] T00
  Tetrachondra T00 [Tetrachondraceae OP01]
  Avicennia T00 [Avicenniaceae OP01]
    |--A. germinans SWK87
    |--A. marina BR65
    |    |--A. m. var. marina BR65
    |    `--A. m. var. resinifera [incl. A. eucalyptifolia, A. mindanaensis] BR65
    |--A. officinalis BR65
    |--A. schaueriana AS06
    `--A. tomentosa C45
  Trapella [Trapellaceae] T00
  Nesogenes [Nesogenaceae] T00

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AS06] Andrade, S. C. S., & V. N. Solferini. 2006. The influence of size on the radula of Littoraria angulifera (Gastropoda: Littorinidae). Malacologia 49 (1): 1-5.

[BL04] Barkman, T. J., S.-H. Lim, K. M. Salleh & J. Nais. 2004. Mitochondrial DNA sequences reveal the photosynthetic relatives of Rafflesia, the world’s largest flower. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 101 (3): 787-792.

[BR65] Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae-Compositae. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C45] Colenso, W. 1845. Memoranda of an excursion, made in the Northern Island of New Zealand, in the summer of 1841-2; intended as a contribution towards the natural productions of the New Zealand groupe: with particular reference to their botany. Tasmanian Journal of Natural Science 2: 210-234.

[D95] Dawson, M. I. 1995. Contributions to a chromosome atlas of the New Zealand flora. 33. Miscellaneous species. New Zealand Journal of Botany 33: 477-487.

[H03] Heads, M. 2003. Ericaceae in Malesia: Vicariance biogeography, terrane tectonics and ecology. Telopea 10 (1): 311-449.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum – Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

[K01] Kårehed, J. 2001. Multiple origin of the tropical forest tree family Icacinaceae. American Journal of Botany 88 (12): 2259-2274.

[LO98] Lack, H. W., & H. Ohba. 1998. Die Xylothek des Chikusai Kato. Willdenowia 28: 263-276.

[MM04] Martin, N. A., & L. A. Mound. 2004. Host plants for some New Zealand thrips (Thysanoptera: Terebrantia). New Zealand Entomologist 27: 119-123.

[MH98] Morikawa, H., A. Higaki, M. Nohno, M. Takahashi, M. Kamada, M. Nakata, G. Toyohara, Y. Okamura, K. Matsui, S. Kitani, K. Fujita, K. Irifune & N. Goshima. 1998. More than a 600-fold variation in nitrogen dioxide assimilation among 217 plant taxa. Plant, Cell and Environment 21: 180-190.

[OP01] Olmstead, R. G., C. W. dePamphilis, A. D. Wolfe, N. D. Young, W. J. Elisons & P. A. Reeves. 2001. Disintegration of the Scrophulariaceae. American Journal of Botany 88 (2): 348-361.

[P03] Paul, T. K. 2003. Botanical observations on the Purulia pumped storage hydropower project area, Bagmundi Hills, Purulia district, West Bengal. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 45 (1-4): 121-142.

[PL04] Pohl, G., & I. Lenski. 2004. Zur Verbreitung und Vergesellschaftung von Pennisetum orientale Rich. in Nordeuböa (Griechenland) (Poaceae, Paniceae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 83 (2): 209-223.

[SR07] Sankar, R. V., K. Ravikumar, N. M. Ganesh Babu & D. K. Ved. 2007. Botany of Anapady MPCA, Palghat district, Kerala with special emphasis on species of conservation concern. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 165-172.

[SWK87] Snyder, N. F. R., J. W. Wiley & C. B. Kepler. 1987. The Parrots of Luquillo: Natural history and conservation of the Puerto Rican parrot. Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology: Los Angeles.

[SN88] Suzuki, M., & S. Noshiro. 1988. Wood structure of Himalayan plants. In The Himalayan Plants vol. 1 (H. Ohba & S. B. Malla, eds) The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 341-379.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: Dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441-647.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1-62.

[Y98] Yannitsaros, A. 1998. Additions to the flora of Kithira (Greece) I. Willdenowia 28: 77-94.

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