Barley gout fly Chlorops pumilionis, copyright Dick Belgers.

Belongs within: Schizophora.

The Chloropidae, frit flies, are a group of small flies characterised by the presence of a sharp carina on the propleuron. They are ecologically diverse, with larval diets varying from phytophagous to predatory to saprophagous. Some phytophagous species, such as the wheat stem maggot Meromyza americana, are pests of cereal crops.

Species are divided between three subfamilies in which the costa ends at or only slightly beyond the apex of vein R4+5 in members of the Chloropinae but reaches the apex of M1 in Siphonellopsinae and Oscinellinae. Siphonellopsinae have long and proclinate or lateroclinate fronto-orbital bristles whereas Oscinellinae have short and/or reclinate or erect fronto-orbitals (Wheeler 2010).

Characters (from Sabrosky 1987): Small flies 1.5–5.0 mm long, rarely larger, with reduced bristling. Head with frons broad in both sexes, usually with a large, strongly sclerotized, plate-like, sharply margined ocellar triangle; surface of ocellar triangle varying from smooth and polished to densely pruinose and dull, usually with single row of piliferous punctures on or just outside lateral margins, occasionally with two or more rows on each side of triangle, rarely entirely punctate. Head profile usually showing frons only slightly projecting, face receding or slightly concave, vibrissal angle obtusely rounded (rarely projecting and acutely angulate). Eye large, round or ovate in outline, with long axis usually vertical or nearly so except in genera with projecting frons, bare to short-haired, rarely densely long-haired. Face flat or with low carina; carina well-developed though narrow in a few genera, rarely broad and flat. Antenna porrect; flagellomere 1 commonly orbicular or nearly so, sometimes reniform, occasionally elongate; arista micropubescent to short pubescent, rarely entirely bare, sometimes long-haired, sometimes flattened and ensiform. Bristles of head reduced, usually weak, seldom strong; inner and outer vertical, postocellar, and ocellar bristles commonly present; postocellar bristles parallel to convergent or cruciate; fronto-orbital bristles usually consisting of a row of short reclinate hairs, occasionally consisting of one to several pairs of strong and distinct bristles that are usually erect and reclinate (rarely proclinate); vibrissa often present, but usually weak, hair-like, and inconspicuous. Thorax with scutum usually longer than broad, convex, finely haired with hairs often set in definite rows, sometimes with coarse distinct piliferous punctures; scutellum short and rounded to elongate conical, sometimes with marginal tubercles bearing bristles. Propleuron sharply carinate anteriorly. Thoracic bristling greatly reduced, rarely with bristles on disc of scutum; one postpronotal bristle (often weak and inconspicuous), one anterior and one or two posterior notopleural bristles, and one postalar, one posterior dorsocentral, and one propleural bristle (often pale, weak, and inconspicuous) almost always present; one pair of apical scutellar and one or two (rarely more) pairs of subapical scutellar bristles present. Upper half of pleuron usually glabrous; anepisternum occasionally with hairs. Legs usually short and slender, without bristles; mid or hind tibia sometimes with curved apical or subapical spur; hind tibia commonly posterodorsally with elongate oval slightly depressed tibial organ. Wing rarely absent or reduced, usually hyaline, rarely with any color pattern; venation remarkably consistent throughout family; C continuing at most to M1+2, with subcostal break; Sc usually very faint, present as a trace close to R1, evanescent distally; R4+5 and M1+2 usually long, ending respectively before and behind apex of wing; cells bm and dm wholly confluent, appearing as one long cell; CuA1 commonly with a distinct flexure in its long penultimate sector, opposite or before middle of cell bm + dm; crossveins r-m and dm-cu usually present, although crossvein dm-cu (posterior crossvein) rarely absent; A1 and cell cup always absent; anal area of wing usually well-developed and broadly rounded, seldom narrowed. Abdomen broad, tapering to apex, with segments preceding terminalia usually approximately equal in length; spiracles of tergites l-5 situated in membrane adjacent to lateral edges of tergites. Male terminalia showing extreme variation in position of spiracles, symmetry, and development and fusion of parts; epandrium (tergite 9) well-developed, with movable surstyli; cerci usually small, separate, or fused at bases, or completely fused; aedeagus greatly reduced. Female terminalia simple; cerci usually evident as pair of long-haired pendant lobes that are rarely fused to form a compressed and knifelike or spike-like ovipositor; two sclerotized spermathecae present, rudimentary, attached to long and very fine ducts.

