Chalcidoidea

Eretmocerus eremicus, from here.


Belongs within: Proctotrupomorpha.
Contains: Eucomys, Ectromatini, Aphycus, Mymaridae, Tetracampinae, Eulophidae, Eriaporidae, Ablerus, Trichogrammatidae, Coccophaginae, Aphelininae, Agaonidae, Tanaostigmatidae, Encyrtidae, Neanastatinae, Calosotinae, Eupelminae, Eurytomidae, Spalangiinae, Leucospidae, Chalcididae, Cleonyminae, Moranilini, Eunotini, Diparinae, Cerocephalinae, Colotrechninae, Ormyrus, Megastigminae, Toryminae, Coelocybinae, Chromeurytominae, Pireninae, Ormocerinae, Miscogastrinae, Sycoryctinae, Otitesellinae, Epichrysomallinae, Pteromalinae, Perilampidae.

The Chalcidoidea is a hyperdiverse group of mostly small, parasitoid wasps (though some derived subgroups are phytophagous). Phylogeny within the chalcidoids remains contentious; a large-scale molecular analysis by Munro et al. (2011) was able to recover monophyly for only nine of nineteen generally recognised families (with a tenth family, Rotoitidae, represented in the analysis by only a single exemplar). A combined morphological and molecular analysis by Heraty et al. (2013) was more consistent with previous classifications, but still indicated polyphyly for Aphelinidae, Tetracampidae, Perilampidae and Pteromalidae sensu Bouček (1988).

Most recent analyses agree in placing the Mymaridae as the basalmost lineage. Strong morphological synapomorphies for chalcidoids excluding Mymaridae have not been identified (largely because variation within the clade is so extreme), but one potential supporting character is the absence of sensilla from the first antennal flagellomere of non-mymarid males with non-reduced flagellomere counts (Heraty et al. 2013). The most basal lineage after the Mymaridae is probably the Rotoitidae, a small family known only from New Zealand & Chile (Munro et al. 2011) characterised by 14-segmented antennae, four-segmented tarsi, and the absence of notauli or a distinct prepectus (Bouček 1988). The clade containing the remaining Chalcidoidea is, again, not morphologically well-characterised, but may be supported by the presence of an anelliform first flagellomere (modified or lost in many sub-groups), and an asymmetrical ovipositor structure with an overlapping dorsal valve in cross-section (Heraty et al. 2013). The results of combined morphological and molecular analyses by Heraty et al. (2013) further suggest that this clade may be subdivided between a 'soft-bodied' clade containing taxa related to the Aphelinidae and Eulophidae, and a 'hard-bodied' clade containing the Chalcididae, Encyrtidae and the majority of the 'Pteromalidae'.

Synapomorphies (from Heraty et al. 2013): Multiporous plate sensilla present on antennae, with sensilla fused to antennal surface along most of length but with distal end free; prepectus (triangular sclerite separating base of forewing from pronotum) present, exposed between pronotum and mesepisternum (reduced in some subgroups); mesothoracic spiracle situated at or above exposed lateral edge of mesoscutum; paired lateral metafurcal pits present at anterior margin of metasternum.

