Japanese mock orange Pittosporum tobira, copyright Dalgial.

Belongs within: Apiales.

The Pittosporaceae are a group of trees, shrubs and lianes widespread in the Old World, members of which produce fruits with seeds covered in a sticky pulp.

Characters (from Allan 1961): Trees, shrubs or lianes with alternate or whorled simple exstipulate leaves. Fls pentamerous, usually perfect, regular, solitary or in cymes or panicles; sepals free or connate near base, imbricate; petals imbricate, clawed; stamens alternating with petals; anthers usually introrse, opening by pores or slits. Ovary superior, 2-5-loculed; placentae parietal or axile, ovules ∞. Fruit usually a loculicidal capsule; seeds usually immersed in viscid pulp, embryo minute, endosperm copious.

<==Pittosporaceae [Pittosporeae]
    |--Citriobatus pauciflorus K03
    |--Cheiranthera filifolia G04a
    |--Bentleya diminuta G04b
    |--Sollya K03
    |    |--S. fusiformis OS04
    |    `--S. heterophylla K03
    |--Auranticarpa M08
    |    |--A. resinosa LK14
    |    `--A. rhombifolia M08
    |--Bursaria K03
    |    |--B. incana B00
    |    |--B. occidentalis G04a
    |    `--B. spinosa K03
    |--Marianthus OS04
    |    |--M. bicolor OS04
    |    |--M. candidus GK00
    |    `--M. erubescens OS04
    |--Billardiera CFH05
    |    |--B. coriacea G4b
    |    |--B. drummondiana GK00
    |    |--B. erubescens GK00
    |    |--B. fusiformis CFH05
    |    |--B. longiflora K03
    |    |--B. parviflora GK00
    |    |--B. scandens C08
    |    |--B. sericea OS04
    |    `--B. variifolia RL05
    `--Pittosporum Banks ex Gaertn. 1788 A61
         |--P. anomalum Laing & Gourlay 1935 MA49
         |--P. bicolor K03
         |--P. buchananii Hook. f. 1867 A61
         |--P. colensoi Hook. f. 1852 A61 (see below for synonymy)
         |--P. cornifolium Cunn. 1832 A61
         |--P. crassicaule Laing & Gourlay 1935 A61
         |--P. crassifolium Banks & Sol. ex Cunn. 1840 [incl. P. crassifolium var. strictum Kirk 1872] A61
         |--P. dallii Cheeseman 1906 MA49
         |--P. divaricatum Ckn. 1915 A61
         |--P. ellipticum Kirk 1872 (see below for synonymy) A61
         |    |--P. e. ssp. ellipticum HL01
         |    `--P. e. ssp. serpentinum HL01
         |--P. eugenioides Cunn. 1840 [=P. engeinoides; incl. P. elegans Raoul 1844, P. microcarpum Putt. 1839] A61
         |--P. fairchildii Cheesem. 1888 A61
         |--P. fasciculatum Hook. f. 1852 (see below for synonymy) A61
         |--P. huttonianum Kirk 1870 [incl. P. huttonianum var. fasciatum Kirk 1899] A61
         |--P. intermedium Kirk 1872 A61
         |--P. japonicum K03
         |--P. kirkii Hook. f. ex Kirk 1870 A61
         |--P. lineare Laing & Gourlay 1935 A61
         |--P. moluccanum LK14
         |--P. multiflorum B00
         |--P. obcordatum Raoul 1844 [incl. P. obcordatum var. kaitaiensis Laing & Gourlay 1935] A61
         |--P. patulum Hook. f. 1864 A61
         |--P. phylliraeoides KM08
         |--P. pimeleoides Cunn. 1840 (see below for synonymy) A61
         |    |--P. p. ssp. pimeleoides HL01
         |    `--P. p. ssp. maius HL01 [=P. pimeleoides var. major Cheeseman 1906 A61, P. michiei Allan 1961 A61]
         |--P. ralphii Kirk 1871 A61
         |--P. revolutum K03
         |--P. rigidum Hook. f. 1852 A61
         |    |--P. r. var. rigidum A61
         |    `--P. r. var. majus Allan 1961 non P. pimeleoides var. major Cheeseman 1906 A61
         |--P. spinescens [=Citriobatus spinescens] B00
         |--P. tenuifolium Sol. ex Gaertn. 1788 (see below for synonymy) A61
         |    |--P. t. var. tenuifolium A27
         |    `--P. t. var. variegata A27
         |--P. tobira K03
         |--P. turneri Petrie 1924 ME70
         |--P. umbellatum Banks & Sol. ex Gaertn. 1788 A61
         |    |--P. u. var. umbellatum A61
         |    `--P. u. var. cordatum Kirk 1872 A61
         |--P. undulatum H06
         `--P. virgatum Kirk 1872 (see below for synonymy) A61
              |--P. v. var. virgatum A61
              `--P. v. var. matthewsii (Petrie) Allan 1961 [=P. matthewsii Petrie 1920] A61

