Primulales

Coral berry Ardisia crenata, photographed by Armin Jagel.


Belongs within: Ericales.
Contains: Primula, Androsace, Myrsine.

Though its members have been included by recent classifications in the Ericales, the name 'Primulales' is used here for a clade containing the Primulaceae and Myrsinaceae. Members of the clade usually have spirally arranged leaves, and sympetalous flowers with stamens borne opposite to petals (www.mobot.org).

Synapomorphies (from www.mobot.org, as Primulaceae): Inflorescence racemose; petals and stamens from common primordia; stamens equal to and opposite petals, staminodes opposite calyx, represented by at least a vascular trace; nectary present; gynoecium with 5 connate carpels, opposite corolla, placentation free-central, style short, hollow, stigma more or less capitate; ovules at least partly immersed in swollen placenta, micropyle bistomal, outer integument about 2 cells across, inner integument 3-4 cells across, endothelium present, tanniniferous; seeds angled; endotesta crystalliferous; endosperm nuclear, copious.

<==Primulales
    |--Theophrastaceae T00
    |    |--Clavija K01
    |    |--Jacquinia J87
    |    |    |--J. aurantiaca JK80
    |    |    |--J. eggersii J87
    |    |    `--J. purgena JK80
    |    `--Theophrasta jussieui JK80
    |--Maesa [Maesaceae] T00
    |    |--M. chisia SN88
    |    |--M. indica C55b
    |    |--M. macrophylla SN88
    |    `--M. montana SN88
    |--Primulaceae T00
    |    |--Coris monspeliensis T00, C55a
    |    |--Primula H03
    |    |--Androsace O88
    |    |--Omphalogramma elwesiana O88
    |    |--Hottonia palustris TG88
    |    |--Asterolinon linum-stellatum (Linnaeus) Duby 1844 PL04
    |    |--Cyclamen PL04
    |    |    |--C. graecum Link 1835 PL04
    |    |    |--C. hederaefolium C55b
    |    |    `--C. persicum MH98
    |    |--Anagallis PL04
    |    |    |--A. arvensis Linnaeus 1753 PL04
    |    |    |    |--A. a. var. arvensis GK00
    |    |    |    `--A. a. var. caerulea GK00
    |    |    |--A. foemina AGF98
    |    |    `--A. phaenicea C55b
    |    |--Samolus SM06
    |    |    |--S. caespitosus GK00
    |    |    |--S. junceus GK00
    |    |    |--S. littoralis A27
    |    |    |--S. repens SM06
    |    |    |    |--S. r. var. repens A27
    |    |    |    |--S. r. var. paucifolius KM08
    |    |    |    `--S. r. var. procumbens A27
    |    |    `--S. valerandi AGF98
    |    |--Dodecatheon meadia JK80
    |    |--Trientalis europaea JK80, C55a
    |    |--Lysimachia JK80
    |    |    |--L. ciliata C55b
    |    |    |--L. debilis D07
    |    |    `--L. punctata JK80
    |    |--Cortusa matthioli JK80
    |    `--Glaux maritima JK80
    `--Myrsinaceae T00
         |--Embelia K03
         |    |--E. philippinensis K03
         |    `--E. tsjeriam-cottam SR07
         |--Aegiceras majus T00, H09
         |--Cybianthus YY22
         |--Grenacheria YY22
         |--Hymenandra YY22
         |--Monoporus YY22
         |--Weigeltia YY22
         |--Geisanthus YY22
         |--Discocalyx YY22
         |--Grammadenia YY22
         |--Stylogyne YY22
         |--Conomorpha YY22
         |--Amblyanthopsis GDC02
         |--Wallenia J87
         |    |--W. aquifolia J87
         |    |--W. ekmanii J87
         |    `--W. formonensis Judd 1986 JS87
         |--Amblyanthus GDC02
         |    |--A. glandulosus GDC02
         |    |--A. multiflorus GDC02
         |    |--A. obovatus Giri, Das & Chowdhery 2002 GDC02
         |    `--A. praetervisus GDC02
         |--Suttonia YY22
         |    |--S. chathamica CA27
         |    |--S. divaricata A27
         |    |--S. nummularia A27
         |    `--S. salicina C59
         |--Rapanea H03
         |    |--R. ferruginea SWK87
         |    |--R. melanophloeus JK80
         |    |--R. minutifolia H03
         |    |--R. montana A27
         |    |--R. salicina A27
         |    `--R. urvillei A27
         |--Ardisia H06
         |    |--A. complanata C55a
         |    |--A. crenata H06
         |    |--A. crenulata JK80
         |    |--A. crispa MH98
         |    |--A. fuertesii J87
         |    |--A. humilis C55a
         |    |--A. picardae J87
         |    `--A. solanacea HU08
         |--Myrsine HD03
         `--Elingamita johnsonii D95

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

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[C55b] Candolle, A. de. 1855b. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

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[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum – Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

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[K01] Kårehed, J. 2001. Multiple origin of the tropical forest tree family Icacinaceae. American Journal of Botany 88 (12): 2259-2274.

[KM08] Keighery, G. J., & W. Muir. 2008. Vegetation and vascular flora of Faure Island, Shark Bay, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 75: 11-19.

[K03] Kulip, J. 2003. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal and other useful plants of Muruts in Sabah, Malaysia. Telopea 10 (1): 81-98.

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[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: An introductory note. In The Himalayan Plants vol. 1 (H. Ohba & S. B. Malla, eds) The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19-46.

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[SWK87] Snyder, N. F. R., J. W. Wiley & C. B. Kepler. 1987. The Parrots of Luquillo: Natural history and conservation of the Puerto Rican parrot. Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology: Los Angeles.

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[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1-62.

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