Scarlet spiderling Boerhavia coccinea, photographed by T. Beth Kinsey.

Belongs within: Caryophyllales.
Contains: Molluginaceae, Aizoaceae.

The Phytolaccineae is a group of plants within the Caryophyllales recognised by Thorne (2000). Most members of the group are tropical or warm-temperate herbs and lianes, with a few small trees. They include the Nyctaginaceae, characterised by a distinct fruit type, the anthocarp, in which an achene fruit remains enclosed within a persistent calyx.

<==Phytolaccineae T00
    |--+--Aizoaceae KRH03
    |  `--Phytolaccaceae KRH03
    |       |--Didymotheca YY22
    |       |--Monococcus YY22
    |       |--Tersonia YY22
    |       |--Codonocarpus australis C16
    |       |--Agdestis [Agdestidaceae, Agdestidoideae] T00
    |       |--Trichostigma octandrum OB11
    |       `--Phytolacca H06 [Phytolaccoideae T00]
    |            |--P. americana EBS98
    |            |--P. decandra C55
    |            |--P. dioica H06
    |            |--P. icosandra J87
    |            |--P. octandra G60
    |            `--P. rivinoides J87
    `--Nyctaginaceae [Nyctagineae] KRH03
         |--Neea YY22
         |--Phaeoptilon YY22
         |--Andradaea YY22
         |--Guapira GJ09
         |--Heimerliodendron Skottsb. 1941 A61
         |    `--H. brunonianum (Endl.) Skottsb. 1942 (see below for synonymy) A61
         |--Bougainvillea HH03
         |    |--B. × buttiana MH98
         |    |--B. frondosa HH03
         |    |--B. glabra K10
         |    `--B. stipitata HH03
         |--Pisonia J87
         |    |--P. aculeata J87
         |    |--P. grandis SJP60
         |    |--P. subcordata SWK87
         |    `--P. umbellifera MBS12
         |--Mirabilis H03
         |    |--M. aggregata Cavanilles 1799 C99
         |    |--M. dichotoma C55
         |    |--M. himalaica O88
         |    |--M. jalapa D59
         |    `--M. longiflora D59
         |--Commicarpus KM08
         |    |--C. australis KM08
         |    |--C. chinensis LK14
         |    |--C. decipiens CV06
         |    |--C. fruticosus CV06
         |    `--C. verticillatus PP07
         `--Boerhavia KM08
              |--B. burbidgeana LK14
              |--B. coccinea KM08
              |--B. deserticola CV06
              |--B. diandra Linnaeus 1753 (see below for synonymy) P06
              |--B. diffusa Linnaeus 1753 SDK05, P06
              |--B. dominii LK14
              |--B. gardneri LK14
              |--B. mutabilis C55
              |--B. paludosa LK14
              |--B. paniculata C55
              |--B. procumbens Banks ex Roxb. 1820 [=B. repens var. procumbes (Banks) Hooker 1885] P06
              |--B. repens Linnaeus 1753 P06
              `--B. schomburgkiana LK14

Phytolaccineae incertae sedis:
  Stegnosperma [Stegnospermataceae] T00
  Sarcobatus [Sarcobataceae] T00
    `--S. vermiculatus CL86
  Halophytum [Halophytaceae] T00
  Molluginaceae T00
  Barbeuia T00 [Barbeuiaceae APG16, Barbeuioideae]
  Gisekia T00 [Gisekiaceae APG16, Gisekioideae]
    `--G. pharnaeoides VB02
  Lophiocarpus T00 [Lophiocarpaceae APG16]
  Petiveriaceae [Petiverioideae, Rivinaceae] APG16
    |--Petiveria [Petiverieae] J87
    |    `--P. alliacea J87
    `--Rivina [Rivineae] ACW01
         `--R. humilis ACW01

Boerhavia diandra Linnaeus 1753 [incl. B. repens var. glabra Choisy 1849, B. vulvariaefolia Poir. 1804, B. repens var. vulvariaefolia (Poir.) Boiss 1879] P06

Heimerliodendron brunonianum (Endl.) Skottsb. 1942 [=Pisonia brunoniana Endl. 1833, Calpidia brunoniana Heimerl 1913, Ceodes brunoniana Skottsb. 1926, Heimerlia brunoniana Skottsb. 1936; incl. Pisonia mooriana Muell. 1858, P. sinclairii Hook. f. 1854] A61

*Type species of generic name indicated


[ACW01] Aguilar, H., C. C. Childers & W. C. Welbourn. 2001. Relative abundance and seasonal occurrence of mites in the family Tydeidae on citrus in Florida. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 376–380. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[APG16] Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. 2016. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 181: 1–20.

