Russian thistle Salsola kali, from here.

Belongs within: Caryophyllales.
Contains: Suaeda, Einadia, Halosarcia, Rhagodia, Chenopodium, Dysphania, Maireana, Sclerolaena, Atriplex.

The Chenopodiaceae are a cosmopolitan family of herbs and shrubs with small, greenish flowers (Allan 1961). Members include the genus Salsola, saltworts, a group of herbs or subshrubs (rarely shrubs or small trees), native to the western Palaearctic but widely introduced elsewhere, with mostly alternate leaves that often narrow terminally to a spine or soft bristle. Salicornia, glassworts or marsh samphires, are small, succulent herbs found growing in salty habitats such as salt marshes or the shores of salt lakes; the species S. europaea is eaten as a herb.

Characters (from Allan 1961): Annual to perennial herbs or shrubs with mostly alternate, simple, exstipulate leaves. Flowers very small, often bracted, greenish, perfect or unisexual, regular or nearly so. Perianth 3–5-lobed or absent; often accrescent in female; stamens usually 3–5, free, anthers 2-celled. Ovary 1-celled, indehiscent; embryo annular.

    |--Polycnemoideae T00
    |    |--Polycnemum T00
    |    |--Hemichroa pentandra T00, LK14
    |    `--Nitrophila T00
    |         |--N. mohavensis H93
    |         `--N. occidentalis H93
    |--Salicornia Linnaeus 1753 A61 [Salicornioideae T00]
    |    |--S. bigelovii M83
    |    |--S. europaea [incl. S. rubra] H93
    |    |--S. fruticosa P05
    |    |--S. herbacea PP64
    |    |--S. subterminalis H93
    |    |--S. tenuis T08
    |    |--S. utahensis H93
    |    `--S. virginica H93
    |--Chenopodioideae T00
    |    |  i. s.: Chenopodium BB01
    |    |         Dysphania T00
    |    |--Sclerolaeneae M99
    |    |    |--Maireana M99
    |    |    `--Sclerolaena KM08
    |    |--Beta [Beteae] M99
    |    |    |--B. maritima F92 [=B. vulgaris ssp. maritima H90]
    |    |    |--B. procumbens A02
    |    |    `--B. vulgaris M99
    |    |         |--B. v. var. vulgaris K-WK92
    |    |         `--B. v. var. esculenta K-WK92
    |    `--Atripliceae M99
    |         |--Atriplex FO03
    |         |--Endolepis FO03
    |         |--Proatriplex FO03
    |         `--Theleophyton Moq. 1849 FO03, A61
    |              `--T. billardierei Moq. in DC. 1849 A61 (see below for synonymy)
    `--Salsola GR98 [Salsoloideae T00]
         |--S. albisepala CV06
         |--S. arborea CV06
         |--S. aroabica CV06
         |--S. campyloptera CV06
         |--S. cauliflora CV06
         |--S. columnaris CV06
         |--S. cryptoptera CV06
         |--S. denudata CV06
         |--S. dinteri CV06
         |--S. dolichostigma CV06
         |--S. etoshensis CV06
         |--S. garubica CV06
         |--S. gemmata CV06
         |--S. giessii CV06
         |--S. hoanibica CV06
         |--S. hottentottica CV06
         |--S. huabica CV06
         |--S. iberica RJ11
         |--S. inermis GR98
         |--S. kali [incl. S. australis] C06
         |    |--S. k. var. kali H90
         |    `--S. k. var. strobilifera H90
         |--S. kleinfonteini CV06
         |--S. koichabica CV06
         |--S. longifolia GR98
         |--S. marginata CV06
         |--S. mirabilis CV06
         |--S. namibica CV06
         |--S. nepalensis O88
         |--S. okaukuejensis CV06
         |--S. omaruruensis CV06
         |--S. parviflora CV06
         |--S. paulsenii H93
         |--S. pazetzkiana S00
         |--S. procera CV06
         |--S. ptiloptera CV06
         |--S. richteri S00
         |--S. robinsonii CV06
         |--S. schreiberae CV06
         |--S. scopiformis CV06
         |--S. seminuda CV06
         |--S. seydelii CV06
         |--S. soda R-CT01
         |--S. spenceri CV06
         |--S. swakopmundi CV06
         |--S. tetragona B28
         |--S. tragus KM08
         |    |--S. t. ssp. tragus LK14
         |    `--S. t. ssp. grandiflora LK14
         |--S. ugabica CV06
         |--S. unjabica CV06
         |--S. vermiculata H93
         `--S. volkensii DH98

