Natal plum Carissa grandiflora, copyright Consultaplantas.

Belongs within: Gentianales.
Contains: Vinceae, Tabernaemontaneae, Aspidospermeae, Plumerieae, Apocynoidina.

The Apocynaceae are a primarily pantropical and -subtropical group of flowering plants that are typically laticiferous and produce various alkaloids and cardenolides (Sennblad & Bremer 2002).

<==Apocynaceae [Apocynales, Rauvolfioideae]
    |--Willughbeieae SB02
    |    |  i. s.: Willughbeia SB02
    |    |         Landolphia SB02
    |    |         Couma SB02
    |    |         Lacmellea SB02
    |    |         Pacouria SB02
    |    |         Saba SB02
    |    |--Ancylobotrys petersiana SB02
    |    `--+--Dictyophleba lucida SB02
    |       `--Vahadenia caillei SB02
    `--+--Vinceae SB02
       |--Tabernaemontaneae SB02
       `--+--Aspidospermeae SB02
          `--+--+--Melodineae SB02
             |  |    |--Craspidospermum verticillatum SB02
             |  |    `--Melodinus monogynus SB02
             |  `--Hunterieae SB02
             |       |  i. s.: Hunteria SB02
             |       |--Diplorhynchus condylocarpon SB02
             |       `--+--Picralima nitida SB02
             |          `--Pleiocarpa mutica SB02
             `--+--Plumerieae SB02
                `--+--Apocynoidina SB02
                   `--+--Carisseae SB02
                      |    |--Acokanthera oblongifolia SB02
                      |    `--Carissa SB02
                      |         |--C. bispinosa SB02
                      |         |--C. grandiflora B00
                      |         |--C. lanceolata LK14
                      |         |--C. ovata VT13
                      |         |--C. paucinervis P03
                      |         `--C. spinarum P03
                      `--Alyxieae SB02
                           |  i. s.: Condylocarpon SB02
                           |         Lepiniopsis SB02
                           |--Chilocarpus suaveolens SB02
                           `--+--Lepinia taitensis SB02
                              `--Alyxia SB02 [incl. Gynopogon Forster & Forster 1776 (nom. rej.) BR65]
                                   |--A. buxifolia BR65
                                   |--A. ruscifolia SB02
                                   |--A. spicata LK14
                                   `--A. thyrsiflora C16

Apocynaceae incertae sedis:
  Notonerium gossei BR65
  Baynesia lophophora CV06
  Australluma peschii [=Caralluma peschii] CV06
  Ectadium CV06
    |--E. latifolium CV06
    `--E. rotundifolium CV06
  Hoodia CV06
    |--H. juttae CV06
    |--H. officinalis CV06
    |    |--H. o. ssp. officinalis CV06
    |    `--H. o. ssp. delaetiana CV06
    |--H. ruschii CV06
    `--H. triebneri CV06
  Huernia CV06
    |--H. hallii CV06
    `--H. plowesii CV06
  Larryleachia tirasmontana [incl. Lavrania picta ssp. parvipunctata] CV06
  Lavrania haagnerae CV06
  Orbea CV06
    |--O. albocastanea CV06
    `--O. maculata CV06
         |--O. m. ssp. maculata CV06
         |--O. m. ssp. kaokoensis CV06
         `--O. m. ssp. rangeana CV06
  Stapeliopsis urniflora CV06
  Stigmatorhynchus hereroensis CV06
  Tridentea CV06
    |--T. marientalensis CV06
    |    |--T. m. ssp. marientalensis CV06
    |    `--T. m. ssp. albipilosa CV06
    `--T. pachyrrhiza CV06
  Tromotriche ruschiana CV06
  Asketanthera picardae J87
  Forsteronia J87
    |--F. brasiliensis C55
    `--F. corymbosa J87
  Ichnocarpus frutescens KJ05
  Apocynophyllum Unger 1850 HL08
    |--A. etheridgei Ettingshausen 1886 F71
    |--A. mackinlayi Ettingshausen 1886 F71
    |--A. neriifolium [incl. Folium puberulum Hofmann 1931 (n. n.)] HL08
    `--A. warburtoni Ettingshausen 1886 F71
  Cascabela thevetia LK14
  Amsonia tomentosa [incl. A. brevifolia] H93
  Rhazya P93
  Tanghinia venenifera C06
  Stemmadenia donnell-smithii OB11
  Cycladenia humilis H93
    |--C. h. var. humilis [incl. C. humilis var. tomentosa] H93
    `--C. h. var. venusta H93
  Aspidospermoxylon uniseriatum Kruse 1954 CBH93
  Diporites iskaszentgyorgii CBH93
  Ditassa lanceolata SK02, C55
  Fernaldia Lynge 1937 KC01
  ‘Lactaria’ Rafin. 1838 non Pers. 1797 KC01

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BR65] Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae–Compositae. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

[B00] Braby, M. F. 2000. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 2. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[C16] Cambage, R. H. 1916. Notes on the native flora of tropical Queensland. Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales 49 (3): 389–447, pls 57–61.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C06] Cheeseman, T. F. 1906. Manual of the New Zealand Flora. John Mackay, Government Printer: Wellington.

[CBH93] Collinson, M. E., M. C. Boulter & P. L. Holmes. 1993. Magnoliophyta (‘Angiospermae’). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 809–841. Chapman & Hall: London.

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175–189.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[HL08] Henniger, M. & R. Leder. 2008. Eozäne Makroflora der Querfurter Mulde. Mauritiana 20 (2): 229–251.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1–136.

[KJ05] Katewa, S. S., A. Jain, B. L. Chaudhary & P. Galav. 2005. Some unreported medicinal uses of plants from the tribal area of Southern Rajasthan. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 47: 121–130.

[KC01] Kirk, P. M., P. F. Cannon, J. C. David & J. A. Stalpers. 2001. Ainsworth & Bisby's Dictionary of the Fungi 9th ed. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[OB11] Orenstein, R. I., & D. Brewer. 2011. Family Cardinalidae (cardinals). In: Hoyo, J. del, A. Elliott & D. A. Christie (eds) Handbook of the Birds of the World vol. 16. Tanagers to New World Blackbirds pp. 330–427. Lynx Edicions: Barcelona.

[P03] Paul, T. K. 2003. Botanical observations on the Purulia pumped storage hydropower project area, Bagmundi Hills, Purulia district, West Bengal. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 45: 121–142.

[P93] Pittaway, A. R. 1993. The Hawkmoths of the Western Palaearctic. Harley Books: Colchester.

[SB02] Sennblad, B., & B. Bremer. 2002. Classification of Apocynaceae s.l. according to a new approach combining Linnaean and phylogenetic taxonomy. Systematic Biology 51 (3): 389–409.

[SK02] Struwe, L., J. W. Kadereit, J. Klackenberg, S. Nilsson, M. Thiv, K. B. von Hagen & V. A. Albert. 2002. Systematics, character evolution, and biogeography of Gentianaceae, including a new tribal and subtribal classification. In: Struwe, L., & V. A. Albert (eds) Gentianaceae: Systematics and Natural History pp. 21–309. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.

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