Chenopodiaceae

Russian thistle Salsola kali, from here.


Belongs within: Caryophyllales.
Contains: Suaeda, Halosarcia, Chenopodium, Atriplex, Maireana.

The Chenopodiaceae are a cosmopolitan family of herbs and shrubs with small, greenish flowers (Allan 1961).

Characters (from Allan 1961): Annual to perennial herbs or shrubs with mostly alternate, simple, exstipulate leaves. Flowers very small, often bracted, greenish, perfect or unisexual, regular or nearly so. Perianth 3–5-lobed or absent; often accrescent in female; stamens usually 3–5, free, anthers 2-celled. Ovary 1-celled, indehiscent; embryo annular.

<==Chenopodiaceae
    |--Salicornia Linnaeus 1753 A61 [Salicornioideae T00]
    |    |--S. australis Sol. ex Benth. 1870 A61
    |    |--S. bigelovii M83
    |    |--S. europaea CS77
    |    `--S. fruticosa P05
    |--Polycnemoideae T00
    |    |--Nitrophila T00
    |    |--Polycnemum T00
    |    `--Hemichroa pentandra T00, LK14
    |--Chenopodioideae T00
    |    |  i. s.: Chenopodium BB01
    |    |         Dysphania T00
    |    |           |--D. glomulifera GK00
    |    |           |--D. plantaginella KM08
    |    |           `--D. sphaerosperma KM08
    |    |--Beta [Beteae] M99
    |    |    |--B. procumbens A02
    |    |    `--B. vulgaris MH02
    |    |--Atripliceae M99
    |    |    |--Atriplex FO03
    |    |    |--Endolepis FO03
    |    |    |--Proatriplex FO03
    |    |    `--Theleophyton Moq. 1849 FO03, A61
    |    |         `--T. billardierei Moq. in DC. 1849 A61 (see below for synonymy)
    |    `--Sclerolaeneae M99
    |         |--Maireana M99
    |         `--Sclerolaena KM08
    |              |--S. cornishiana EF04
    |              |--S. densiflora G04
    |              |--S. diacantha G04
    |              |--S. fusiformis G04
    |              `--S. uniflora KM08
    `--Salsola GR98 [Salsoloideae T00]
         |--S. albisepala CV06
         |--S. arborea CV06
         |--S. aroabica CV06
         |--S. australis A27
         |--S. campyloptera CV06
         |--S. cauliflora CV06
         |--S. columnaris CV06
         |--S. cryptoptera CV06
         |--S. denudata CV06
         |--S. dinteri CV06
         |--S. dolichostigma CV06
         |--S. etoshensis CV06
         |--S. garubica CV06
         |--S. gemmata CV06
         |--S. giessii CV06
         |--S. hoanibica CV06
         |--S. hottentottica CV06
         |--S. huabica CV06
         |--S. inermis GR98
         |--S. kali PT98
         |--S. kleinfonteini CV06
         |--S. koichabica CV06
         |--S. longifolia GR98
         |--S. marginata CV06
         |--S. mirabilis CV06
         |--S. namibica CV06
         |--S. nepalensis O88
         |--S. okaukuejensis CV06
         |--S. omaruruensis CV06
         |--S. parviflora CV06
         |--S. procera CV06
         |--S. ptiloptera CV06
         |--S. robinsonii CV06
         |--S. schreiberae CV06
         |--S. scopiformis CV06
         |--S. seminuda CV06
         |--S. seydelii CV06
         |--S. soda R-CT01
         |--S. spenceri CV06
         |--S. swakopmundi CV06
         |--S. tragus KM08
         |    |--S. t. ssp. tragus LK14
         |    `--S. t. ssp. grandiflora LK14
         |--S. ugabica CV06
         |--S. unjabica CV06
         `--S. volkensii DH98

Chenopodiaceae incertae sedis:
  Axyris O88
    |--A. amaranthoides V09
    `--A. prostrata O88
  Borsczowia YY22
  Ceratocarpus YY22
  Cypselocarpus YY22
  Microgynoecium tibeticum O88
  Suckleya YY22
  Pachycornia YY22
  Arthrocnemum PT98
    |--A. fruticosum C55
    `--A. macrostachyum PT98
  Didymanthus roei KM08
  Halocnemum YY22
  Halopeplis YY22
  Heterostachys YY22
  Kalidium YY22
  Microcnemum YY22
  Monolepis YY22
  Osteocarpum YY22
  Suaeda MM09
  Threlkeldia diffusa KM08
  Agathophora YY22
  Alexandra YY22
  Bassia Y98
    |--B. muricata AGF98
    |--B. paradoxa BR65
    `--B. scoparia Y98
  Bienertia YY22
  Camphorosma monspeliaca YY22, C74
  Chenolea YY22
  Enchylaena tomentosa GR98
  Exomis YY22
  Halogeton YY22
  Hypocylix YY22
  Kirilowia YY22
  Kochia YY22
    |--K. astrotricha BR65
    |--K. pubescens C55
    `--K. scoparia WM14
  Eurotia lanata YY22, CL86
  Cycloloma YY22
  Roubieva multifida [=Chenopodium multifidum] C55
  Krascheninnikova ceratoides O88
  Einadia GR98
    |--E. nutans GR98
    |    |--E. n. ssp. nutans LK14
    |    `--E. n. ssp. eremaea LK14
    `--E. trigonos LM98
  Halosarcia KM08
  Rhagodia Br. 1810 A61
    |--R. baccata SM06
    |--R. drummondii G04
    |--R. eremaea KM08
    |--R. latifolia KM08
    |--R. parabolica MM09
    |--R. preissii KM08
    |    |--R. p. ssp. preissii KM08
    |    `--R. p. ssp. obovata KM08
    `--R. triandra (Forst. f.) Aellen 1939 (see below for synonymy) A61
  Sarcocornia quinqueflora KM08
  Neobassia astrocarpa KM08
  Sclerostegia disarticulata KM08
  Tecticornia LK14
    |--T. halocnemoides LK14
    |    |--T. h. ssp. halocnemoides LK14
    |    `--T. h. ssp. tenuis LK14
    |--T. indica LK14
    |    |--T. i. ssp. indica LK14
    |    |--T. i. ssp. julacea LK14
    |    `--T. i. ssp. leiostachya LK14
    `--T. pergranulata LK14

