Mesangiospermae

Hutu Ascarina lucida var. lucida, photographed by John Smith-Dodsworth.

Belongs within: Angiospermae.
Contains: Eudicotyledoneae, Monocotyledoneae, Magnoliales, Laurales, Canellales, Piperales.

The Mesangiospermae were defined by Cantino et al. (2007) as the most inclusive crown clade including Platanus occidentalis but excluding Nymphaea odorata and Austrobaileya scandens; as such, it represents the clade of flowering plants excluding the basal ANITA grade. The clade is supported by molecular analyses, but reliable morphological synapomorphies have not yet been identified. The Mesangiospermae contains five well-supported clades—the monocotyledons, eudicotyledons, magnoliids, Chloranthaceae and Ceratophyllum—but relationships between these clades remain unsettled.

<==Mesangiospermae CD07
    |--Chloranthaceae [Chloranthales] SR07
    |    |  i. s.: Chloranthistemon T00
    |    |--Hedyosmum SR07
    |    |    |--H. nutans J87
    |    |    `--H. orientale DS04
    |    `--+--Ascarina SR07
    |       |    |--A. lucida A27
    |       |    |    |--A. l. var. lucida D95
    |       |    |    `--A. l. var. lanceolata D95
    |       |    `--A. rubricaulis D95
    |       `--+--Sarcandra SR07
    |          `--Chloranthus SR07
    |               |--C. multistachys WP05
    |               `--C. spicatus DS04
    `--+--+--Eudicotyledoneae SR07
       |  `--Ceratophyllum [Ceratophyllaceae, Ceratophyllales] SR07
       |       |--C. demersum BL04
       |       `--C. submersum BL04
       `--+--Monocotyledoneae SR07
          `--Magnoliidae CD07
               |--+--Magnoliales SR07
               |  `--Laurales SR07
               `--+--Canellales SR07
                  `--Piperales SR07

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A27] Andersen, J. C. 1927. Popular names of New Zealand plants. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 905-977.

[BL04] Barkman, T. J., S.-H. Lim, K. M. Salleh & J. Nais. 2004. Mitochondrial DNA sequences reveal the photosynthetic relatives of Rafflesia, the world’s largest flower. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 101 (3): 787-792.

[CD07] Cantino, P. D., J. A. Doyle, S. W. Graham, W. S. Judd, R. G. Olmstead, D. E. Soltis, P. S. Soltis & M. J. Donoghue. 2007. Towards a phylogenetic nomenclature of Tracheophyta. Taxon 56 (3): E1-E44.

[DS04] Davis, J. I., D. W. Stevenson, G. Petersen, O. Seberg, L. M. Campbell, J. V. Freudenstein, D. H. Goldman, C. R. Hardy, F. A. Michelangeli, M. P. Simmons, C. D. Specht, F. Vergara-Silva & M. Gandolfo. 2004. A phylogeny of the monocots, as inferred from rbcL and atpA sequence variation, and a comparison of methods for calculating jackknife and bootstrap values. Systematic Botany 29 (3): 467-510.

[D95] Dawson, M. I. 1995. Contributions to a chromosome atlas of the New Zealand flora. 33. Miscellaneous species. New Zealand Journal of Botany 33: 477-487.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum – Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

[SR07] Saarela, J. M., H. S. Rai, J. A. Doyle, P. K. Endress, S. Mathews, A. D. Marchant, B. G. Briggs & S. W. Graham. 2007. Hydatellaceae identified as a new branch near the base of the angiosperm phylogenetic tree. Nature 446: 312-315.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: Dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441-647.

[WP05] Wikström, N., & K. M. Pryer. 2005. Incongruence between primary sequence data and the distribution of a mitochondrial atp1 group II intron among ferns and horsetails. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 36: 484-493.

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