<==Chloropidae [Oscinidae, Siphonellopsidae]
    |--Apotropina W10 [incl. Leasiopleura S87; Siphonellopsinae W10]
    |--Chloropinae W10
    |    |--Neodiplotoxa W10
    |    |--Homaluroides W10
    |    |--Steleocerellus flavifrons W10
    |    |--Trigonomma fossulatum W10
    |    |--Parectecephala eucera W10
    |    |--Elliponeura debilis W10, S87
    |    |--Pseudopachychaeta approximatonervis W10, S87
    |    |--Cetema subvittatum S87
    |    |--Epichlorops exilis S87
    |    |--Lasiosina S87
    |    |--Anthracophaga declinata S87
    |    |--Ectecephala W10
    |    |    |--E. albistylum W10
    |    |    `--E. capillata W10
    |    |--Oscinis K01
    |    |    |--O. frit G20
    |    |    |--O. maura K01
    |    |    `--O. vindicata K01
    |    |--Diplotoxa W10
    |    |    |--D. inconstans K01
    |    |    |--D. neozealandica M83
    |    |    `--D. versicolor S87
    |    |--Meromyza W10
    |    |    |--M. americana W10
    |    |    |--M. opacula W10
    |    |    `--M. saltatrix K01
    |    |--Thaumatomyia Zenker 1833 W10, Ra96 [incl. Chloropisca Loew 1866 Ra96]
    |    |    |--T. elongatula (Becker 1910) [=Chloropisca elongatula] Ra96
    |    |    |--T. glabra [=Chloropisca glabra] Ra96
    |    |    |--T. notata WT11
    |    |    |--‘Chloropisca’ ornata K01
    |    |    |--T. parviceps S87
    |    |    `--T. pulla S87
    |    `--Chlorops W10
    |         |--C. certimus W10
    |         |--C. didyma K01
    |         |--C. humilis K01
    |         |--C. pumilionis S87
    |         |--C. rubicundus S87
    |         |--C. serena K01
    |         |--C. stigmaticalis S87
    |         `--C. taeniopus RD77
    `--Oscinellinae [Hippelatinae, Rhodesiellinae] W10
         |--Goniaspis W10
         |--Liohippelates bishoppi W10
         |--Apallates coxendix W10
         |--Acanthopeltastes W10
         |--Siphunculina striolata W10
         |--Chaetochlorops inquilinus W10
         |--Fiebrigella W10
         |--Biorbitella W10
         |--Medeventor nubosus W10
         |--Metasiphonella magnifica W10
         |--Stenoscinis longipes W10
         |--Psilacrum arpidia W10, S87
         |--Opetiophora straminea W10
         |--Enderleiniella W10
         |--Agrophaspidium W10
         |--Eribolus nana W10, S87
         |--Conioscinella badia W10, M83
         |--Pseudogaurax signatus W10
         |--Onychaspidium W10
         |--Loxobathmis obliquum W10
         |--Oscinicita W10
         |--Malloewia nigripalpis W10, S87
         |--Coryphisoptron W10
         |--Lipara lucens W10, S87
         |--Pseudeurina W10
         |--Discogastrella W10
         |--Ceratobarys eulophus S87
         |--Calamoncosis minima S87
         |--Melanochaeta eunota S87
         |--Speccafrons mallochi S87
         |--Lioscinella flavoapicalis S87, CM70
         |--Hapleginella conicola S87
         |--Neoscinella gigas S87
         |--Sacatonia graminivora S87
         |--Dasyopa latifrons S87
         |--Rhodesiella [incl. Meroscinis] W10
         |    `--R. brimleyi W10
         |--Oscinisoma S87
         |    |--O. alienum S87
         |    `--O. frit S94
         |--Eugaurax W10
         |    |--E. floridensis S87
         |    `--E. setigena W10
         |--Olcella W10
         |    |--O. cinerea W10
         |    `--O. punctifrons S87
         |--Tricimba W10
         |    |--T. melancholica [=Oscinella melancholica] S87
         |    `--T. trisulcata W10
         |--Incertella W10
         |    |--I. albipalpis WT11
         |    `--I. incerta S87
         |--Rhopalopterum W10
         |    |--*R. limitatum W10
         |    `--R. carbonarium S87
         |--Elachiptera W10
         |    |--E. costata W10
         |    `--E. eulophus W10
         |--Monochaetoscinella W10
         |    |--M. anonyma W10
         |    `--M. nigricornis W10
         |--Siphonella S87
         |    |--S. laevigata K01
         |    `--S. oscinina S87
         |--Dicraeus S87
         |    |--D. incongruus S87
         |    `--D. ingratus S87
         |--Hippelates [incl. Olcanabates] W10
         |    |--H. insignificans (Malloch 1931) [=Cadrema insignificans] MM04
         |    |--H. plebejus W10
         |    `--H. pusio BM76
         |--Oscinella W10
         |    |--O. blanda W10
         |    |--O. frit S87
         |    |--O. grandissima S87
         |    `--O. nigerrima K09
         |--Gaurax W10
         |    |--G. festivus W10
         |    |--G. flavoapicalis CM91
         |    |--G. luteohirtus CM91
         |    `--G. tonnoiri CM91
         |--Cadrema W10
         |    |--C. lonchopteroides P87
         |    |--C. nigricornis CM91
         |    |    |--C. n. nigricornis CM91
         |    |    `--C. n. flavus CM91
         |    `--C. pallida W10
         |--Notaulacella W10
         |    |--N. albitarsis S96
         |    |--N. argentigena Sabrosky 1996 S96
         |    |--N. buscki S96
         |    |--N. cabimae S96
         |    |--N. compta S96
         |    |--N. spinosa S96
         |    |--N. trivittata Sabrosky 1996 S96
         |    `--N. vittata S96
         `--Aphanotrigonum S87
              |--A. cinctellum K09
              `--A. scabrum S87

