Penguin-wing oyster Pteria penguin, from here.

Belongs within: Pterioida.

The Pterioidea are a group of byssally-attached bivalves with unequal valves, the left valve generally being distinctly more inflated than the right (Cox et al. 1969). Members of the Pteriidae, the feather oysters, usually have a characteristic triangular projection on either side of the straight hingeline. The Isognomonidae commonly possess the posterior wing of the shell but the anterior auricle is only rarely developed (Cox et al. 1969).

Characters (from Cox et al. 1969): Inequivalve, inequilateral, right valve generally less convex than left valve, markedly prosocline at least in juveniles with beaks situated well forward; ligament external, opisthodetic, variable otherwise; prismatonacreous or crossed lamellar, endostracum aragonitic, pallial line anteriorly discontinuous; characteristically byssate throughout life with byssal notch in right valve at least in juvenile stages.

<==Pterioidea [Pteriacea]
    |--Isognomon Solander in Lightfoot 1786 [Isognomonidae] S98
    |    |--*I. isognomum (Linnaeus 1758) S98, BW09 [=Ostrea isognomum S98, BW09, Perna isognomum H09]
    |    |--I. bicolor (Adams 1845) IZ77
    |    |--I. legumen (Gmelin 1791) BW09
    |    |--I. perna (Linnaeus 1758) BW09
    |    |--I. radiatus (Anton 1839) IZ77
    |    `--I. rekohuensis Crampton 1988 S98
    |--Bakevelliidae C04
    |    |--Panis S98
    |    |--Bakevellia King 1848 W77
    |    |    |--B. (Bakevelloides) costata (Schlotheim 1820) KL04
    |    |    `--B. parva Meek & Hayden 1858 W77
    |    `--Gervillia Defrance 1820 C04
    |         |--G. joleaudi Schmidt 1935 C04
    |         |--G. praecursor K79
    |         `--G. (Hoernesia) socialis M79
    `--Pteriidae MG-H11
         |--Electroma BW09
         |    |--E. alacorvi (Dillwyn 1817) BW09
         |    `--E. ovata (Quoy & Gaimard 1834) BW09
         |--Monopteria Meek & Worthen 1866 W77
         |    |--M. longispina [=Gervillia longispina] W77
         |    `--M. marian White 1874 W77
         |--Pinctada GW02
         |    |--P. albina (Lamarck 1819) BW09
         |    |--P. maculata (Gould 1850) BW09
         |    |--P. margaritifera (Linnaeus 1758) BW09
         |    |--P. martensi SW11
         |    |--P. maxima KC11
         |    |--P. radiata (Leach 1814) BD86
         |    `--P. vulgaris Linnaeus 1758 R78
         `--Pteria Scopoli 1777 W60
              |--*P. hirundo (Linnaeus 1758) W60, L58 [=Mytilus hirundo W60]
              |--P. alacorvi H09
              |--P. angusta Saurin 1941 W60
              |--P. aquatilis (Reeve 1857) [=Avicula aquatilis] H09
              |--P. cassiana Bittner 1895 W60
              |--P. caudata Stoppani 1858 W60
              |--P. chinensis (Leach 1814) BW09
              |--P. crocea H09
              |--P. falcata (Lamarck 1819) MG-H11
              |--P. kitakamiensis Hayami 1958 W60
              |--P. lata (Gray 1845) [=Avicula lata] H09
              |--P. loveni GO06
              |--P. macroptera (Lamarck 1819) [=Avicula macroptera] H09
              |--P. malleoides (Reeve 1857) [=Avicula malleoides] H09
              |--P. muricata (Reeve 1857) [=Avicula muricata] H09
              |--P. occa P71
              |--P. penguin (Röding 1798) BW09
              |--P. producta (Reeve 1857) BW09
              |--P. rufa (Dunker 1848) [=Avicula rufa] H09
              |--P. smaragdina (Reeve 1857) [=Avicula smaragdina] H09
              |--P. spedeni Waterhouse 1960 W60
              |--P. tofanae Bittner 1895 W60
              |--P. torelli Böhm 1903 W60
              `--P. zebra (Reeve 1857) [=Avicula zebra] H09

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BD86] Barash, A., & Z. Danin. 1986. Further additions to the knowledge of Indo-Pacific Mollusca in the Mediterranean Sea (Lessepsian migrants). Spixiana 9 (2): 117–141.

[BW09] Bryce, C., & C. Whisson. 2009. The macromolluscs of Mermaid (Rowley Shoals), Scott and Seringapatam Reefs, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 177–208.

[C04] Carter, J. G. 2004. Evolutionary implications of a duplivincular ligament in the Carboniferous pinnid Pteronites (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Pteriomorphia). Journal of Paleontology 78 (1): 235–240.

Cox, L. R., N. D. Newell et al. 1969. Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt N. Bivalvia vol. 1. The Geological Society of America, Inc. and The University of Kansas.

[GO06] Giribet, G., A. Okusu, A. R. Lindgren, S. W. Huff, M. Schrödl & M. K. Nishiguchi. 2006. Evidence for a clade composed of molluscs with serially repeated structures: monoplacophorans are related to chitons. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 103 (20): 7723–7728.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[IZ77] Ingham, R. E., & J. A. Zischke. 1977. Prey preferences of carnivorous intertidal snails in the Florida Keys. Veliger 20 (1): 49–51.

[KL04] Klug, C., & A. Lehmkuhl. 2004. Soft-tissue attachment structures and taphonomy of the Middle Triassic nautiloid Germanonautilus. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 49 (2): 243–258.

[KC11] Kocot, K. M., J. T. Cannon, C. Todt, M. R. Citarella, A. B. Kohn, A. Meyer, S. R. Santos, C. Schander, L. L. Moroz, B. Lieb & K. M. Halanych. 2011. Phylogenomics reveals deep molluscan relationships. Nature 477: 452–456.

[K79] Kummel, B. 1979. Triassic. In: Robison, R. A., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt A. Introduction. Fossilisation (Taphonomy), Biogeography and Biostratigraphy pp. A351–A389. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[M79] Müller, A. H. 1979. Fossilization (taphonomy). In: Robison, R. A., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt A. Introduction. Fossilisation (Taphonomy), Biogeography and Biostratigraphy pp. A2–A78. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[P71] Por, F. D. 1971. One hundred years of Suez Canal—a century of Lessepsian migration: retrospect and viewpoints. Systematic Zoology 20 (2): 138–159.

[R78] Reid, R. G. B. 1978. The systematic, adaptive and physiological significance of proteolytic enzyme distribution in bivalves. Veliger 20 (3): 260–265.

[SW11] Smith, S. A., N. G. Wilson, F. E. Goetz, C. Feehery, S. C. S. Andrade, G. W. Rouse, G. Giribet & C. W. Dunn. 2011. Resolving the evolutionary relationships of molluscs with phylogenomic tools. Nature 480: 364–367.

[S98] Stilwell, J. D. 1998. Late Cretaceous Mollusca from the Chatham Islands, New Zealand. Alcheringa 22 (1): 29–85.

[W60] Waterhouse, J. B. 1960. Some Carnian pelecypods from New Zealand. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 88 (3): 425–442.

[W77] White, C. A. 1877. Report upon the invertebrate fossils collected in portions of Nevada, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona, by parties of the expeditions of 1871, 1872, 1873, and 1874. U.S. Geographical Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian 4 (1): 1–219, pls 1–21.

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