<==Chalcidoidea (see below for synonymy)
    |--Mymaridae MH11
    `--+--Rotoitidae MH11
       |    |--Rotoita Bouček & Noyes 1987 B88
       |    |    `--*R. basalis Bouček & Noyes 1987 B88
       |    `--Chiloe micropteron MH11
       `--+--+--+--Ceinae HB13
          |  |  |    |--Cea Walker 1837 O08
          |  |  |    |    `--*C. pulicaris Walker 1837 O08
          |  |  |    |--Spalangiopelta Masi 1922 MH11, D07 [incl. Diparisca Hedqvist 1964 D07]
          |  |  |    |    |--S. apotherisma MH11
          |  |  |    |    |--S. canadensis D07
          |  |  |    |    |--S. ciliata D07
          |  |  |    |    |--S. felonia D07
          |  |  |    |    `--S. ferrierei (Hedqvist 1964) [=*Diparisca ferrierei] D07
          |  |  |    `--Bohpa D07
          |  |  `--Tetracampidae HB13
          |  |       |--Mongolocampinae HB13
          |  |       |    |--Mongolocampe bouceki HB13
          |  |       |    `--+--Platyneurus HB13
          |  |       |       `--+--Eremocampe HB13
          |  |       |          `--Platynocheilus [Platynocheilinae] HB13
          |  |       |               `--P. cuprifrons MH11
          |  |       `--+--Tetracampinae HB13
          |  |          `--Eulophidae HB13
          |  `--+--+--Cecidellis MH11
          |     |  `--Eriaporidae HB13
          |     `--+--+--Ablerus HB13
          |        |  `--Signiphoridae [Thysanidae, Thysaninae] HB13
          |        |       |--+--Chartocerus MH11
          |        |       |  `--Clytina giraudi MH11
          |        |       `--+--Thysanus ater HB13
          |        |          `--Signiphora [Signiphorinae] MH11
          |        |               |--S. euclidi Girault 1935 G35
          |        |               |--S. flavella MH11
          |        |               `--S. rectrix Girault 1915 GM79
          |        `--+--+--Trisecodes agromyzae HB13
          |           |  `--Trichogrammatidae HB13
          |           `--Aphelinidae HB13
          |                |--Coccophaginae HB13
          |                `--+--+--Eretmocerus [Eretmocerinae, Eretmocerini] HB13
          |                   |  |    |  i. s.: E. aleyrodesii G32c
          |                   |  |    |         E. australis Girault 1921 GM79
          |                   |  |    |         E. lativentris Girault 1932 G32c
          |                   |  |    |         E. nativus Girault 1930 G30b
          |                   |  |    |--E. mundus MH11
          |                   |  |    `--+--E. eremicus MH11
          |                   |  |       `--E. queenslandensis MH11
          |                   |  `--Cales [Calesinae] HB13
          |                   |       |--C. berryi MH11
          |                   |       `--C. noacki MH11
          |                   `--Aphelininae HB13
          `--+--Agaonidae HB13
             `--+--+--+--Tanaostigmatidae HB13
                |  |  `--+--Cynipencyrtus [Cynipencyrtidae, Cynipencyrtinae, Cynipencyrtini] HB13
                |  |     |    `--C. flavus HB13
                |  |     `--Encyrtidae HB13
                |  `--Eupelmidae HB13
                |       |--+--Oodera Westwood 1874 HB13, B88 [incl. Stellophora Risbec 1951 B88; Ooderini]
                |       |  |    |--*O. gracilis Westwood 1874 B88
                |       |  |    `--*Stellophora’ magnifica B88
                |       |  `--+--Neanastatinae HB13
                |       |     `--Calosotinae HB13
                |       `--Eupelminae HB13
                `--+--+--Eurytomidae HB13
                   |  `--+--+--Spalangiinae HB13
                   |     |  `--Leptofoeninae [Leptofoenidae, Leptofoenini] HB13
                   |     |       |--Leptofoenus MH11 [incl. Pelecinella B88; Pelecinellinae]
                   |     |       |    |--L. stephanoides HB13
                   |     |       |    `--L. westwoodi HB13
                   |     |       `--Doddifoenus Bouček 1988 HB13, B88
                   |     |            |--*D. australiensis (Dodd 1927) [=Leptofoenus australiensis] B88
                   |     |            |--D. rex Bouček 1988 B88
                   |     |            `--D. wallacei HB13
                   |     `--+--+--Chalcedectini [Chalcedectinae, Polychrominae] HB13
                   |        |  |    |--*Chalcedectus maculicornis B88
                   |        |  |    `--Amotura Cameron 1884 (see below for synonymy) B88
                   |        |  |         |--*A. annulicornis B88
                   |        |  |         |--A. cuprescens (Westwood 1874) (see below for synonymy) B88
                   |        |  |         |--*Polychroma’ histrionica [=*Polychromatium histrionicum] B88
                   |        |  |         |--A. meteora (Girault 1927) [=Episystole meteora, Chalcedectus meteora] B88
                   |        |  |         |--A. poeta (Girault 1927) [=*Episystole poeta, Chalcedectus poeta] B88
                   |        |  |         `--*Neochalcodectus’ sinaiticus B88
                   |        |  `--Leucospidae HB13
                   |        `--Chalcididae HB13
                   `--+--+--Cleonyminae HB13
                      |  `--Eunotinae HB13
                      |       |--+--Moranilini HB13
                      |       |  `--Tomocerodes Girault 1916 HB13, B88 [Tomocerodini]
                      |       |       `--*T. americanus B88
                      |       `--Eunotini HB13
                      `--+--+--+--Yrka Bouček 1988 HB13, B88
                         |  |  |    `--*Y. dahmsi Bouček 1988 B88
                         |  |  `--+--Diparinae HB13
                         |  |     `--Cerocephalinae HB13
                         |  `--+--+--Colotrechninae HB13
                         |     |  `--Ormyridae HB13
                         |     |       |--Ormyrus B88
                         |     |       `--*Ormyrulus gibbus B88
                         |     `--Torymidae HB13
                         |          |--Megastigminae HB13
                         |          `--Toryminae HB13
                         `--+--+--Collessina Bouček 1975 HB13, B88
                            |  |    `--*C. pachyneura Bouček 1975 B88
                            |  `--+--Austrosystasis Girault 1924 HB13, B88 (see below for synonymy)
                            |     |    `--*A. atricorpus Girault 1924 [incl. *Eurytomomoidea eleocarpi Girault 1928] B88
