Thrift Armeria alpina, copyright Meneerke bloem.

Belongs within: Caryophyllales.

The Plumbaginaceae are a cosmopolitan group of mostly herbaceous plants that are most diverse in maritime areas.

Characters (from N. R. Morin): Herbs or shrubs (rarely lianas), perennial or, rarely, annual; taprooted or rhizomatous. Stems woody stocks, acaulescent, or erect to prostrate, nodes swollen; indument of simple hairs, capitate glands that may secrete water or calcium salts, or multicelled glandlike structures. Leaves often basal, alternate, spiralled; stipules absent; petiole present or absent; blade linear to broadly obovate, ovate, or round, margins entire or lobed. Inflorescences terminal or axillary cymes, panicles, racemes, or corymbs, or solitary heads; bracts herbaceous, scarious, sometimes absent; involucral bracteoles (epicalyces) immediately subtending calyces usually present. Pedicels absent or present (short). Flowers bisexual, radially symmetric; perianth and androecium hypogynous; sepals persistent in mature fruits, 5, connate into 5- or 10-ribbed tube, mostly dry and membranous, sometimes petaloid, toothed or with distinct simple or lobed limbs; petals 5, nearly distinct, connate at bases or for most of their length (corolla salverform); blade clawed or claw absent, margins entire; corona absent; stamens 5; filaments adnate to bases of petals or free; ovary superior, 1-locular, placentation basal; ovules 1 per ovary, anatropous, bitegmic, crassinucellate; styles 1 with apically lobed stigma, or 5, each with linear stigma. Fruits utricles, achenes, or capsules. Seeds 1, embryo straight, endosperm present or absent.

<==Plumbaginaceae [Plumbaginales]
    |--Ceratostigma ulicinum O88
    |--Acantholimon ulicinum SL06
    |--Muellerolimon salicorniaceum KM08
    |--Aegialitis [Aegialitidoideae] T00
    |    `--A. annulata H09
    |--Statice M55 [Staticoideae T00]
    |    |--S. minutiflora M55
    |    |--S. plantaginea C55
    |    `--C. virgata C74
    |--Plumbago [Plumbaginoideae] K02
    |    |--P. auriculata K02
    |    |--P. pearsonii CV06
    |    |--P. wissii CV06
    |    `--P. zeylanica BB07
    |--Limonium CV06
    |    |--L. dyeri CV06
    |    |--L. graecum PT98
    |    |--L. narbonense PT98
    |    |--L. sinuatum PT01
    |    `--L. virgatum PT98
    `--Armeria NFFAR01
         |--A. alpina [=A. maritima ssp. alpina] NFFAR01
         |--A. bigerrensis NFFAR01
         |--A. bourgaei NFFAR01
         |--A. cantabrica NFFAR01
         |--A. chilensis D03
         |    |--A. c. var. chilensis D03
         |    `--A. c. var. magellanica D03
         |--A. colorata NFFAR01
         |--A. filicaulis NFFAR01
         |    |--A. f. ssp. filicaulis NFFAR01
         |    |    |--A. f. ssp. f. var. filicaulis NFFAR01
         |    |    `--A. f. ssp. f. var. minor NFFAR01
         |    `--A. f. ssp. nevadensis NFFAR01
         |--A. maritima G60
         |--A. pubinervis NFFAR01
         |--A. rothmaleri NFFAR01
         |--A. ruscinonensis C74
         |--A. splendens NFFAR01
         |--A. transmontana NFFAR01
         |--A. trianoi Nieto Feliner in Nieto Feliner, Fuertes Aguilar & Rosselló 2001 NFFAR01
         `--A. villosa NFFAR01
              |--A. v. ssp. villosa NFFAR01
              |--A. v. ssp. bernisii NFFAR01
              |--A. v. ssp. carratracensis NFFAR01
              `--A. v. ssp. longiaristata NFFAR01

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BB07] Baishya, A. K., & P. J. Bora. 2007. Cross community ethno-medico botany of Dibru-Saikhowa Biosphere Reserve, Assam. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1–4): 121–154.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C74] Coineau, Y. 1974. Éléments pour une monographie morphologique, écologique et biologique des Caeculidae (Acariens). Mémoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, nouvelle série, Série A, Zoologie 81: 1–299, 224 pls.

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175–189.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In: Scott, W. B. (ed.) Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896–1899 vol. 8. Botany pp. 1–34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[G60] Gillham, M. E. 1960. Vegetation of Little Brother Island, Cook Strait, in relation to spray-bearing winds, soil salinity, and pH. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 88 (3): 405–424.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[KM08] Keighery, G. J., & W. Muir. 2008. Vegetation and vascular flora of Faure Island, Shark Bay, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 75: 11–19.

[K02] Krüger, M. 2002. Revision of the Afrotropical Ennominae of the Drepanogynis group IV: the genus Drepanogynis Guenée (Lepidoptera: Geometridae). Transvaal Museum Monograph 13: 1–220.

[M55] Mertens, R. 1955. Die Mauereidechsen der Liparischen Inseln, gesammelt von Dr. Antonino Trischitta. Senckenbergiana Biologica 36 (1–2): 25–40.

[NFFAR01] Nieto Feliner, G., J. Fuertes Aguilar & J. A. Rosselló. 2001. A new species of Armeria (Plumbaginaceae) from southern Spain with molecular and morphometric evidence on its origin. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 135 (1): 71–84.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: an introductory note. In: Ohba, H., & S. B. Malla (eds) The Himalayan Plants vol. 1. The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19–46.

[PT98] Panitsa, M., & D. Tzanoudakis. 1998. Contribution to the study of the Greek flora: flora and vegetation of the E Aegean islands Agathonisi and Pharmakonisi. Willdenowia 28: 95–116.

[PT01] Pemberton, L. M. S., S.-L. Tsai, P. H. Lovell & P. J. Harris. 2001. Epidermal patterning in seedling roots of eudicotyledons. Annals of Botany 87: 649–654.

[SL06] Schulz, H.-J., & P. Lymberakis. 2006. First contribution to the knowledge of the Collembola fauna of the White Mountains (Lefká Óri) in west Crete (Insecta, Collembola, Isotomidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 86 (2): 229–234.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441–647.

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