Pteriomorphia

Modiolopsis sp., copyright TMNH.


Belongs within: Bivalvia.
Contains: Praecardioida, Monotidae, Chaenocardiidae, Cyrtodontidae, Lithodomus, Aviculidae, Mytilidae, Nuculanoidea, Pectinida, Pterioida, Limopsoidea, Arcidae, Condylocardiidae, Astartidae, Crassatellidae, Venericardia, Cardita.

The Pteriomorphia are an ecologically diverse subdivision of bivalves including such forms as scallops, oysters and mussels. Recent molecular analysis has supported a broad definition of the clade including the clades Nuculanoidea and Carditoida as well as prior exemplars of the Pteriomorphia (Plazzi et al. 2011). The fossil record of this clade may extend back to the Cambrian if Tuarangia represents an early example (Skelton & Benton 1993). The Mytiloida, mussels, have the shell equivalve and inequilateral, with the beak close to the anterior end. Basal members include the Ordovician Modiolopsidae whose edentulous hinge has alternatively suggested relationships with the non-pteriomorphian Modiomorphoida. In other pteriomorphs, the beak is usually more median; in many families, a pair of triangular projections (auricles) may be present on either side of the beak.

Many subgroups of the pteriomorphs are characterised by attachment to their substrate with a byssus or cementation of one valve; other groups are free-living. Hinge morphology is diverse, especially with the inclusion of the heterodont Carditoida. The Nuculanoidea and Arcida have taxodont dentition, historically regarded as primitive but suggested by the molecular phylogeny to be secondarily derived. Other groups have edentulous hinges or amorphous hinge teeth. As well as their taxodont dentition, the Arcida are distinguised by the structure of the byssus which is a long, unified strip rather than a bunch of individual threads as in other pteriomorphs (Morton 1996). They also combine a duplivincular ligament (with lamellar layers forming bands on the cardinal area of the valves) with a complex cross-lamellar shell structure (Cope 1996).

The Carditoida are a clade of infaunal bivalves historically regarded as basal representatives of the Heterodonta. Members of this clade have a fossil record going back to the Ordovician. Within the Carditoidea, the Carditidae have shells with strong radial ribs and an external ligament. The Myophoricardiidae are a group of small, subtrigonal to trapezoidal bivalves of uncertain affinities from the Triassic period.