                            |     `--Systolomorpha Ashmead 1900 HB13, B88 [incl. Aphotismus Girault 1913 B88]
                            |          |--*S. thyridopterygis Ashmead 1900 B88
                            |          |--S. nassaui Girault 1925 B88
                            |          |--S. nigra (Girault 1913) [=*Aphotismus niger] B88
                            |          `--S. noblei Gahan in Gahan & Ferrière 1947 B88
                            `--+--+--Micradelus [Micradelini] HB13
                               |  |    `--M. rotundus HB13
                               |  `--+--+--Herbertia Howard 1894 HB13, B88 (see below for synonymy)
                               |     |  |    |--*H. lucens B88
                               |     |  |    |--H. indica B88
                               |     |  |    |--H. nipponica B88
                               |     |  |    `--H. setosa (Dodd in Girault 1915) (see below for synonymy) B88
                               |     |  `--Neapterolelaps Girault 1913 HB13, B88 (see below for synonymy)
                               |     |       |--*N. lodgei Girault 1913 B88
                               |     |       |--N. aeniceps (Girault 1925) [=*Australolaelaps aeniceps] D07
                               |     |       |--N. leai Dodd 1924 B88
                               |     |       |--N. mitteri Desjardins 2007 D07
                               |     |       |--N. nigrisaepta (Girault 1929) [=*Austrolaelaps nigrisaepta] B88
                               |     |       `--N. viridescens Desjardins 2007 D07
                               |     `--+--+--Liepara Bouček 1988 HB13, B88 [Lieparini]
                               |        |  |    |--*L. dentata Bouček 1988 B88
                               |        |  |    `--L. dahmsi Bouček 1988 B88
                               |        |  `--Lanthanomyia HB13
                               |        `--Asaphinae [Asaphini] HB13
                               |             |--Ausasaphes Bouček 1988 B88
                               |             |    |--*A. pallipes Bouček 1988 B88
                               |             |    `--A. atripes Bouček 1988 B88
                               |             `--Asaphes Walker 1834 (see below for synonymy) B88
                               |                  |--*A. vulgaris Walker 1834 B88
                               |                  |--A. americanus Girault 1914 GM79
                               |                  |--A. californicus Girault 1917 G17g
                               |                  |--A. rufipes Brues 1908 G17g, GM79
                               |                  `--A. suspensus HB13
                               `--+--+--+--Nodisoplata MH11
                                  |  |  `--Macromesus Walker 1848 HB13, B88 (see below for synonymy)
                                  |  |       |--*M. amphiretus B88
                                  |  |       |--M. americanus MH11
                                  |  |       `--M. fulvicoxa (Girault 1925) [=*Metasystasis fulvicoxa] B88
                                  |  `--+--+--+--Coelocybinae HB13
                                  |     |  |  `--Chromeurytominae HB13
                                  |     |  `--Pireninae HB13
                                  |     `--Ormocerinae HB13
                                  `--+--+--+--+--Diconocara petiolata HB13
                                     |  |  |  `--+--Keirana Bouček 1988 HB13, B88 [Keiraninae]
                                     |  |  |     |    `--*K. longicollis Bouček 1988 B88
                                     |  |  |     `--Ditropinotella Girault 1915 HB13, B88 (see below for synonymy)
                                     |  |  |          |--*D. compressiventris Girault 1915 B88
                                     |  |  |          |--D. ciron (Walker 1839) (see below for synonymy) B88
                                     |  |  |          `--D. latipennis (Girault 1929) [=*Roptrocerella latipennis] B88
                                     |  |  `--Miscogastrinae HB13
                                     |  `--+--+--Cheiropachus Haliday 1833 HB13, GM79
                                     |     |  |    `--C. quadrum MH11
                                     |     |  `--Trigonoderini HB13
                                     |     |       |--Plutothrix HB13
                                     |     |       `--Trigonoderus irvingi Girault 1917 G17d
                                     |     `--+--+--Walkerella Westwood 1883 HB13, B88 (see below for synonymy)
                                     |        |  |    |--*W. temeraria [incl. Terastiozoon benjamini Joseph 1957] B88
                                     |        |  |    |--W. dubia [=*Asemantoideus dubius] B88
                                     |        |  |    |--*Terastiozoon’ jacobsoni B88
                                     |        |  |    |--W. kurandensis Bouček 1988 B88
                                     |        |  |    `--W. yashiroi [=Otitesella yashiroi] B88
                                     |        |  `--+--Sycoryctinae HB13
                                     |        |     `--+--Otitesellinae HB13
                                     |        |        `--+--Sycoecinae HB13
                                     |        |           |    |--Crossogaster B88
                                     |        |           |    |--Sycoecus B88
                                     |        |           |    |--Seres B88
                                     |        |           |    |--Diaziella Grandi 1928 B88
                                     |        |           |    |    |--*D. bicolor B88
                                     |        |           |    |    `--D. falcata B88
                                     |        |           |    `--Robertsia Bouček 1988 B88
                                     |        |           |         |--*R. mandibularis Bouček 1988 B88
                                     |        |           |         `--R. xylosyciae Bouček 1988 B88
                                     |        |           `--Epichrysomallinae HB13
                                     |        `--Pteromalinae HB13
                                     `--Perilampidae HB13

