Reconstruction of Milleretta rubidgei, copyright Nobu Tamura.

Belongs within: Reptilia.
Contains: Procolophonia.

The Parareptilia are a clade corresponding to the greater part of the previously recognised 'Anapsida' group of reptiles lacking a temporal fenestra in the skull. They are known from the Upper Permian and Triassic; their survival after this time depends on whether the modern turtles belong to this lineage.

<==Parareptilia MA04
    |--+--+--Chalcosaurus TT05 [Lanthanosuchida, Lanthanosuchidae, Lanthanosuchoidea MD07]
    |  |  |    `--C. lukjanovae (Ivakhnenko 1980) TT05
    |  |  `--Acleistorhinus Daly 1969 SS15, D07
    |  |       `--A. pteroticus D07
    |  `--+--Macroleter poezicus MD07
    |     `--Procolophonia MD07
    `--Millerettidae [Millerosauroidea] MD07
         |--Milleropsis LR95
         |--Millerosaurus LR95
         |--Heleophilus LR95
         `--Milleretta Watson 1957 D07
              `--M. rubidgei M06

*Type species of generic name indicated


[D07] Dixon, D. 2007. The Complete Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs & Prehistoric Creatures. Hermes House: London.

[LR95] Laurin, M., & R. R. Reisz. 1995. A reevaluation of early amniote phylogeny. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 113: 165–223.

[M06] Modesto, S. P. 2006. The cranial skeleton of the Early Permian aquatic reptile Mesosaurus tenuidens: implications for relationships and palaeobiology. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 146: 345–368.

[MA04] Modesto, S. P., & J. S. Anderson. 2004. The phylogenetic definition of Reptilia. Systematic Biology 53 (5): 815–821.

[MD07] Modesto, S. P., & R. Damiani. 2007. The procolophonoid reptile Sauropareion anoplus from the lowermost Triassic of South Africa. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 27 (2): 337–349.

[SS15] Schoch, R. R., & H.-D. Sues. 2015. A Middle Triassic stem-turtle and the evolution of the turtle body plan. Nature 523: 584–587.

[TT05] Tverdokhlebov, V. P., G. I. Tverdokhlebova, A. V. Minikh, M. V. Surkov & M. J. Benton. 2005. Upper Permian vertebrates and their sedimentological context in the South Urals, Russia. Earth-Science Reviews 69: 27–77.

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