Spreading Jacob's ladder Polemonium reptans, copyright Krzysztof Ziarnek, Kenraiz.

Belongs within: Ericales.
Contains: Phlox, Navarretia, Gilia, Linanthus, Eriastrum.

The Polemoniaceae are a group of mostly herbaceous, often strong-smelling plants native to Eurasia and the Americas.

Characters (from Hickman 1993): Annuals, perennials, shrubs, or vines. Leaves simple or compound, cauline (or most in basal rosette), alternate or opposite; stipules absent. Inflorescences are cymes, heads, or flowers solitary. Flower with calyx generally five-ribbed, ribs often connected by translucent membranes that are generally torn by growing fruit; corolla generally five-lobed, radial or bilateral, salverform to bell-shaped, throat often well defined; stamens generally 5, epipetalous, attached at same or different levels, filaments of same or different lengths, pollen white, yellow, blue, or red; ovary superior, chambers generally 3, style 1, stigmas generally 3. Fruit a capsule. Seeds 1–many, gelatinous or not when wet.

    |--Acanthogilia [Acanthogilioideae] T00
    |--Cobaeoideae T00
    |    |--Bonplandia T00
    |    |--Cantua T00
    |    `--Cobaea T00
    `--Polemonium D37 [Polemonioideae T00]
         |--P. acutiflorum CS77
         |--P. californicum H93
         |--P. carneum H93
         |--P. chartaceum H93
         |--P. elegans H93
         |--P. eximium H93
         |--P. micranthum H93
         |--P. occidentale [incl. P. caeruleum ssp. amygdalinum] H93
         |--P. pulcherrimum H93
         |    |--P. p. var. pulcherrimum H93
         |    `--P. p. var. pilosum H93
         `--P. reptans D37

Polemoniaceae incertae sedis:
  Phlox BR65
  Navarretia H93
  Gilia MD82
  Ipomopsis WMS97
    |--I. aggregata WMS97
    |    |--I. a. ssp. aggregata WMS97
    |    |--I. a. ssp. bridgesii H93
    |    `--I. a. ssp. formosissima WMS97
    |--I. arizonica [=I. aggregata ssp. arizonica] H93
    |--I. congesta H93
    |    |--I. c. ssp. congesta H93
    |    |--I. c. ssp. montana H93
    |    `--I. c. ssp. palmifrons H93
    |--I. depressa H93
    |--I. effusa H93
    |--I. macrosiphon WMS97
    |--I. polycladon H93
    |--I. tenuifolia [=Loeselia tenuifolia] H93
    `--I. tenuituba WMS97
         |--I. t. ssp. tenuituba WMS97
         `--I. t. ssp. latiloba WMS97
  Collomia C06
    |--C. coccinea C06
    |--C. diversifolia H93
    |--C. gracilis D03
    |--C. grandiflora C55b
    |--C. heterophylla H93
    |--C. larsenii [=C. debilis var. larsenii] H93
    |--C. linearis H93
    |--C. tinctoria H93
    `--C. tracyi H93
  Linanthus H93
  Allophyllum H93
    |--A. divaricatum H93
    |--A. gilioides H93
    |    |--A. g. ssp. gilioides H93
    |    `--A. g. ssp. violaceum H93
    |--A. glutinosum H93
    `--A. integrifolium H93
  Eriastrum H93
  Gymnosteris H93
    |--G. nudicaulis H93
    `--G. parvula H93
  Langloisia setosissima H93
    |--L. s. ssp. setosissima H93
    `--L. s. ssp. punctata H93
  Leptodactylon H93
    |--L. californicum (see below for synonymy) H93
    |--L. jaegeri H93
    `--L. pungens [incl. L. pungens ssp. hallii, L. pungens ssp. hookeri, L. pungens ssp. pulchriflorum] H93
  Loeseliastrum H93
    |--L. matthewsii [=Langloisia matthewsii] H93
    `--L. schottii [=Langloisia schottii] H93

Leptodactylon californicum [incl. L. californicum ssp. brevitrichomum, L. californicum ssp. glandulosum, L. californicum ssp. leptotrichomum, L. californicum ssp. tomentosum] H93

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BR65] Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae–Compositae. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C06] Cheeseman, T. F. 1906. Manual of the New Zealand Flora. John Mackay, Government Printer: Wellington.

[CS77] Cramp, S., & K. E. L. Simmons (eds) 1977. Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa: The Birds of the Western Palaearctic vol. 1. Ostrich to Ducks. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

[D37] Dobzhansky, T. 1937. Genetics and the Origin of Species. Columbia University Press: New York.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In: Scott, W. B. (ed.) Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896–1899 vol. 8. Botany pp. 1–34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[MD82] Mishler, B. D., & M. J. Donoghue. 1982. Species concepts: a case for pluralism. Systematic Zoology 31 (4): 491–503.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441–647.

[WMS97] Wolf, P. G., R. A. Murray & S. D. Sipes. 1997. Species-independent, geographical structuring of chloroplast DNA haplotypes in a montane herb Ipomopsis (Polemoniaceae). Molecular Ecology 6: 283–291.

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