Luculia gratissima, copyright A. J. T. Johnsingh.

Belongs within: Gentianales.
Contains: Canthium, Rubioideae, Ixoroideae, Cinchonoideae.

The Rubiaceae are a cosmopolitan group of flowering plants usually bearing radial flowers with four-lobed corollas, often associated in tight cymes or clusters. Molecular phylogenies indicate a basal position within the family for Luculia, a genus of trees and shrubs found in the Himalayan region and southern China, characterised by red to pink or white moderate-sized flowers (calyx and corolla lobes up to two centimetres) and capsular, woody fruits.

Characters (from Hickman 1993): Annual, perennial, shrub, vine, or tree. Leaves generally opposite, entire; stipules generally on stalk, sometimes leaf-like (then leaves apparently whorled and stipules considered leaves), adjacent pairs sometimes fused. Inflorescence a cyme, panicle, cluster, or flower solitary, generally terminal and more or less axillary. Flower generally bisexual; calyx generally more or less four-lobed, sometimes absent; corolla generally radial, four-lobed; stamens epipetalous, alternate with corolla lobes, generally included; ovary generally inferior, chambers generally 2 or 4, style 1, more or less fused if 2. Fruit two or four nutlets or a berry, drupe, or capsule.

<==Rubiaceae [Cinchoneae, Coffeoideae, Coptosapelteae]
    |--Luculia RB01
    |    |--L. grandifolia RB01
    |    |--L. gratissima SK02
    |    `--L. pinceana RB01
    `--+--Rubioideae RB01
       |--Coptosapelta RB01
       |    |--C. diffusa BM00
       |    `--C. flavescens RB01
       `--+--Ixoroideae RB01
          `--Cinchonoideae RB01

Rubiaceae incertae sedis:
  Atractogyne YY22
  Siphonandrium YY22
  Alibertia edulis BJ99
  Amajoua YY22
  Anthispermum YY22
  Basanacantha YY22
  Byrsophyllum YY22
  Crocyllis YY22
  Duroia YY22
  Garapatica YY22
  Kotchubaea YY22
  Melanopsidium YY22
  Morindopsis YY22
  Stachyarrhena YY22
  Thieleodoxa YY22
  Bataprine YY22
  Bobea YY22
  Cuviera YY22
  Hodgkinsonia YY22
  Myonima YY22
  Timonius timon LK14
  Bathysa YY22
  Pouchetia Richard ex de Candolle 1830 FT93
    `--P. gilletii BJ99
  Psydrax LK14
    |--P. odorata LK14
    |    |--P. o. ssp. odorata LK14
    |    `--P. o. ssp. arnhemica LK14
    |--P. pendulina LK14
    `--P. suaveolens G04
  Rutidea orientalis BM00
  Schenckia blumenaviensis BM00
  Aidia BJ99
    |--A. micrantha BJ99
    `--A. racemosa LK14
  Aoranthe penduliflora BJ99
  Bertiera breviflora BJ99
  Burchellia bubalina BJ99
  Calochone redingii BJ99
  Canthium BJ99
  Casasia clusiifolia BJ99
  Chomelia BJ99
  Cremaspora triflora BJ99
  Cubanola domingensis BJ99
  Didymosalpinx norae BJ99
  Euclinia longiflora BJ99
  Feretia aeruginescens BJ99
  Genipa americana BJ99
  Glossostipula concinna BJ99
  Gonzalagunia affinis BJ99
  Heinsia crinita BJ99
  Hippotis BJ99
  Kailarsenia ochreata BJ99
  Keetia zanzibarica BJ99
  Kraussia floribunda BJ99
  Ladenbergia pavonii BJ99
  Leptactina platyphylla BJ99
  Massularia acuminata BJ99
  Meyna BJ99
    |--M. laxiflora P03
    `--M. tetraphylla BJ99
  Oxyanthus BJ99
    |--O. pyriformis BJ99
    `--O. zanguebaricus BJ99
  Paracoffea melanocarpa BJ99
  Porterandia crosbyi BJ99
  Posoqueria latifolia BJ99
  Pseudosabicea arborea BJ99
  Psilanthus mannii BJ99
  Rachicallis americana BJ99
  Ramosmania rodriguesii BJ99
  Randia BJ99
    |--R. aculeata BJ99
    |--R. benthamina WB-P93
    |--R. fitzalani [=Atractocarpus fitzalani] BJ99
    |--R. karstenii MM96
    `--R. moorei BJ99
  Rosenbergiodendron longiflorum BJ99
  Rothmannia longiflora BJ99
  Sabicea BJ99
    |--S. speiosa M09
    `--S. villosa BJ99
  Sukunia longipes BJ99
  Tamridaea capsulifera BJ99
  Tarenna BJ99
    |--T. cymosa BJ99
    |--T. dallachiana LK14
    |    |--T. d. ssp. dallachiana LK14
    |    `--T. d. ssp. expandens LK14
    |--T. neurophylla BJ99
    `--T. pentamera LK14
  Tricalysia BJ99
    |--T. cryptocalyx BJ99
    |--T. malaccensis J06
    `--T. ovalifolia BJ99
  Plectronia Linnaeus 1767 BR65
    `--P. latifolia [=Canthium latifolium] BR65
  Mastixiodendron pachyclados (Sch.) Melch. 1925 [=Fagraea pachyclados Sch. in Sch. & Laut. 1905] C95
  Chione venosa J87
  Stevensia hotteana J87
  Xeromphis spinosa KJ05
  Thecagonum ovalifolium P03
  Wendlandia P03
    |--W. exserta P03
    `--W. tinctoria P03
  Caelospermum reticulatum B00
  Kelloggia galioides H93
  Ixorophyllum anceps CBH93
  Paleorubiaceophyllum eocenicum (Berry) Roth & Dilcher 1979 CBH93
  Rubiaceocarpum markgrafii Kräusel 1939 [=R. markgrafi] CBH93
  ‘Triporotetradites’ nachterstedtensis CBH93
  Retiniphyllum AS02
  Ravnia triflora [incl. Lagenanthus parviflorus Ewan 1952] SK02
  Didymochlamys Hook. 1872 KC01
  Disperma Gmel. 1792 KC01
  Higginsia Pers. 1805 KC01
  Jackia Wall. 1823 KC01
  Piringa Juss. 1820 KC01
  Psathyra Spreng. 1818 KC01
  Schachtia Karst. 1859 KC01
  ‘Ludwigia’ erigata Linné 1767 [incl. L. triflora Desr. in Lamk 1792 (nom. illeg.)] R77