Chalcidoidea incertae sedis:
  Caenacis G17b
    |--C. asinus Girault 1917 G17b
    `--C. divisa A71
  Quaylea whittieri A71
  Homalotylus G17a
    |--H. flavimesopleuron Girault 1917 G17g
    |--H. microgaster Girault 1917 GM79
    `--H. orci Girault 1917 G17a
  Aximopsis G17a
    |--A. javensis Girault 1917 G17b
    `--A. tephrosiae Girault 1917 G17a
  Megaceratoneura Girault 1917 G17a
    `--*M. inusitata Girault 1917 G17a
  Paromphaloidomyia Girault 1917 G17b
    `--*P. homeri Girault 1917 G17b
  Prothymus Girault 1917 G17b
    `--*P. novus Girault 1917 G17b
  Megatrydymus Girault 1917 G17b
    `--*M. taciti Girault 1917 G17b
  Acaenacis Girault 1917 G17b
    `--*A. ficigerae (Ashmead 1885) G17b, GM79 [=Semioteilus ficigerae G17b]
  Dimmockia G17b
    |--D. botticellini Girault 1917 G17b
    `--D. secunda Crawford 1910 GM79
  Comedo G17b
    |--C. neomexicanus Girault 1917 G17b
    |--C. omari Girault 1917 G17d
    `--C. orgyiae Fitch 1855 GM79
  Perissopterus Howard 1895 GM79
    `--P. punctaticorpus Girault 1917 G17c
  Proaphelinoides Girault 1917 G17c
    `--*P. elongatiformis Girault 1917 G17c
  Hexacladia Ashmead 1891 GM79 [incl. Sophencyrtus Crawford 1911 G17c, GM79]
    |--H. mexicana Girault 1917 G17c
    `--H. townsendi Crawford 1911 GM79 [=Sophencyrtus townsendi G17c]
  Paracalocerinus G17e
    |--P. marilandia Girault 1917 G17e
    `--P. tertius Girault 1917 G17c
  Calocerinus Howard 1892 GM79
    `--C. floridanus (Ashmead 1885) GM79
  Habrolepopteryx Ashmead 1900 GM79
    `--H. marilandia Girault 1917 G17e
  Cryptopristus G17c
    |--C. americanus Girault 1917 G17c
    `--C. caliginosus (Walker 1833) GM79
  Eucomys G17g
  Metacolus Forster 1856 GM79
    |--M. bifasciatus Girault 1917 G17c
    `--M. fasciatus Girault 1917 G17c
  Dipachystigma secunda Girault 1917 G17c
  Isodromus pulcher Girault 1917 G17c
  Berecyntus Howard 1898 GM79
    |--B. bakeri Howard 1898 GM79
    |    |--B. b. bakeri G17c
    |    `--B. b. euxoae Girault 1917 G17c
    `--B. melanocera (Ashmead 1900) GM79
  Aenasiella G17c
    |--A. africa Girault 1917 G17c
    `--A. ovi Girault 1925 G25a
  Omphalchrysocharis Girault 1917 G17g
    |--*O. orientalis Girault 1917 G17g
    |--O. ainsliei (Crawford 1912) G17g, GM79 [=Chrysocharis ainsliei G17g]
    |--O. parksi (Crawford 1912) G17g, GM79 [=Chrysocharis parksi G17g]
    `--O. thomsoni (Crawford 1912) G17g, GM79 [=Entedon thomsoni G17g]
  Habrolepoidea G17c
    |--H. aphidiphagus G17c
    |--H. celia Girault 1917 G17c
    `--H. perplexa Girault 1917 G17g
  Emersonella Girault 1916 GM79
    |--*E. lemae Girault 1916 G22a, GM79
    |--E. fuscipennis Girault 1920 GM79
    `--E. niveipes Girault 1917 G17d
  Astichomyia Girault 1917 G17d
    `--*A. latiscapus Girault 1917 G17d
  Solenotus Forster 1856 GM79
  Hyperteles Girault 1917 G17d
    `--*H. elongata (Forster 1841) G17d, GM79 [=Oxyomorpha elongata G17d]
  Pseudaphycus Clausen 1915 GM79
    |--P. notativentris Girault 1917 G17d
    `--P. texanus (Howard 1898) GM79
  Chrysocharodes majoriani Girault 1917 G17d
  Uscanopsis carlylei Girault 1916 GM79
  Parectromoides Girault 1915 G24, GM79 [incl. Parastenoterys Girault 1915 G24, GM79]
    `--‘Parastenoterys’ niveiclava Girault 1917 G17f
  Paradibrachys Girault 1917 G17g
    `--*P. guizoti Girault 1917 G17g
  Howardiella tarsata Ashmead 1905 GM79
  Parhabritys Girault 1917 G17f
    `--*P. nubilipennis (Ashmead 1887) G17g, GM79 [=Megorismus nubilipennis G17g]
  Systellogaster Gahan 1917 GM79
  Rhicnopeltoidea Girault 1917 G17g
    |--*R. amsterdamensis Girault 1917 G17g
    `--R. mallochi (Gahan 1917) GM79 [=Chrysocharis mallochi G17g]
  Arthrolytus aeneoviridis Girault 1911 GM79 [incl. Dibrachys meteori Gahan 1913 G17g, GM79]
  Parmicromelus Girault 1917 G17g
    `--*P. europaeus Girault 1917 G17g
  Aphycoideus Williams 1916 GM79
    `--*A. io Girault 1917 G17g
  Zarhopalus Ashmead 1900 GM79 [incl. Anagyrella Girault 1915 G17g, GM79]
  Asteropaeus Howard 1898 GM79 [incl. Anicetus Howard 1896 G17g, GM79]
  Spintherus pulchripennis Crawford 1912 GM79 [incl. Rhopalicus americanus Girault 1916 G17g, GM79]
  Rhopus Forster 1856 GM79
    `--R. fuscus (Girault 1912) G17g, GM79 [=Rhopoideus fuscus G17g]
  Casca Howard 1907 GM79 [incl. Diaspidophilus Brethes 1914 G17g, GM79]
    |--C. heracliti Girault 1936 G36b
    `--C. machiaeveli Girault 1922 GM79
  Diplodontia secunda Girault 1917 G17g
  Ophelinoideus Ashmead 1904 GM79
  Mirolynx Girault 1916 GM79
  Anenistus youngi Girault 1917 G17g
  Lamprostatus G17g
    |--L. canadensis Girault 1917 GM79
    `--L. conicus Girault 1917 G17g
  Cirrospilopsis sapientia Girault 1917 G17g
  Cryptanusia Girault 1917 G17g
    `--*C. albiclava Girault 1917 G17g
  Paraolinx Ashmead 1894 GM79 [incl. Leucodesmia Howard 1895 G17g, GM79]
  Epaenasomyia Girault 1917 G17h
    `--*E. varicornis Girault 1917 G17h
