Pteriomorphia

Modiolopsis sp., copyright TMNH.


Belongs within: Bivalvia.
Contains: Inoceramus, Mytilidae, Limopsoidea, Arcoidea, Pterioida, Pectinoidea, Anomiidae, Limidae.

The Pteriomorphia are one of the major subdivisions between bivalves, characterised ancestrally by attachment to their substrate with a byssus, though many groups have become free-living or cemented. The members of the Pteriomorphia are ecologically diverse, including such forms as scallops, oysters and mussels. The Mytiloida, mussels, have the shell equivalve and inequilateral, with the beak close to the anterior end. In other pteriomorphs, the beak is usually more median; in many families, a pair of triangular projections (auricles) may be present on either side of the beak.

Characters (from Cox et al. 1969): Mainly epifaunal, sedentary forms with free mantle margins, characterized as whole by byssal fixation or cementation generally and tendency for foot and anterior adductor to become reduced or lost in many most specialized genera; some groups secondarily free.

<==Pteriomorphia [Filibranchia, Monomyaria, Ostreoida, Pteriina]
    |--Mytiloida [Heteromyaria, Isofilibranchia] GW02
    |    |--Mytiloidea [Mytilacea] GW02
    |    |    |--Whiteavesia Ulrich 1893 C04
    |    |    `--Mytilidae GW02
    |    `--Modiolopsidae [Modiolopsoidea] CS04
    |         |--Corallidomus Whitfield 1893 CS04
    |         `--Modiolopsis Hall 1847 W77
    |              `--M. yunnanensis BST02
    `--+--Arcoida [Arcacea, Neotaxodonta] GW02
       |    |--Limopsoidea SC04
       |    `--Arcoidea GW02
       `--+--Pterioida GW02
          `--Pectinina GW02
               |--Pectinoidea GW02
               `--+--Anomiidae GW02
                  `--Limidae GW02

Pteriomorphia incertae sedis:
  Inoceramidae B59
    |--Inoceramus B59
    |--Birostrina K79
    |--Magadiceramus subquadratus K79
    |--Tenuipteria K79
    |    |--T. fibrosus K79
    |    `--T. tegulatus K79
    |--Cladoceramus K79
    |    |--C. cordiformis K79
    |    |--C. japonicus K79
    |    `--C. undulatoplicatus K79
    |--Sphenoceramus K79
    |    |--S. lingua K79
    |    |--S. lobatus K79
    |    |--S. pachti K79
    |    `--S. steenstrupi K79
    |--Mytiloides K79
    |    |--M. dresdensis K79
    |    |--M. fiegei K79
    |    |--M. hercynicus K79
    |    |--M. incertus K79
    |    |--M. labiatus K79
    |    |--M. lusatiae K79
    |    |--M. mytiloides K79
    |    |--M. stantoni K79
    |    `--M. striatoconcentricus K79
    `--Platyceramus K79
         |--P. circularis K79
         |--P. cycloides K79
         |--P. mantelli K79
         |--P. nebrascensis K79
         |--P. platinus K79
         |--P. proximus K79
         |--P. regularis K79
         |--P. sagensis K79
         |--P. salisburgensis K79
         `--P. subcircularis K79
  Plicatuloidea TP02
    |  i. s.: ‘Placunopsis’ ornatus Morris & Lycett 1853 TP02
    `--Plicatulidae MG-H11
         |--Atreta intusstriata S98, H00
         `--Plicatula MG-H11
              |--P. australis (Lamarck 1819) BW09
              |--P. chinensis Mörch 1853 MG-H11
              |--P. fistulosa TP02
              |--P. imbricata Koch & Dunker 1837 F27
              |--P. inezana Durham 1950 PP78
              |--P. menkeana Finlay 1927 [=P. imbricata Menke 1843 non Koch & Dunker 1837] F27
              `--P. penicillata Carpenter 1857 PP78
  Evyana baltica (Liljedahl 1989) C04

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B59] Boreham, A. U. E. 1959. Cretaceous fossils from the Chatham Islands. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 86 (1): 119–125.

[BST02] Braddy, S. J., P. A. Selden & D. N. Truong. 2002. A new carcinosomatid eurypterid from the Upper Silurian of northern Vietnam. Palaeontology 45 (5): 897–915.

[BW09] Bryce, C., & C. Whisson. 2009. The macromolluscs of Mermaid (Rowley Shoals), Scott and Seringapatam Reefs, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 177–208.

[C04] Carter, J. G. 2004. Evolutionary implications of a duplivincular liament in the Carboniferous pinnid Pteronites (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Pteriomorphia). Journal of Paleontology 78 (1): 235–240.

[CS04] Carter, J. G., & G. D. Stanley Jr. 2004. Late Triassic gastrochaenid and lithophaginid borings (Mollusca: Bivalvia) from Nevada (USA) and Austria. Journal of Paleontology 78 (1): 230–234.

Cox, L. R., N. D. Newell et al. 1969. Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt N. Bivalvia vol. 1. The Geological Society of America, Inc. and The University of Kansas.

[F27] Finlay, H. J. 1927. New specific names for austral Mollusca. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 488–533.

[GW02] Giribet, G., & W. Wheeler. 2002. On bivalve phylogeny: a high-level analysis of the Bivalvia (Mollusca) based on combined morphology and DNA sequence data. Invertebrate Biology 121 (4): 271–324.

[H00] Hodges, P. 2000. The Early Jurassic Bivalvia from the Hettangian and Lower Sinemurian of south-west Britain. Part. 1. Monograph of the Paleontographical Society 614: 1–64.

[K79] Kauffman, E. G. 1979. Cretaceous. In: Robison, R. A., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt A. Introduction. Fossilisation (Taphonomy), Biogeography and Biostratigraphy pp. A418–A487. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[PP78] Poorman, F. L., & L. H. Poorman. 1978. Additional molluscan records from Bahía de Los Angeles, Baja California Norte. Veliger 20 (4): 369–374.

[SC04] Stiller, F., & Chen J. 2004. Eophilobryoidella sinoanisica new genus and species, an early philobryid bivalve from the Upper Anisian (Middle Triassic) of Qingyan, southwestern China. Journal of Paleontology 78 (2): 418–419.

[S98] Stilwell, J. D. 1998. Late Cretaceous Mollusca from the Chatham Islands, New Zealand. Alcheringa 22 (1): 29–85.

[TP02] Todd, J. A., & T. J. Palmer. 2002. The Jurassic bivalve genus Placunopsis: new evidence on anatomy and affinities. Palaeontology 45 (3): 487–510.

[W77] White, C. A. 1877. Report upon the invertebrate fossils collected in portions of Nevada, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona, by parties of the expeditions of 1871, 1872, 1873, and 1874. U.S. Geographical Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian 4 (1): 1–219, pls 1–21.

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