*Type species of generic name indicated


[AS02] Albert, V. A., & L. Struwe. 2002. Gentianaceae in context. In: Struwe, L., & V. A. Albert (eds) Gentianaceae: Systematics and Natural History pp. 1–20. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.

[BR65] Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae–Compositae. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

[B00] Braby, M. F. 2000. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 1. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[BJ99] Bremer, B., R. K. Jansen, B. Oxelman, M. Backlund, H. Lantz & K.-J. Kim. 1999. More characters or more taxa for a robust phylogeny—case study from the coffee family (Rubiaceae). Systematic Biology 48 (3): 413–435.

[BM00] Bremer, B., & J.-F. Manen. 2000. Phylogeny and classification of the subfamily Rubioideae (Rubiaceae). Plant Systematics and Evolution 225: 43–72.

[CBH93] Collinson, M. E., M. C. Boulter & P. L. Holmes. 1993. Magnoliophyta (‘Angiospermae’). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 809–841. Chapman & Hall: London.

[C95] Conn, B. J. 1995. Loganiaceae. In: Conn, B. J. (ed.) Handbooks of the Flora of Papua New Guinea vol. 3 pp. 132–188. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Australia).

[FT93] Fensome, R. A., F. J. R. Taylor, G. Norris, W. A. S. Sarjeant, D. I. Wharton & G. L. Williams. 1993. A classification of living and fossil dinoflagellates. Micropaleontology Special Publication 7: i–viii, 1–351.

[G04] Gibson, N. 2004. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 6. Mt Manning Range. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 35–47.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[J06] Johnstone, R. E. 2006. The birds of Gag Island, Western Papuan islands, Indonesia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 23 (2): 115–132.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1–136.

[KJ05] Katewa, S. S., A. Jain, B. L. Chaudhary & P. Galav. 2005. Some unreported medicinal uses of plants from the tribal area of Southern Rajasthan. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 47: 121–130.

[KC01] Kirk, P. M., P. F. Cannon, J. C. David & J. A. Stalpers. 2001. Ainsworth & Bisby's Dictionary of the Fungi 9th ed. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[M09] Mayr, G. 2009. Paleogene Fossil Birds. Springer.

[MM96] Mound, L. A., & R. Marullo. 1996. The thrips of Central and South America: an introduction (Insecta: Thysanoptera). Memoirs on Entomology, International 6: 1–487.

[P03] Paul, T. K. 2003. Botanical observations on the Purulia pumped storage hydropower project area, Bagmundi Hills, Purulia district, West Bengal. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 45: 121–142.

[R77] Raven, P. H. 1977. Onagraceae. Flora Malesiana, Series I—Spermatophyta, Flowering Plants 8 (2): 98–113.

[RB01] Razafimandimbison, S. G., & B. Bremer. 2001. Tribal delimitation of Naucleeae (Cinchonoideae, Rubiaceae): inference from molecular and morphological data. Systematics and Geography of Plants 71: 515–538.

[SK02] Struwe, L., J. W. Kadereit, J. Klackenberg, S. Nilsson, M. Thiv, K. B. von Hagen & V. A. Albert. 2002. Systematics, character evolution, and biogeography of Gentianaceae, including a new tribal and subtribal classification. In: Struwe, L., & V. A. Albert (eds) Gentianaceae: Systematics and Natural History pp. 21–309. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.

[WB-P93] Walter, D. E., & V. M. Behan-Pelletier. 1993. Systematics and ecology of Adhaesozetes polyphyllos sp.nov. (Acari: Oribatida: Licneremaeoidea), a leaf-inhabiting mite from Australian rainforests. Canadian Journal of Zoology 71: 1024–1040.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1–62.

Last updated: 24 March 2021.

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