  Paraenasomyia Girault 1915 GM79
    |--P. johnsoni Girault 1922 G22b
    `--P. liszti Girault 1932 G32b [=Rhopalencyrtoidea dubia Girault 1915 (preoc.) G32b, GM79]
  Neocasca G20
    |--N. multiguttata Girault 1915 GM79
    `--N. shillingsworthi Girault 1920 G20
  Neblatticida tassoniaeformis Girault 1921 G21
  Habrolepopterygis G21
    |--H. felis Girault 1915 GM79
    `--H. mirabilis Girault 1921 G21
  Pseudoligosita variclava Girault 1922 G22b
  Leptomastix G23a
    |--L. bicoloricornis Girault 1915 GM79
    `--L. varithorax Girault 1923 G23a
  Australanusia tarsalis Girault 1923 G23a
  Coccidencyrtus G23a
    |--C. bicoloricornis Girault 1915 GM79
    `--C. ipswichia Girault 1923 G23a
  Austrobella Girault 1923 G28a, G23a [=Austrobelia G23a]
    `--*A. gargantua Girault 1923 G23a
  Ruskiniana Girault 1923 G23b
    `--*R. sexguttatipennis Girault 1923 G23b
  Pseudanusia Girault 1915 GM79
  Nezarhopalus G23b
    |--N. caudatus Girault 1915 GM79
    |--N. compressifemur Girault 1923 G23b
    `--N. perplexus Girault 1925 G25a
  Lathromeromyia perminuta Girault 1914 GM79
  Chrysopophagus Ashmead 1894 GM79 [incl. Saranotum Perkins 1906 G24, GM79]
  Psylledontus Crawford 1910 GM79 [incl. Metallonella Girault 1915 G24, GM79]
  Isodromoides Girault 1924 GM79 [incl. Neocopidosomyiia Girault 1924 G24, GM79]
  Ericydnella Girault 1924 GM79 [incl. Cerchysiella Girault 1924 G24, GM79]
  Rhopalencyrtoidea G25a
    |--R. cinctifemur Girault 1925 G25a
    `--R. purpureus G25a
  Ecthrodryinus G25a
    |--E. ovidivorus Girault 1925 G25a
    `--E. shakespeari G25a
  Neodryinus G25b
    |--N. koebelei Perkins 1905 GM79
    `--N. semipolita Girault 1925 G25b
  Paradryinus nigricorpus Girault 1925 G25b
  Mesorhopella Girault 1923 GM79
  Hadronotus G32c
    |--H. bicolor Ashmead 1894 GM79
    |--H. goethei Girault 1932 G32c
    `--H. variocellus Girault 1926 G26a
  Dissolcus G26b
    |--D. atriscapus Girault 1926 G26b
    `--D. beenleighi Girault 1932 G32c
  Paragryon postmarginalis Girault 1926 G26c
  Odontocolus faunus Girault 1926 G26c
  Shakespearia Girault 1928 G28b
    `--*S. flabellata Girault 1928 G28b
  Pterygogramma G29b
    |--P. dubium Girault 1912 GM79
    |--P. postmarginale Girault 1929 G29b
    |--P. semifuscipennis Girault 1912 GM79
    `--P. tingoorae Girault 1929 G29b
  Urogramma G29b
    |--U. latreille Girault 1929 G29b
    `--U. lucrum Girault 1920 GM79
  Japania Girault 1911 GM79
    |--J. carbajali Girault 1934 G34b
    |--J. ruskini Girault 1929 G29b
    `--J. tristis Girault 1912 GM79
  Centrobiella G29b
    |--C. mulierum Girault 1912 GM79
    `--C. particula Girault 1929 G29b
  Chaetostricha G29b
    |--C. anima Girault 1912 GM79
    |--C. aurea Girault 1912 GM79
    |--C. australis Girault 1920 GM79
    |--C. concisicilia Girault 1929 G29b
    |--C. emma Girault 1929 G29b
    |--C. krygeri Girault 1929 G29b [=C. pulchra Kryger 1918 (preoc.) G29b, GM79]
    `--C. tridentata Girault 1929 G29b
  Emersonopsis arizonensis (Ashmead 1888) GM79 (see below for synonymy)
  Zaomencyrtus aeripes Girault 1932 G32b
  Microrhopus striatithorax Girault 1932 G32b
  Echthrogonatopus G34b
    |--E. cinctiventris Girault 1934 G34b
    `--E. fera G34b
  Belonura Ashmead 1896 GM79
  Catolacous Thompson 1878 GM79
  Thymus Girault 1916 GM79
  Phylloxeroxenus Ashmead 1888 B88
  Glyphotoma albitarsis Cameron 1912 B88
  Trichaulus aeneicorpus Girault 1915 (n. d.) B88
  Xiphydriophagus meyerinckii A71
  Hypopteromalus Ashmead 1900 G36a, GM79
  Stenomalina B88
  Asparagobius B88
  Oricoruna B88
  Mayrellus B88
  Selimnus B88
  Rivasia Askew & Nieves-Aldrey 2005 F05
    `--*R. fumariae Askew & Nieves-Aldrey 2005 F05
  Hemadas B88
  Elatoides Nikolskaya 1952 [Elatoidinae] B88
    `--*E. niger B88
  Storeya Bouček 1988 [Storeyinae] B88
    `--*S. paradoxa Bouček 1988 B88
  Nefoenus Bouček 1988 [Nefoeninae] B88
    `--*N. pilosus Bouček 1988 B88
  Austroterobia Girault 1938 [Austroterobiinae] B88
    `--*A. partibrunnea Girault 1938 B88
  Parasaphodes Schulz 1906 (see below for synonymy) B88
    |--*P. iceryae (Ashmead 1904) [=*Parasaphes iceryae, *Amiscogaster ruskini Girault 1917] B88
    `--P. townsendi B88
  Callimomoides Girault 1926 (see below for synonymy) B88
    |--*C. fuscipennis Girault 1926 [incl. *Aligheria cyanea Girault 1928] B88
    |--C. ovivorus [=*Louricia ovivora] B88
    `--C. robertsi Bouček 1988 B88
  Erotolepsiinae B88
    |--Erotolepsia B88
    |--Balrogia Hedqvist 1977 B88
    |--Eunotopsia Bouček 1988 B88
    |    `--*E. nikitini Bouček 1988 B88
    `--Papuopsia Bouček 1988 B88
         `--*P. setosa Bouček 1988 B88
  Aspidiotiphagus Howard 1894 M83, GM79 [incl. Prospaltoides Brethes 1914 G17g, GM79]
    `--A. citrinus M83
  Prococcophagus [incl. Taneostigmoidella] B88
  Bardylis Howard 1907 G28a, GM79
    `--B. silvensis Girault 1928 G28a
  Epiencyrtoides G29a