Pittosporum colensoi Hook. f. 1852 A61 [=P. tenuifolium var. colensoi C06; incl. P. huttonianum var. viridifolium Kirk 1899 A61]

Pittosporum ellipticum Kirk 1872 [incl. P. ellipticum var. decorum Cheesem. 1925, P. ellipticum ssp. ovatum Kirk 1872, P. ellipticum var. ovatum Kirk 1899] A61

Pittosporum fasciculatum Hook. f. 1852 [=P. colensoi var. fasciculatum Cheesem. 1906, P. tenuifolium ssp. fasciculatum (Hook. f.) Kirk 1872, P. tenuifolium var. fasciculatum (Hook. f.) Kirk 1899; incl. P. tenuifolium var. fasciculatum subvar. cymosum Kirk 1899] A61

Pittosporum pimeleoides Cunn. 1840 [incl. P. crenulatum Putt. 1839, P. gilliesianum Kirk 1869, P. pimeleoides ssp. reflexum var. gilliesianum (Kirk) Kirk 1872, P. radicans Cunn. 1840, P. reflexum Cunn. 1840, P. pimeleoides ssp. reflexum (Cunn.) Kirk 1872, P. pimeleoides var. reflexum (Cunn.) Hook. f. 1852] A61

Pittosporum tenuifolium Sol. ex Gaertn. 1788 [incl. Trichilia monophylla Rich. 1832] A61

Pittosporum virgatum Kirk 1872 [incl. P. virgatum var. crataegifolia Kirk 1872, P. virgatum var. serratum Kirk 1872] A61

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[A27] Andersen, J. C. 1927. Popular names of New Zealand plants. Part 2. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 905–977.

[B00] Braby, M. F. 2000. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 2. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[C08] Cambage, R. H. 1908. Notes on the native flora of New South Wales. Part VI. Deepwater to Torrington and Emmaville. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33 (1): 45–65, pls 1–2.

[C06] Cheeseman, T. F. 1906. Manual of the New Zealand Flora. John Mackay, Government Printer: Wellington.

[CFH05] Cochrane, J. A., J. A. Friend & S. J. E. Hill. 2005. Endozoochory and the Australian bluebell: comsumption of Billardiera fusiformis (Labill.) Payer (Pittosporaceae) seeds by three mammal species at Two Peoples Bay Nature Reserve, Western Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 88 (4): 191–196.

[G04a] Gibson, N. 2004a. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 6. Mt Manning Range. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 35–47.

[G04b] Gibson, N. 2004b. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 7. Middle and South Ironcap, Digger Rock and Hatter Hill. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 49–62.

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323–402.

[HL01] Heenan, P. B. & P. J. de Lange. 2001. A new, dodecaploid species of Uncinia (Cyperaceae) from ultramafic rocks, Surville Cliffs, Northland, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Botany 39: 373–380.

[H06] Henderson, L. 2006. Comparisons of invasive plants in southern Africa originating from southern temperate, northern temperate and tropical regions. Bothalia 36 (2): 201–222.

[K03] K√•rehed, J. 2003. The family Pennantiaceae and its relationships to Apiales. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 141: 1–24.

[KM08] Keighery, G. J., & W. Muir. 2008. Vegetation and vascular flora of Faure Island, Shark Bay, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 75: 11–19.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[MA49] Moore, L. B., & N. M. Adams. 1949. Fruit characters of Pittosporum dallii Cheesemn. Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand 77 (2): 250–252.

[ME70] Moore, L. B., & E. Edgar. 1970. Flora of New Zealand vol. 2. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Monocotyledones except Gramineae. A. R. Shearer, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[M08] Mound, L. A. 2008. Identification and host associations of some Thysanoptera Phlaeothripinae described from Australia pre-1930. Zootaxa 1714: 41–60.

[OS04] Obbens, F. J., & L. W. Sage. 2004. Vegetation and flora of a diverse upland remnant of the Western Australian wheatbelt (Nature Reserve A21064). Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (1): 19–28.

[RL05] Rafferty, C., & B. B. Lamont. 2005. Selective feeding by macropods on vegetation regenerating following fire. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 88 (4): 155–165.

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