White willow Salix alba, photographed by Willow.

Belongs within: Salicaceae.

Salix, the willows, is a genus of wind-pollinated trees and shrubs found mostly in arctic to temperate regions.

Characters (from George W. Argus): Shrubs or trees, slightly heterophyllous, clonal or not, clones formed by root shoots, rhizomes, layering, or stem fragmentation; branching sympodial. Stems not spinose. Buds 1-scaled (rarely oily), margins connate into calyptra or distinct and overlapping adaxially, scale inner membranaceous layer usually not separating from outer layer, sometimes free and separating). Leaves deciduous or marcescent; stipules persistent, caducous, or absent (varying in presence and size on early and late leaves); petiole glandular-dotted or lobed distally; (blade often more than twice as long as wide, venation usually pinnate, margins entire, crenulate, crenate, serrate, serrulate, or spinulose-serrulate, teeth gland-tipped). Inflorescences axillary or subterminal, catkins, erect, spreading, or ± pendulous, sessile or terminating flowering branchlets, usually unbranched; floral bract apex entire, erose, bifid, or irregularly toothed; pistillate bract persistent or deciduous after flowering. Pedicels present or absent. Flowers: (sessile), perianth reduced to adaxial nectary (rarely also abaxial nectary, then distinct or connate into shallow cup); stamens 1, 2, or 3-10; filaments distinct or connate; ovary (stipitate or sessile), 2-carpellate; ovules (2-)4-24(-42) per ovary; styles usually connate, sometimes distinct distally; stigmas 2, entire or 2-lobed (less than 2 mm). Fruits capsular, (2-valved, obclavate to ovoid or ellipsoid). Seeds: aril present. x = 19.

<==Salix [incl. Chosenia] T00
    |--S. subg. Salix K07c
    |    |  i. s.: S. babylonica Linnaeus 1753 K05 [incl. S. japonica LO98]
    |    |--S. sect. Salix K07c
    |    |    |--S. alba Linnaeus 1753 K07c
    |    |    |    |--S. a. var. alba V09
    |    |    |    `--S. a. var. vitellina V09
    |    |    |--S. fragilis Linnaeus 1753 K07c
    |    |    |    |--S. f. var. fragilis V09
    |    |    |    `--S. f. var. russelliana V09
    |    |    `--S. × rubens Schrank 1789 K07c [S. fragilis × S. alba K07a]
    |    |         |--S. r. nothvar. rubens V09
    |    |         `--S. r. nothvar. basfordiana [S. alba var. vitellina × S. fragilis] V09
    |    |--S. (sect. Amygdalinae) triandra Linnaeus 1753 K05
    |    `--S. (sect. Pentandrae) pentandra Linnaeus 1753 K07c
    |--S. subg. Chametia K07c
    |    |--S. (sect. Chamaetia) reticulata Linnaeus 1753 K07c
    |    |--S. sect. Glaucae K07c
    |    |    |--S. glauca Linnaeus 1753 K07c
    |    |    `--S. glaucosericea Floderus 1943 K07c
    |    |--S. (sect. Myrtilloides) myrtilloides Linnaeus 1753 K06
    |    `--S. (sect. Retusae) retusa Linnaeus 1763 K07c
    `--S. subg. Vetrix K07c
         |  i. s.: S. helix [S. purpurea × S. viminalis] K07a
         |         S. × smithiana [S. cinerea × S. viminalis] V09
         |--S. sect. Vetrix K07c
         |    |--S. appendiculata Villars 1789 K07c
         |    |--S. atrocinerea Brotero 1804 K05
         |    |--S. aurita Linnaeus 1753 K07c
         |    |--S. caprea Linnaeus 1753 K07c
         |    |--S. cinerea Linnaeus 1753 K07c
         |    |    |--S. c. ssp. cinerea V09
         |    |    `--S. c. ssp. oleifolia V09
         |    `--S. × reichardtii [S. caprea × S. cinerea] V09
         |--S. sect. Arbuscella K07c
         |    |--S. foetida Schleich ex de Candolle 1805 K05
         |    |--S. phylicifolia Linnaeus 1753 K07c
         |    `--S. waldsteiniana Willdenow 1806 K05
         |--S. sect. Daphnella K07c
         |    |--S. acutifolia Willdenow 1806 K07c
         |    `--S. daphnoides Villars 1789 K07c
         |--S. (sect. Hastatae) hastata Linnaeus 1753 K07c
         |--S. (sect. Helix) purpurea Linnaeus 1753 K07c
         |--S. sect. Nigricantes K07c
         |    |--S. mielichhoferi Sauter 1849 K07c
         |    `--S. myrsinifolia Salisbury 1796 K07c
         |--S. sect. Villosae K07c
         |    |--S. helvetica Villars 1789 K07c
         |    `--S. lapponum Linnaeus 1753 K07c
         `--S. (sect. Vimen) viminalis Linnaeus 1753 K07c