    |--E. axillaris Girault 1915 GM79
    `--E. quinquedentatus Girault 1929 G29a
  Austrochoreia Girault 1929 G29a
    `--*A. latiscutum Girault 1929 G29a
  Choreia Westwood 1833 G29a, GM79
  Richteria Girault 1920 G30b, G20
    |--*R. lamennaisi Girault 1920 G20
    `--R. bicornuta Girault 1930 G30b
  Myiocnema Ashmead 1900 G30b, GM79
  Parectromoidella Girault 1915 G31, GM79 [incl. Eucheiloneuropsis Girault 1922 G24, GM79]
    |--P. acaciae Girault 1931 G31
    `--P. lowelli Girault 1922 GM79
  Mesanusia speciosa Girault 1932 G32a
  Liothorax G32a
    |--L. glabriscutellum Girault 1932 G32a
    `--L. longiartus Girault 1932 G32a
  Aenasomyiella parkeri Girault 1932 G32a
  Coccidoxenus Crawford 1913 G32a, GM79 [incl. Tetracnemella Girault 1915 G24, GM79]
    |--C. mexicanus Girault 1917 G17c
    `--C. rubensi Girault 1932 G32a
  Arhopoideus G32a
    |--A. brevicornis Girault 1915 GM79 [incl. Tetracnemus pretiosus G32a]
    |--A. ipswichia Girault 1922 G22b
    |--A. mozarti Girault 1932 G32c
    `--A. tertius Girault 1923 GM79
  ‘Schilleria’ Girault 1932 non Dahl 1907 G32a
    `--*S. pulchra Girault 1932 G32a
  Ectromatini G32a
  Helegonatopus G32a
    |--H. parkeri Girault 1932 G32a
    `--H. pseudophanes Perkins 1906 GM79
  Epanusia Girault 1913 G32a, GM79
    |--E. beenleighi Girault 1923 G23b
    |--E. bifasciata Girault 1913 GM79
    `--E. laticincta Girault 1932 G32a
  Dinocarsis G32a
    |--D. fasciiscapus Girault 1932 G32b
    |--D. holbeini Girault 1923 G23b
    |--D. rotundiceps Girault 1932 G32a
    `--D. spica Girault 1921 GM79
  Baoanusia G32a
    |--B. albifunicle Girault 1932 G32a
    `--B. lotae Girault 1922 GM79
  Cristatithorax G32a
    |--C. beerwahi G32a
    |--C. bidentimaxillae G32a
    |    |--C. b. bidentimaxillae G32a
    |    `--C. b. poeta Girault 1932 G32a
    |--C. latiscapus Girault 1916 GM79
    |--C. partipes Girault 1932 G32a
    |--C. quadricolor Girault 1915 GM79
    `--C. regis Girault 1932 G32a
  Sarothrus io Girault 1932 G32a
  Achrysopophagus G32a
    |--A. americanus Girault 1917 G17c
    |--A. aureipleurum Girault 1932 G32a
    |--A. clavatus Girault 1915 GM79
    |--A. dactylopii (Howard 1885) GM79
    `--A. nigriflagellum Girault 1932 G32a
  Aphycus G32a
  Oaphycus Girault 1932 G32a
    `--*O. sanguinithorax (Girault 1915) G32a, GM79 [=Aphycus sanguinithorax G32a]
  Neobrachista G32a
    |--N. javae Girault 1917 G17a
    `--N. novifasciata G32a
         |--N. n. novifasciata G32a
         `--N. n. leptopsi Girault 1932 G32a
  Zarhopaloides G32a
    |--Z. axillaris Girault 1915 GM79
    |--Z. gracilis Girault 1915 GM79
    `--Z. speciosus Girault 1932 G32a
  Aphycopsis G32c
    |--A. australiensis (Howard 1898) GM79
    `--A. bicinctitibiae Girault 1932 G32c
  Plastocharella G32c
    |--P. fuscipennis Girault 1913 GM79
    `--P. terrigena Girault 1932 G32c
  Stenoteropsis Girault 1915 G32c, GM79
    `--S. papilionidis Girault 1932 G32c
  Epitetracnemus quadriguttus Girault 1932 G32c
  Matritia G32c
    |--M. gratis Girault 1932 G32c
    `--M. hebes Girault 1929 GM79
  Diversinervus Silvestri 1914 G33a, GM79
  Xanthoencyrtus G33a
    |--X. garibaldia Girault 1933 G33a
    `--X. keatsi (Girault 1915) GM79
  Matricia delicata Girault 1933 G33b
  Anthemus G34a
    |--A. hilli G34a
    `--A. nigriceps Girault 1934 G34a
  Metacasca Girault 1934 G34b
    |--*M. magna (Girault 1928) G34b, G28b [=Bardylus magnus G34b]
    |--M. copernici Girault 1936 G36b
    `--M. mea Girault 1934 G34b
  Australufens Girault 1935 G35
    `--*A. varicornis Girault 1935 G35
  Cowperella Girault 1935 G35
    `--*C. aeneifrons Girault 1935 G35
  Borrowella Girault 1923 G35, GM79
    |--B. bioculata Girault 1923 GM79
    `--B. consobrina Girault 1923 G23a
  Parasyrphophagus G35
    |--P. casuarinae Girault 1934 [=Parasyrpophagus (l. c.) casuarinae] G34b
    |--P. homeri Girault 1935 G35
    `--P. semiargentipes Girault 1915 GM79
  Leimacis G36a
    |--L. australia Girault 1916 GM79
    `--L. hilaris Girault 1936 G36a
  Chryseida B88
  Baeomorpha R02 [Baeomorphinae B88]
  Distylopinae B88
  Minutoma HB13 [Bouceklytinae B88]
    `--M. yathribi HB13
  Idiomacromerus F05
    |--I. silybi Askew 2004 F05
    `--I. urospermi Askew 2004 F05
  Thaumatoryminae B88
  Baocharis marlatti Ashmead 1888 G17g, GM79 [incl. Aphelinus subapterus Girault 1916 GM79]
  Eupelminus tarsatus D07
  Hetreulophini B88
    |--Zeala Bouček 1988 B88
    |    `--*Z. walkerae Bouček 1988 B88
    `--Hetreulophus Girault 1915 MH11, B88 [incl. Schizonotella Girault 1927 B88]
         |--*H. bifasciatifrons Girault 1915 B88
         |--H. eupelmoideus (Girault 1927) [=*Schizonotella eupelmoidea] B88
         `--H. voltairei Girault 1921 B88
  Enoggera Girault 1926 MH11, B88 [incl. Enoggerella Girault 1926 B88]
    |--*E. polita Girault 1926 B88
    `--E. nassaui (Girault 1926) [=*Enoggerella nassaui] B88

