Reconstruction of Grippia longirostris, copyright Dmitry Bogdanov.

Belongs within: Reptilia.
Contains: Hueneosauria.

The Ichthyosauria are a major clade of marine reptiles known from the Lower Triassic to the lower Upper Cretaceous, members of which evolved a remarkably fish-like body form (Maisch & Matzke 2000).

Characters (from Maisch & Matzke 2000): Premaxillary rostrum elongate; naris displaced posteriorly, close to orbit; upper temporal fenestra with very considerable contribution of supratemporal; ectopterygoid absent; thoracal ribs articulating exclusively with centrum; manus and pes exhibiting hyperphalangy; fibula immobile relative to femur.

<==Ichthyosauria [Eoichthyosauria, Ichthyopterygia]
    |--Thaisaurus Mazin, Suteethorn et al. 1991 MM03
    |    `--*T. chonglakmanii Mazin, Suteethorn et al. 1991 MM00
    `--+--Parvinatator Nicholls & Brinkman 1995 FF13, MM03
       |    `--*P. wapitiensis Nicholls & Brickman 1995 MM00
       `--+--Utatsusaurus Shikama, Kamei & Murata 1978 FF13, MM03
          |    `--*U. hataii Shikama, Kamei & Murata 1978 MM00
          `--+--Grippiidae [Grippidia] MM00
             |    |--Chaohusaurus Young & Dong 1972 MM03 (see below for synonymy)
             |    |    `--*C. geishanensis Young & Dong 1972 MM00
             |    `--Grippia Wiman 1929 FF13, MM03
             |         `--*G. longirostris Wiman 1929 MM00
             `--+--Hueneosauria FF13
                `--Quasianosteosaurus Maisch & Matzke 2003 [Quasianosteosauridae] MM03
                     `--*Q. vikinghoegdai Maisch & Matzke 2003 MM03

Ichthyosauria incertae sedis:
  Isfjordosaurus Motani 1999 MM03
    `--*I. minor (Wiman 1910) [=Pessopteryx minor] MM00
  Svalbardosaurus Mazin 1981 (n. d.) MM03
    `--S. crassidens MM03
  Himalayasaurus Young & Dong 1972 (n. d.) MM00
    `--*H. tibetensis Young & Dong 1972 (n. d.) MM00
  Tibetosaurus Dong in Young et al. 1982 (n. d.) MM00
    `--*T. tingjiensis Dong in Young et al. 1982 (n. d.) MM00
  Pessosaurus Wiman 1910 (n. d.) MM00
    |--*P. polaris (Hulke 1873) (n. d.) MM00
    `--P. suevicus von Huene 1916 MM00
  Macropterygius von Huene 1922 (n. d.) MM00
    `--*M. trigonus (Owen 1840) MM00
  Pachygonosaurus von Huene 1916 (n. d.) MM00
    `--*P. robustus Maisch & Matzke 1997 (n. d.) MM00
  Omphalosauridae H02
    |--Tholodus schmidi H02
    `--Omphalosaurus Merriam 1906 D07 [incl. Pessopteryx Wiman 1910 MM00]
         |--O. nettarhynchus D07
         |--O. nevadanus Merriam 1906 MM00
         |--O. nisseri (Wiman 1910) (see below for synonymy) MM00
         `--O. wolfi D07

Chaohusaurus Young & Dong 1972 MM03 [incl. Anhuisaurus Chen 1985 (preoc.) MM00, Chensaurus Mazin, Suteethorn et al. 1991 MM00]

Omphalosaurus nisseri (Wiman 1910) [=*Pessopteryx nisseri; incl. P. arctica Wiman 1910, P. pinguis Wiman 1910] MM00

*Type species of generic name indicated


[D07] Dixon, D. 2007. The Complete Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs & Prehistoric Creatures. Hermes House: London.

[FF13] Fröbisch, N. B., J. Fröbisch, P. M. Sander, L. Schmitz & O. Rieppel. 2013. Macropredatory ichthyosaur from the Middle Triassic and the origin of modern trophic networks. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 110 (4): 1393–1397.

[H02] Haubold, H. 2002. Literaturbericht: Ichthyosaurier und Sauropterygier. Zbl. Geol. Paläont. Teil II 5-6: 367–403.

[MM00] Maisch, M. W., & A. T. Matzke. 2000. The Ichthyosauria. Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde Serie B (Geologie und Paläontologie) 298: 1–159.

[MM03] Maisch, M. W., & A. T. Matzke. 2003. Observations on Triassic ichthyosaurs. Part XII. A new Early Triassic ichthyosaur genus from Spitzbergen. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie—Abhandlungen 229 (3): 317–338.

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