[C16] Cambage, R. H. 1916. Notes on the native flora of tropical Queensland. Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales 49 (3): 389–447, pls 57–61.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C99] Cavanilles, M. 1799. Sur le Loureira. Bulletin des Sciences, par la Societé Philomathique de Paris 2 (25): 3.

[CL86] Collins, E. I. & R. W. Lichvar. 1986. Vegetation inventory of current and historic black-footed ferret habitat in Wyoming. Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs 8: 85–93.

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175–189.

[D59] Darwin, C. 1859. The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life 1st ed. John Murray: London. (reprinted 1967. Atheneum: New York; 1968. Penguin Books: London).

[EBS98] Elliott, K. J., L. R. Boring & W. T. Swank. 1998. Changes in vegetation structure and diversity after grass-to-forest succession in a southern Appalachian watershed. American Midland Naturalist 140: 219–232.

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[G60] Gillham, M. E. 1960. Vegetation of New Zealand shag colonies. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 88 (3): 363–380.

[H03] Heads, M. 2003. Ericaceae in Malesia: vicariance biogeography, terrane tectonics and ecology. Telopea 10 (1): 311–449.

[H06] Henderson, L. 2006. Comparisons of invasive plants in southern Africa originating from southern temperate, northern temperate and tropical regions. Bothalia 36 (2): 201–222.

[HH03] Hernández, J. R., & J. F. Hennen. 2003. Rust fungi causing galls, witches’ brooms, and other abnormal plant growths in northwestern Argentina. Mycologia 95 (4): 728–755.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1–136.

[K10] Keighery, G. 2010. The naturalised vascular plants of the Pilbara region, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 78 (1): 299–311.

[KM08] Keighery, G. J., & W. Muir. 2008. Vegetation and vascular flora of Faure Island, Shark Bay, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 75: 11–19.

[KRH03] Klak, C., G. Reeves & T. Hedderson. 2003. Unmatched tempo of evolution in southern African semi-desert ice plants. Nature 427: 63–65.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[MBS12] Maple, D. J., R. Barr & M. J. Smith. 2012. A new record of the Christmas Island blind snake, Ramphotyphlops exocoeti (Reptilia: Squamata: Typhlopidae). Records of the Western Australian Museum 27 (2): 156–160.

[MH98] Morikawa, H., A. Higaki, M. Nohno, M. Takahashi, M. Kamada, M. Nakata, G. Toyohara, Y. Okamura, K. Matsui, S. Kitani, K. Fujita, K. Irifune & N. Goshima. 1998. More than a 600-fold variation in nitrogen dioxide assimilation among 217 plant taxa. Plant, Cell and Environment 21: 180–190.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: An introductory note. In: Ohba, H., & S. B. Malla (eds) The Himalayan Plants vol. 1. The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19–46.

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[PP07] Pandey, R. P., & P. M. Padhye. 2007. Studies on phytodiversity of Arid Machia Safari Park-Kailana in Jodhpur (Rajasthan). Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1–4): 15–78.

[P06] Parmar, P. J. 2006. Additions to the flora of Gujarat from Mehsana and Kutch districts (N. Gujarat). Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 48 (1–4): 191–196.

[SJP60] St. John, H., & W. R. Philipson. 1960. List of the flora of Oeno Atoll, Tuamotu Archipelago, south-central Pacific Ocean. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 88 (3): 401–403.

[SDK05] Sharma, L. K., N. K. Dadhich & A. Kumar. 2005. Plant based veterinary medicine from traditional knowledge of India. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 47 (1–4): 43–52.

[SWK87] Snyder, N. F. R., J. W. Wiley & C. B. Kepler. 1987. The Parrots of Luquillo: Natural history and conservation of the Puerto Rican parrot. Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology: Los Angeles.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441–647.

[VB02] Vijay, S. K., & T. N. Bhardwaja. 2002. Vegetation and phenodynamics of wetlands of central Rajasthan. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 573–581.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1–62.

Last updated: 3 July 2018.

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