Amotura Cameron 1884 [incl. Episystole Girault 1927, Neochalcodectus Masi 1936, Polychroma Westwood 1874 non Dejean 1833, Polychromatium Dalla Torre 1897] B88

Amotura cuprescens (Westwood 1874) [=Polychroma cuprescens, Chalcedectus cuprescens, Polychromatium cuprescens] B88

Asaphes Walker 1834 [incl. Isocratus Förster 1856, Parectroma Brethes 1913] B88

Austrosystasis Girault 1924 HB13, B88 [incl. Eurytomomoidea Girault 1928 B88; Austrosystasinae]

Callimomoides Girault 1926 [incl. Aligheria Girault 1928, Louricia Ferrière 1936; Louriciinae, Louriciini] B88

Chalcidoidea [Brachymeriinae, Brachyscelidiphaginae, Callimomidae, Chalcidites, Chalcitellini, Eupelmini, Halticopterini, Hormoceroidae, Lelapini, Myinoidae, Ormoceridae, Ormocerides, Ormoceroidae, Pteromalidae, Pteromalides, Spalangoidae, Tetracampoidae, Tridymidae, Tridymina]

Ditropinotella Girault 1915 HB13, B88 [incl. Roptrocerella Girault 1929 B88; Ditropinotellinae]

Ditropinotella ciron (Walker 1839) [=Miscogaster ciron, Lamprotatus ciron] B88

Emersonopsis arizonensis (Ashmead 1888) GM79 [incl. Entedon cupreicollis Ashmead 1888 G30a, GM79, Em. cupreicollis G30a]

Herbertia Howard 1894 HB13, B88 [incl. Tetracampoides Dodd in Girault 1915 B88, Trydymiformis Girault 1915 B88; Herbertiinae]

Herbertia setosa (Dodd in Girault 1915) [=*Tetracampoides setosus; incl. *Trydymiformis australiensis Girault 1915] B88

Macromesus Walker 1848 HB13, B88 [incl. Crossotomoria Delucchi 1956 B88, Metasystasis Girault 1925 B88, Wesenbergia Kryger 1943 B88; Macromesinae]

Neapterolelaps Girault 1913 HB13, B88 [=Pinocchio Pagliano & Scaramozzino 1990 non Mello-Leitão 1940; incl. Australolaelaps Girault 1925 D07, Austrolaelaps Girault 1929 B88; Neapterolelapini]

Parasaphodes Schulz 1906 [=Amiscogaster Girault 1917, Parasaphes Ashmead 1904 non Candéze 1882; Parasaphodinae] B88

Walkerella Westwood 1883 HB13, B88 [incl. Asemantoideus Girault 1916 B88, Terastiozoon Grandi 1921 B88]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[D07] Desjardins, C. A. 2007. Phylogenetics and classification of the world genera of Diparinae (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae). Zootaxa 1647: 1-88.

[F05] Fernández, J. 2005. Noticia de nuevos táxones para la ciencia en el ámbito Íbero-Balear y Macaronésico. Nuevos táxones animales descritos en la península Ibérica y Macaronesia desde 1994 (IX). Graellsia 61 (2): 261-282.

[G17a] Girault, A. A. 1917a. New Javanese Hymenoptera. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 59-71).

[G17b] Girault, A. A. 1917b. New chalcid flies. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 72-77).