Chenopodiaceae incertae sedis:
  Axyris V09
    |--A. amaranthoides V09
    `--A. prostrata O88
  Borsczowia YY22
  Ceratocarpus YY22
  Cypselocarpus YY22
  Microgynoecium tibeticum O88
  Suckleya YY22
  Pachycornia triandra H90
  Arthrocnemum PT98
    |--A. fruticosum C55
    `--A. macrostachyum PT98
  Didymanthus roei KM08
  Halocnemum YY22
  Halopeplis YY22
  Heterostachys YY22
  Kalidium YY22
  Microcnemum YY22
  Monolepis YY22
    |--M. nuttalliana H93
    |--M. pusilla H93
    `--M. spatulata H93
  Osteocarpum YY22
    |--O. acropterum [=Babbagia acroptera] H90
    |    |--O. a. var. acropterum H90
    |    `--O. a. var. deminuta H90
    |--O. dipterocarpum [=Babbagia dipterocarpa] H90
    |--O. pentapterum [=Babbagia pentaptera] H90
    `--O. scleropterum [=Babbagia scleroptera] H90
  Suaeda MM09
  Threlkeldia KM08
    |--T. diffusa KM08
    `--T. inchoata H90
  Agathophora YY22
  Alexandra YY22
  Bassia Y98
    |--B. hyssopifolia H93
    |--B. muricata AGF98
    `--B. scoparia Y98
  Bienertia YY22
  Camphorosma monspeliaca YY22, C74
  Chenolea YY22
  Enchylaena tomentosa GR98
  Exomis YY22
  Halogeton glomeratus H93
  Hypocylix YY22
  Kirilowia YY22
  Kochia YY22
    |--K. americana H93
    |--K. californica H93
    |--K. pubescens C55
    `--K. scoparia [incl. K. scoparia var. culta, K. scoparia var. subvillosa] H93
  Cycloloma atriplicifolium H93
  Krascheninnikovia H93
    |--K. ceratoides O88
    `--K. lanata [=Ceratoides lanata, Eurotia lanata] H93
  Einadia GR98
  Halosarcia KM08
  Rhagodia A61
  Sarcocornia quinqueflora KM08 (see below for synonymy)
  Neobassia H90
    |--N. astrocarpa KM08
    `--N. proceriflora [=Threlkeldia proceriflora] H90
  Sclerostegia H90
    |--S. arbuscula [=Arthrocnemum arbuscula] H90
    |--S. disarticulata KM08
    |--S. medullosa H90
    `--S. tenuis [=Pachycornia tenuis] H90
  Tecticornia LK14
    |--T. australasica B00
    |--T. halocnemoides LK14
    |    |--T. h. ssp. halocnemoides LK14
    |    `--T. h. ssp. tenuis LK14
    |--T. indica LK14
    |    |--T. i. ssp. indica LK14
    |    |--T. i. ssp. julacea LK14
    |    `--T. i. ssp. leiostachya LK14
    `--T. pergranulata LK14
  Halimione pedenculata F92
  Allenrolfea H93
    |--A. occidentalis H93
    `--A. vaginata RH96
  Aphanisma blitoides H93
  Corispermum hyssopifolium H93
  Grayia spinosa [=Atriplex spinosa] H93
  Salicornites massalongoi Principi 1926 CBH93
  Polyporina cribraria Srivastava 1969 CBH93
  Dissocarpus H90
    |--D. biflorus [=Sclerolaena biflora, Bassia biflora] H90
    |    |--B. b. var. biflorus H90
    |    `--D. b. var. cephalocarpus (see below for synonymy) H90
    |--D. fontinalis H90
    |--D. latifolius [=Bassia paradoxa var. latifolia, D. paradoxus var. latifolius] H90
    `--D. paradoxus [=Sclerolaena paradoxa, Bassia paradoxa] H90
  Malacocera H90
    |--M. albolanata [=Bassia albolanata, Sclerolaena albolanata] H90
    `--M. tricornis H90
  Scleroblitum atriplicinum [=Chenopodium atriplicinum] H90
  Anserina Dumort. 1827 KC01
  Esfandiaria Charif & Aellen 1955 KC01
  Morrisiella Aellen 1938 KC01

Dissocarpus biflorus var. cephalocarpus [=Sclerolaena biflora var. cephalocarpa, Bassia biflora var. cephalocarpa] H90

Sarcocornia quinqueflora KM08 [=Salicornia quinqueflora H90; incl. Sal. australis Sol. ex Benth. 1870 H90, A61]

Theleophyton billardierei Moq. in DC. 1849 A61 [=Obione billardieri Moq. 1840 A61, Atriplex billardierei LMC97; incl. A. (Theleophyton) chrystallina Hook. f. 1847 A61]

*Type species of generic name indicated


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Last updated: 6 July 2020.

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