Water pennywort Hydrocotyle vulgaris, from Robert Paul Hudson.

Belongs within: Araliaceae.

Hydrocotyle, the water pennyworts, is a genus of aquatic and semi-aquatic creeping plants.

Characters (from She, Watson & Cannon): Herbs, perennial. Stem slender, creeping or decumbent, rooting at the nodes. Leaves petiolate; petioles not sheathing; stipules present, entire or parted to base, membranous; blade cordate, orbicular, or reniform. Inflorescence a simple umbel; umbels sometimes densely capitate; peduncles axillary, obsolete to much longer than leaves; bracts present or absent; pedicels very short or extended (best seen in fruiting material). Flowers bisexual. Calyx teeth minute or obsolete. Petals white, greenish or yellow, valvate, ovate, spreading. Stylopodium conic to depressed. Fruit globose or ellipsoid, strongly flattened laterally, base cordate, dorsal surface rounded, glabrous (rarely with white hairs); dorsal and lateral ribs usually conspicuous, slender, acute (rarely obsolete); vittae inconspicuous. Seed face plane to concave; endocarp woody. Carpophore usually absent.

    |--H. alata GK00
    |--H. americana An27
    |--H. asiatica An27
    |--H. callicarpa GK00
    |--H. diantha GK00
    |--H. dissecta An27
    |--H. elongata An27
    |--H. hirsuta J87
    |--H. microphylla An27
    |--H. moschata An27
    |--H. natans C55
    |--H. novaezelandiae An27
    |    |--H. n. var. novaezelandiae Al27
    |    `--H. n. var. montana Al27
    |--H. pilifera GK00
    |    |--H. p. var. pilifera GK00
    |    `--H. p. var. glabrata GK00
    |--H. pusilla J87
    |--H. rugulosa G04
    |--H. sibthorpioides BB07
    |--H. verticillata K01
    `--H. vulgaris K01

*Type species of generic name indicated


[Al27] Allan, H. H. 1927. The vegetation of Mount Peel, Canterbury, New Zealand. Part 2. – The grassland and other herbaceous communities. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 73-89.

[An27] Andersen, J. C. 1927. Popular names of New Zealand plants. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 905-977.

[BB07] Baishya, A. K. & P. J. Bora. 2007. Cross community ethno-medico botany of Dibru-Saikhowa Biosphere Reserve, Assam. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 121-154.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[G04] Gibson, N. 2004. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 7. Middle and South Ironcap, Digger Rock and Hatter Hill. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 49-62.

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323-402.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum – Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

[K03] Kårehed, J. 2003. The family Pennantiaceae and its relationships to Apiales. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 141: 1-24.

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