[G17c] Girault, A. A. 1917c. Descriptiones stellarum novarum. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 80-101).

[G17d] Girault, A. A. 1917d. Descriptiones hymenopterorum chalcidoidicarum variorum cum observationibus. III. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 102-111).

[G17e] Girault, A. A. 1917e. Chalcidoidea nova Marilandensis. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 112-113).

[G17f] Girault, A. A. 1917f. Chalcidoidea nova Marilandensis. II. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 114-115).

[G17g] Girault, A. A. 1917g. Descriptiones hymenopterorum chalcidoidicarum variorum cum observationibus. V. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 116-131).

[G17h] Girault, A. A. 1917h. Chalcidoidea nova Marilandensis. III. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 132-137).

[G20] Girault, A. A. 1920. Some insects never before seen by mankind. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 157-160).

[G21] Girault, A. A. 1921. New animals of Australia and old men of the earth. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 161-163).

[G22a] Girault, A. A. 1922a. The North American species of Emersonella and Entedon with excuses, etc. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 165).

[G22b] Girault, A. A. 1922b. The true remedy for head lice, dedication of a new animal to the quality of majesty and so forth. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 166).

[G23a] Girault, A. A. 1923a. Loves wooed and won in Australia. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 167-169).

[G23b] Girault, A. A. 1923b. Microscopitis, womanitis and new Hexapoda. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 170-177).

[G24] Girault, A. A. 1924. Homo perniciosus and new Hymenoptera. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 178-181).

[G25a] Girault, A. A. 1925a. An essay on when a fly is lovable, the ceremony of baptizing some and unlovely hate. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 187-190).

[G25b] Girault, A. A. 1925b. Some gem-like or marvellous inhabitants of the woodlands heretofore unknown and by most never seen or dreamt of. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 191-193).

[G26a] Girault, A. A. 1926a. Hymenoptera minutae nova Australiensis. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 194-195).

[G26b] Girault, A. A. 1926b. New pests from Australia. II. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 200-202).

[G26c] Girault, A. A. 1926c. New pests from Australia. V. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 206-207).

[G28a] Girault, A. A. 1928a. A prodigeous discourse on wild animals. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 218-220).

[G28b] Girault, A. A. 1928b. Some new hexapods stolen from authority. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 221-224).

[G29a] Girault, A. A. 1929a. Description of a case of lunacy in Homo and of six-legged articulates. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 262-265).

[G29b] Girault, A. A. 1929b. New pests from Australia. VI. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 266-269).

[G30a] Girault, A. A. 1930a. New pests from Australia. VIII. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 273-277).

[G30b] Girault, A. A. 1930b. New pests from Australia. IX. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 278-279).

[G31] Girault, A. A. 1931. Hymenoptera, Thysanoptera nova Australiensis. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 284-285).

[G32a] Girault, A. A. 1932a. New pests from Australia, X. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 286-291).

[G32b] Girault, A. A. 1932b. Hymenoptera, Thysanoptera nova Australiensis. II. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 292).

[G32c] Girault, A. A. 1932c. New lower Hymenoptera from Australia and India. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 293-298).

[G33a] Girault, A. A. 1933a. Some beauties inhabitant not of commercial boudoirs but of Nature’s bosom, notably new insects. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 299-303).

[G33b] Girault, A. A. 1933b. Some beauties inhabitant not of the boudoirs of commerce but of Nature’s bosom—new insects. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 304-305).

[G34a] Girault, A. A. 1934a. Miridae et Hymenoptera nova Australiensis. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 308-310).

[G34b] Girault, A. A. 1934b. New Capsidae and Hymenoptera, with note on an unmentionable. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 311-314).

[G35] Girault, A. A. 1935. Microhymenoptera Australiensis nova, mostly Chalcididae. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 315-318).

[G36a] Girault, A. A. (as ‘L. de St. Fargeau’). 1936a. Chalcididae, Capsidae species nova Australiensis Giraulti. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 319-321).

[G36b] Girault, A. A. 1936b. Terror-errors; and novitates of Pterygota (or earth realities not state-bound). Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 322-325).

[GM79] Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 1-400.

[HB13] Heraty, J. M., R. A. Burks, A. Cruaud, G. A. P. Gibson, J. Liljeblad, J. Munro, J.-Y. Rasplus, G. Delvare, P. Janšta, A. Gumovsky, J. Huber, J. B. Woolley, L. Krogmann, S. Heydon, A. Polaszek, S. Schmidt, D. C. Darling, M. W. Gates, J. Mottern, E. Murray, A. D. Molin, S. Triapitsyn, H. Baur, J. D. Pinto, S. van Noort, J. George & M. Yoder. 2013. A phylogenetic analysis of the megadiverse Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera). Cladistics 29: 466-542.

[M83] Martin, N. A. 1983. Miscellaneous observations on a pasture fauna: An annotated species list. DSIR Entomology Division Report 3: 1-98.

[MH11] Munro, J. B., J. M. Heraty, R. A. Burks, D. Hawks, J. Mottern, A. Cruaud, J.-Y. Rasplus & P. Jansta. 2011. A molecular phylogeny of the Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera). PLoS One 6 (11): e27023.

[O08] Özdikmen, H. 2008. Nomenclatural changes for some preoccupied harvestman genus group names (Arachnida: Opiliones). Turkish Journal of Arachnology 1 (1): 37-43.

[R02] Rasnitsyn, A. P. 2002. Superorder Vespidea Laicharting, 1781. Order Hymenoptera Linné, 1758 (=Vespida Laicharting, 1781). In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 242-254. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

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