<==Pteriomorphia [Anisomyaria, Byssifera, Eupteriomorphia, Filibranchia, Monomyaria, Mytilina, Ostracea, Pteriina] GW02
    |--Mytiloida [Heteromyaria, Isofilibranchia] GW02
    |    |  i. s.: Mysidiellidae SB93
    |    |           |--Protopis triptycha Kittl 1904 SB93
    |    |           `--Mysidiella SB93
    |    |                |--M. aequilateralis (Stoppani 1865) SB93
    |    |                |--M. cordillerana Newton 1987 SB93
    |    |                `--M. orientalis (Bittner 1891) SB93
    |    |--Mytiloidea [Mytilida] GW02
    |    |    |--Whiteavesia Ulrich 1893 Ca04
    |    |    `--Mytilidae GW02
    |    `--Modiolopsidae [Modiolopsoidea] CS04
    |         |--Corallidomus Whitfield 1893 CS04
    |         `--Modiolopsis Hall 1847 W77
    |              |--M. orthonota NU83
    |              |--M. pallasi G31
    |              |--M. teplofi G31
    |              `--M. yunnanensis BST02
    |--+--Nuculanoidea PC11
    |  |--Pectinida PC11
    |  `--+--Pterioida PC11
    |     `--Arcida [Neotaxodonta] PC11
    |          |  i. s.: Estellacar galactodes M96
    |          |         Parallelodon DX84 [Parallelodontidae JB12]
    |          |           |--P. angustus G31
    |          |           |--P. antiquus Barrois 1891 SB93
    |          |           |--P. capillatus Waterhouse 1987 SB93
    |          |           |--P. chihliensis G31
    |          |           |--P. kingi G31
    |          |           |--P. licharewi DX84
    |          |           |--P. multistriatus G31
    |          |           |--P. tenuistriatum G31
    |          |           `--P. tieni G31
    |          |         Cardiolidae SB93
    |          |           |--Cardiobeleba lavina Kříž 1979 SB93
    |          |           |--Cardiolinka concubina Kříž 1979 SB93
    |          |           `--Cardiola T08
    |          |                |--C. agna Kříž 1979 T08
    |          |                |--C. conformis Barrande 1881 T08
    |          |                `--C. docens Barrande 1881 T08
    |          |         Isoarca [Isoarcidae] SB93
    |          |           `--I. subspirata (Münster 1837) SB93
    |          |         Pitchleridae SB93
    |          |           |--Pitchleria Bittner 1894 SB93
    |          |           |    `--P. auingeri (Laube 1865) SB93
    |          |           `--Hoferia Bittner 1894 SB93
    |          |                `--H. duplicata (Münster 1838) SB93
    |          |--Limopsoidea SC04
    |          `--Arcoidea Co04
    |               |--Arcidae PC11
    |               `--Catamarcaia Sanchez & Babin 1993 Co96 [Catamarcaiadae Ca04]
    `--Carditoida [Archiheterodonta, Carditoidea, Crassatellacea, Crassatelloidea] PC11
         |  i. s.: Condylocardiidae GW02
         |         Myophoricardiidae F99
         |           |--Myophoriopsis keuperina (Quenstedt 1851) [=Pseudocorbula keuperina] F99
         |           `--Pseudocorbula Philippi 1898 F99
         |                `--P. gregaria (Münster in Goldfuss 1837) [=Nucula gregaria, Myophoriopsis gregaria] F99
         |--+--Astartidae TW07
         |  `--Crassatellidae TW07
         `--Carditidae TW07
              |--Cardites antiquata GW02
              |--Mytilicardia tasmanica F27
              |--Venericardia P61
              |--Beguina semiorbiculata (Linnaeus 1758) BW09
              |--Glans carpenteri (Lamy 1922) [=Cardita carpenteri, G. subquadrata (Carpenter 1864) (preoc.)] C77
              |--Cardita P61
              |--Gujocardita oviformis Nakazawa & Newell 1968 SB93
              |--Verticipronus Hedley 1904 P61
              |    `--*V. mytilus Hedley 1904 P61
              |--Glyptoactis Stewart 1930 DK08
              |    `--G. (Fasciculicardia Maxwell 1969) DK08
              |         `--G. (F.) latissima (Tate 1886) (see below for synonymy) DK08
              |--Purpurocardia Maxwell 1969 JB12, S98
              |    |--*P. purpurata (Deshayes 1854) [=Cardita purpurata] S98
              |    `--P. fyfei (Finlay & Marwick 1937) S98
              |--Cyclocardia GW02
              |    |--C. astartoides Cr96
              |    |--C. longini [=Cardita (Cyclocardia) longini] B56
              |    `--C. ventricosa GW02
              `--Pleuromeris Conrad 1867 P61
                   |--*P. tridentata [=Cardita tridentata] P61
                   |--P. latiuscula Powell 1937 P61
                   |    |--P. l. latiuscula P61
                   |    `--P. l. benthicola Powell 1937 P61
                   |--P. marshalli Marwick 1924 P61
                   |--P. paucicostata Laws 1940 P61
                   |--P. ultima Dell 1956 P61
                   `--P. zelandica (Deshayes 1854) P61

Pteriomorphia incertae sedis:
  Evyana baltica (Liljedahl 1989) Ca04
  Praecardioida SB93
  Tuarangia MacKinnon 1982 M12 [Tuarangiidae, Tuarangioida SB93]
    |--T. gravgaerdensis Berg-Madsen 1987 SB93
    `--T. paparua MacKinnon 1982 SB93
  Eligmidae SB93
    |--Eligmus rollandi (Douvillé 1907) SB93
    |--Euphenax jamaicensis (Trechmann 1923) SB93
    |--Nyadina (Exputens) llajasensis Clark 1934 SB93
    `--Pseudoheligmus morgani Douvillé 1904 SB93
  Plicatostylus [Plicatostylidae] SB93
    `--P. gregarius Lupher & Packard 1930 SB93
  Leiopecten [Leiopectinidae] SB93
    `--L. rectangularis Khalfin 1940 SB93
  Monotidae SB93
  Asoellidae SB93
    |--Etalia johnstoni Begg & Campbell 1985 SB93
    `--Asoella SB93
         |--A. confertoradiata (Tokuyama 1959) SB93
         `--A. laevigata (Tokuyama 1959) SB93
  Prospondylidae [Terquemiidae] TP02
    |  i. s.: ‘Placunopsis’ ostracina (von Schlotheim 1820) TP02, KL04
    |         ‘Placunopsis’ plana TP02
    |--Palaeowaagia cooperi Newell & Boyd 1970 SB93
    |--Terquemia ostreiformis SB93
    `--Newaagia Hertlein 1952 W06
         `--*N. obliqua (Münster 1841) [=Spondylus obliquus] W06
  Permanomia [Permanomiidae] SB93
    `--P. texana SB93
  Chaenocardiidae SB93
  Cyrtodontidae Co96
  Placuna placenta G20
  Lithodomus G79
  Aviculidae G31

Glyptoactis (Fasciculicardia) latissima (Tate 1886) [=Cardita latissima, Glans (F.) latissima, Venericardia (F.) latissima; incl. Cardium arcaeformis Chapman & Crespin 1934] DK08

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

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Last updated: 2 November 2021.

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