Salix incertae sedis:
  S. acuminata Miller 1768 K07b
  S. amygdaloides B75
  S. annularis C55b
  S. arctica Pallas 1788 K07c
  S. anticecrenata [incl. S. anticecrenata mstr. monadelpha] O88
  S. bhutanensis O88
  S. buergeriana LO98
  S. caesia C55a
  S. calyculata O88
  S. caroliniana M83
  S. daltoniana O88
  S. elaeagnos K06
  S. eriostachya O88
  S. hylematica O88
  S. interior B75
  S. jacquiniana C55a
  S. karelinii O88
  S. laurina D37
  S. lindleyana O88
    |--S. l. var. lindleyana O88
    `--S. l. var. microphylla O88
  S. myrsinites C55b
  S. myrtillacea O88
  S. nigra BV06
  S. oreophila O88
  S. ovatomicrophylla O88
  S. pedicellata R-CT01
  S. psilostigma O88
  S. pycnostachya O88
  S. repens Linnaeus 1753 K05
  S. rosmarinifolia K06
  S. sclerophylla O88
  S. sericocarpa O88
  S. serpyllum O88
  S. sikkimensis O88
  S. silesiaca Willdenow 1806 K05
  S. sphenophylla Skvortsov 1966 K07c
  S. subfragilis [incl. S. nipponica] LO98
  S. tetraphylla P03
  S. varians Goeppert 1855 HL08

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B75] Bowles, J. B. 1975. Distribution and biogeography of mammals of Iowa. Special Publications, The Museum, Texas Tech University 9: 1-184.

[BV06] Brack, V., Jr., & R. K. La Val. 2006. Diet of the gray myotis (Myotis grisescens): variability and consistency, opportunism, and selectivity. Journal of Mammalogy 87 (1): 7-18.

[C55a] Candolle, A. de. 1855a. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C55b] Candolle, A. de. 1855b. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[D37] Dobzhansky, T. 1937. Genetics and the Origin of Species. Columbia University Press: New York.

[HL08] Henniger, M. & R. Leder. 2008. Eozäne Makroflora der Querfurter Mulde. Mauritiana 20 (2): 229-251.

[K05] Kopelke, J.-P. 2005. The species of the Pontania proxima group in Europe (Hymenoptera, Tenthredinidae, Nematinae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 85 (1): 85-95.

[K06] Kopelke, J.-P. 2006. Description of the female of Euura myrtilloides Kopelke 1996, with a key to the European species of the atra-group (Hymenoptera, Tenthredinidae, Nematinae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 86 (1): 75-84.

[K07a] Kopelke, J.-P. 2007a. The European species of the genus Phyllocolpa, part I: the leucosticta-group (Insecta, Hymenoptera, Tenthredinidae, Nematinae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 87 (1): 75-109.

[K07b] Kopelke, J.-P. 2007b. The European species of the genus Phyllocolpa, part II: the leucaspis-group (Insecta, Hymenoptera, Tenthredinidae, Nematinae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 87 (2): 149-161.

[K07c] Kopelke, J.-P. 2007c. The European species of the genus Phyllocolpa, part III: the species-groups of crassispina, scotaspis, and piliserra (Insecta, Hymenoptera, Tenthredinidae, Nematinae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 87 (2): 163-183.

[LO98] Lack, H. W., & H. Ohba. 1998. Die Xylothek des Chikusai Kato. Willdenowia 28: 263-276.

[M83] Myers, R. L. 1983. Site susceptibility to invasion by the exotic tree Melaleuca quinquenervia in southern Florida. Journal of Applied Ecology 20: 645-658.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: An introductory note. In The Himalayan Plants vol. 1 (H. Ohba & S. B. Malla, eds) The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19-46.

[R-CT01] Ragusa-di Chiara, S., & H. Tsolakis. 2001. Phytoseiid faunas of natural and agricultural ecosystems in Sicily. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 522-529. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: Dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441-647.

[V09] Verdcourt, B. (ed.) 2009. Additions to the Wild Fauna and Flora of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. XXVI. Miscellaneous records. Kew Bulletin 64 (1): 183-194.

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