Rhagodia triandra (Forst. f.) Aellen 1939 [=Chenopodium triandrum Forst. f. 1786; incl. R. nutans Cheesem. 1884 non Br. 1810] A61

Theleophyton billardierei Moq. in DC. 1849 A61 [=Obione billardieri Moq. 1840 A61, Atriplex billardierei LMC97; incl. A. (Theleophyton) chrystallina Hook. f. 1847 A61]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AGF98] Abd El-Ghani, M. M., & A. G. Fahmy. 1998. Composition of and changes in the spontaneous flora of Feiran Oasis, S Sinai, Egypt, in the last 60 years. Willdenowia 28: 123–134.

[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[A27] Andersen, J. C. 1927. Popular names of New Zealand plants. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 905–977.

[A02] Atkinson, H. J. 2002. Molecular approaches to novel crop resistance against nematodes. In: Lee, D. L. (ed.) The Biology of Nematodes pp. 569–598. Taylor & Francis: Florence (Kentucky).

[BB01] Bedrossian, A. G., P. S. Beauchamp, B. Bernichi, V. Dev, K. Z. Kitaw & H. Rechtshaffen. 2001. Analysis of North American Chenopodium botrys essential oil isolation and structure of two new sesquiterpene alcohols. Journal of Essential Oil Research 13: 393–400.

[BR65] Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae–Compositae. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C74] Coineau, Y. 1974. Éléments pour une monographie morphologique, écologique et biologique des Caeculidae (Acariens). Mémoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, nouvelle série, Série A, Zoologie 81: 1–299, 224 pls.

[CL86] Collins, E. I., & R. W. Lichvar. 1986. Vegetation inventory of current and historic black-footed ferret habitat in Wyoming. Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs 8: 85–93.

[CS77] Cramp, S., & K. E. L. Simmons (eds) 1977. Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa: The Birds of the Western Palaearctic vol. 1. Ostrich to Ducks. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

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[DH98] Danin, A., & I. C. Hedge. 1998. Contributions to the flora of Jordan 2. A new species of Satureja (Labiatae) and some new records. Willdenowia 28: 135–142.

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[GR98] Greuter, W., & T. Raus (eds.) 1998. Med-Checklist Notulae, 17. Willdenowia 28: 163–174.

[KM08] Keighery, G. J., & W. Muir. 2008. Vegetation and vascular flora of Faure Island, Shark Bay, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 75: 11–19.

[LM98] Lange, P. J. de, & B. G. Murray. 1998. Senecio repangae (Asteraceae): a new endemic species from the north-eastern North Island, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Botany 36: 509–519.

[LMC97] Lange, P. J. de, B. G. Murray & G. M. Crowcroft. 1997. Chromosome number of New Zealand specimens of Atriplex billardierei, Chenopodiaceae. New Zealand Journal of Botany 35: 129–131.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

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[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: an introductory note. In: Ohba, H., & S. B. Malla (eds)The Himalayan Plants vol. 1. The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19–46.

[PT98] Panitsa, M., & D. Tzanoudakis. 1998. Contribution to the study of the Greek flora: Flora and vegetation of the E Aegean islands Agathonisi and Pharmakonisi. Willdenowia 28: 95–116.

[P05] Papapavlou, K. P. 2005. New distributional data on the Orthoptera (Saltatoria) of the northern Dodecanese ("southern Sporadhes) archipelago, Greece. Graellsia 61 (1): 3–11.

[R-CT01] Ragusa-di Chiara, S., & H. Tsolakis. 2001. Phytoseiid faunas of natural and agricultural ecosystems in Sicily. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 522–529. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[SM06] Semeniuk, C. A., L. A. Milne, P. Ladd & V. Semeniuk. 2006. Pollen in the surface sediments of wetlands in the Becher Point area, southwestern Australia: a baseline for use in interpreting Holocene sequences. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 89 (1): 27–43.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441–647.

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[Y98] Yannitsaros, A. 1998. Additions to the flora of Kithira (Greece) I. Willdenowia 28: 77–94.

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