Phytolaccineae

Scarlet spiderling Boerhavia coccinea, photographed by T. Beth Kinsey.


Belongs within: Caryophyllales.
Contains: Aizoaceae.

The Phytolaccineae is a group of plants within the Caryophyllales recognised by Thorne (2000). Most members of the group are tropical or warm-temperate herbs and lianes, with a few small trees.

<==Phytolaccineae
    |--Nyctaginaceae KRH03
    |    |--Neea YY22
    |    |--Phaeoptilon YY22
    |    |--Andradaea YY22
    |    |--Boerhavia KM08
    |    |    |--B. coccinea KM08
    |    |    |--B. deserticola CV06
    |    |    |--B. diandra Linnaeus 1753 (see below for synonymy) P06
    |    |    |--B. diffusa Linnaeus 1753 SDK05, P06
    |    |    |--B. mutabilis C55
    |    |    |--B. paniculata C55
    |    |    |--B. procumbens Banks ex Roxb. 1820 [=B. repens var. procumbes (Banks) Hooker 1885] P06
    |    |    `--B. repens Linnaeus 1753 P06
    |    |--Commicarpus CV06
    |    |    |--C. australis KM08
    |    |    |--C. decipiens CV06
    |    |    |--C. fruticosus CV06
    |    |    `--C. verticillatus PP07
    |    |--Pisonia J87
    |    |    |--P. aculeata J87
    |    |    |--P. brunoniana A27
    |    |    |--P. grandis SJP60
    |    |    `--P. subcordata SWK87
    |    |--Mirabilis H03
    |    |    |--M. dichotoma C55
    |    |    |--M. himalaica O88
    |    |    |--M. jalapa D59
    |    |    `--M. longiflora D59
    |    `--Bougainvillea MH98
    |         |--B. × buttiana MH98
    |         |--B. frondosa HH03
    |         `--B. stipitata HH03
    `--+--Aizoaceae KRH03
       `--Phytolaccaceae KRH03
            |  i. s.: Didymotheca YY22
            |         Monococcus YY22
            |         Tersonia YY22
            |         Codonocarpus YY22
            |--Agdestis [Agdestidoideae] T00
            |--Barbeuia [Barbeuioideae] T00
            |--Gisekia [Gisekioideae] T00
            |    `--G. pharnaeoides VB02
            |--Petiverioideae [Rivinaceae] T00
            |    |--Petiveria alliacea J87
            |    `--Rivina humilis ACW01
            `--Phytolaccoideae T00
                 |--Lophiocarpus T00
                 `--Phytolacca H06
                      |--P. americana EBS98
                      |--P. decandra C55
                      |--P. dioica H06
                      |--P. icosandra J87
                      |--P. octandra G60
                      `--P. rivinoides J87

Phytolaccineae incertae sedis:
  Stegnosperma [Stegnospermataceae] T00
  Sarcobatus [Sarcobataceae] T00
    `--S. vermiculatus CL86
  Halophytum [Halophytaceae] T00
  Molluginaceae T00
    |--Macarthuria apetala T00, GK00
    |--Glinus lotoides VB02
    |--Corbichonia CV06
    |    |--C. decumbens PP07
    |    `--C. rubriviolacea CV06
    |--Hypertelis caespitosa CV06
    |--Suessenguthiella caespitosa CV06
    `--Mollugo CV06
         |--M. nudicaulis C55
         |    |--M. n. var. nudicaulis C55
         |    `--M. n. var. bellidifolia C55
         |--M. stricta P03
         `--M. walteri CV06

Boerhavia diandra Linnaeus 1753 [incl. B. repens var. glabra Choisy 1849, B. vulvariaefolia Poir. 1804, B. repens var. vulvariaefolia (Poir.) Boiss 1879] P06

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[ACW01] Aguilar, H., C. C. Childers & W. C. Welbourn. 2001. Relative abundance and seasonal occurrence of mites in the family Tydeidae on citrus in Florida. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 376-380. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[A27] Andersen, J. C. 1927. Popular names of New Zealand plants. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 905-977.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[CL86] Collins, E. I. & R. W. Lichvar. 1986. Vegetation inventory of current and historic black-footed ferret habitat in Wyoming. Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs 8: 85-93.

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175-189.

[D59] Darwin, C. 1859. The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life 1st ed. John Murray: London. (reprinted 1967. Atheneum: New York; 1968. Penguin Books: London).

[EBS98] Elliott, K. J., L. R. Boring & W. T. Swank. 1998. Changes in vegetation structure and diversity after grass-to-forest succession in a southern Appalachian watershed. American Midland Naturalist 140: 219-232.

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323-402.

[G60] Gillham, M. E. 1960. Vegetation of New Zealand shag colonies. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 88 (3): 363-380.

[H03] Heads, M. 2003. Ericaceae in Malesia: Vicariance biogeography, terrane tectonics and ecology. Telopea 10 (1): 311-449.

[H06] Henderson, L. 2006. Comparisons of invasive plants in southern Africa originating from southern temperate, northern temperate and tropical regions. Bothalia 36 (2): 201-222.

[HH03] Hernández, J. R., & J. F. Hennen. 2003. Rust fungi causing galls, witches’ brooms, and other abnormal plant growths in northwestern Argentina. Mycologia 95 (4): 728-755.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum – Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

[KRH03] Klak, C., G. Reeves & T. Hedderson. 2003. Unmatched tempo of evolution in southern African semi-desert ice plants. Nature 427: 63-65.

[MH98] Morikawa, H., A. Higaki, M. Nohno, M. Takahashi, M. Kamada, M. Nakata, G. Toyohara, Y. Okamura, K. Matsui, S. Kitani, K. Fujita, K. Irifune & N. Goshima. 1998. More than a 600-fold variation in nitrogen dioxide assimilation among 217 plant taxa. Plant, Cell and Environment 21: 180-190.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: An introductory note. In The Himalayan Plants vol. 1 (H. Ohba & S. B. Malla, eds) The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19-46.

[PP07] Pandey, R. P. & P. M. Padhye. 2007. Studies on phytodiversity of Arid Machia Safari Park-Kailana in Jodhpur (Rajasthan). Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 15-78.

[P06] Parmar, P. J. 2006. Additions to the flora of Gujarat from Mehsana and Kutch districts (N. Gujarat). Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 48 (1-4): 191-196.

[P03] Paul, T. K. 2003. Botanical observations on the Purulia pumped storage hydropower project area, Bagmundi Hills, Purulia district, West Bengal. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 45 (1-4): 121-142.

[SJP60] St. John, H. & W. R. Philipson. 1960. List of the flora of Oeno Atoll, Tuamotu Archipelago, south-central Pacific Ocean. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 88 (3): 401-403.

[SDK05] Sharma, L. K., N. K. Dadhich & A. Kumar. 2005. Plant based veterinary medicine from traditional knowledge of India. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 47 (1-4): 43-52.

[SWK87] Snyder, N. F. R., J. W. Wiley & C. B. Kepler. 1987. The Parrots of Luquillo: Natural history and conservation of the Puerto Rican parrot. Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology: Los Angeles.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: Dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441-647.

[VB02] Vijay, S. K., & T. N. Bhardwaja. 2002. Vegetation and phenodynamics of wetlands of central Rajasthan. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 573-581.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1-62.

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