Casearia sylvestris, copyright Mauricio Mercadante.

Belongs within: Malpighiales.
Contains: Violaceae, Passifloraceae, Salicaceae.

The Violineae are a clade of flowering plants characterised by parietal placentation, with ovules developing on the wall of the ovary.

Characters (from Xi et al. 2012): Flowers haplostemonous; carpels 3; placentation parietal; ovules more than 2 per carpel, crassinucellar, without endothelium; seeds with aril.

    |--Achariaceae [Kiggelariaceae] XR12
    |    |  i. s.: Ceratiosicyos T00
    |    |--+--Trichadenia philippensis DL07
    |    |  `--+--Guthriea DL07
    |    |     `--Kiggelarieae T00
    |    |          |--Pangium XR12
    |    |          `--+--Acharia XR12
    |    |             `--Kiggelaria XR12
    |    `--+--Hydnocarpus XR12
    |       |    |--H. alpina SR07
    |       |    |--H. heterophylla WM09
    |       |    `--H. pentandra SR07
    |       `--+--Carpotroche XR12
    |          |--Erythrospermum [Erythrospermeae] DL07
    |          `--Caloncoba echinata XR12
    `--+--+--Violaceae XR12
       |  `--Goupia [Goupiaceae] XR12
       `--+--+--Malesherbia [Malesherbiaceae] XR12
          |  `--+--Passifloraceae XR12
          |     `--Turneraceae XR12
          |          |--Hyalocalyx YY22
          |          |--Mathurina YY22
          |          |--Piriqueta YY22
          |          |--Streptopetalum YY22
          |          |--Wormskioldia YY22
          |          |--Tricliceras XR12
          |          `--Turnera XR12
          |               |--T. oculata CV06
          |               |    |--T. o. var. oculata CV06
          |               |    `--T. o. var. paucipilosa CV06
          |               |--T. subulata P88
          |               `--T. ulmifolia XR12
          `--+--Lacistemataceae [Lacistematoideae] XR12
             |    |--Lacistema robustum XR12
             |    `--Lozania XR12
             `--+--+--Salicaceae XR12
                |  `--Scyphostegia [Scyphostegiaceae] XR12
                |       `--S. borneensis XR12
                `--Samydaceae XR12
                     |--Samyda dodecandra J87
                     |--Lunania mauritii XR12, J87
                     `--Casearia [Casearieae] XR12
                          |--C. arborea SWK87
                          |--C. corymbosa MM96
                          |--C. decandra SWK87
                          |--C. guianensis SWK87
                          |--C. grewiaefolia K03
                          |--C. multinervosa H90
                          |--C. nitida XR12
                          |--C. pachyphylla H03
                          `--C. sylvestris J87

*Type species of generic name indicated


[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175–189.

[DL07] Davis, C. C., M. Latvis, D. L. Nickrent, K. J. Wurdack & D. A. Baum. 2007. Floral gigantism in Rafflesiaceae. Science 315: 1812.

[H90] Harden, G. J. (ed.) 1990. Flora of New South Wales vol. 1. New South Wales University Press.

[H03] Heads, M. 2003. Ericaceae in Malesia: vicariance biogeography, terrane tectonics and ecology. Telopea 10 (1): 311–449.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1–136.

[K03] Kulip, J. 2003. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal and other useful plants of Muruts in Sabah, Malaysia. Telopea 10 (1): 81–98.

[MM96] Mound, L. A., & R. Marullo. 1996. The thrips of Central and South America: an introduction (Insecta: Thysanoptera). Memoirs on Entomology, International 6: 1–487.

[P88] Polunin, I. 1988. Plants and Flowers of Malaysia. Times Editions: Singapore.

[SR07] Sankar, R. V., K. Ravikumar, N. M. Ganesh Babu & D. K. Ved. 2007. Botany of Anapady MPCA, Palghat district, Kerala with special emphasis on species of conservation concern. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49: 165–172.

[SWK87] Snyder, N. F. R., J. W. Wiley & C. B. Kepler. 1987. The Parrots of Luquillo: Natural history and conservation of the Puerto Rican parrot. Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology: Los Angeles.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441–647.

[WM09] Wang, H., M. J. Moore, P. S. Soltis, C. D. Bell, S. F. Brockington, R. Alexandre, C. C. Davis, M. Latvis, S. R. Manchester & D. E. Soltis. 2009. Rosid radiation and the rapid rise of angiosperm-dominated forests. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 106 (10): 3853–3858.

[XR12] Xi, Z., B. R. Ruhfel, H. Schaefer, A. M. Amorim, M. Sugumaran, K. J. Wurdack, P. K. Endress, M. L. Matthews, P. F. Stevens, S. Mathews & C. C. Davis. 2012. Phylogenomics and a posteriori data partitioning resolve the Cretaceous angiosperm radiation Malpighiales. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 109 (43): 17519–17524.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1–62.

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