Chloropidae incertae sedis:
  Batrachomyia S87
  Botanobia Re96
    |--B. luteohirta CM70
    `--B. tonnoiri Re96
  Oscinomorpha albisetosa K09
  Ensiferella MC13
  Protoscinella electrica S87
  Ephydroscinis raymenti Curran 1930 [incl. Neoborborus speculabundus Rayment 1931] R35
  Lasiopleura CM70
  Nomba O98
  Chloropsina O98
  Eutropha O98
  Pemphigonotus O98
  Scoliophthalmus O98
  Anatrichus O98
  Meijerella O98
  Thressa O98
  Platycephala RD77
  ‘Agromyza’ aberrans P92

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BM76] Bohart, R. M., & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[CM70] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1970. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 656–740. Melbourne University Press.

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[K01] Kertész, K. 1901. Legyek [Dipteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 179–201. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[K09] Köhler, G. 2009. Heuschrecken (Saltatoria) und Ohrwürmner (Dermaptera) im Immissionsgebiet des Düngemittelwerkes Steudnitz/Thüringen—eine Langzeitstudie (1978–2001). Mauritiana 20 (3): 601–646.

[MC13] Majer, J. D., S. K. Callan, K. Edwards, N. R. Gunawardene & C. K. Taylor. 2013. Baseline survey of the terrestrial invertebrate fauna of Barrow Island. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 83: 13–112.

[M83] Martin, N. A. 1983. Miscellaneous observations on a pasture fauna: an annotated species list. DSIR Entomology Division Report 3: 1–98.

[MM04] Mercer, C. F., & K. K. Moore. 2004. Adults of the native face fly (Hippelates insignificans) (Diptera: Chloropidae) accumulate in areas of elevated carbon dioxide. New Zealand Entomologist 27: 57–60.

[O98] Oosterbroek, P. 1998. The Families of Diptera of the Malay Archipelago. Brill: Leiden.

[P87] Peterson, B. V. 1987. Lonchopteridae. In: McAlpine, J. F. (ed.) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 2 pp. 675–680. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[P92] Poinar, G. O., Jr. 1992. Life in Amber. Stanford University Press: Stanford.

[Ra96] Raspi, A. 1996. Thaumatomyia elongatula (Becker) (Chloropidae) and Leucopis annulipes Zetterstedt (Chamaemyiidae): two Diptera preying on Phloeomyzus passerinii (Signoret) (Homoptera: Phloeomyzidae) in Italy. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 98 (3): 509–516.

[R35] Rayment, T. 1935. A Cluster of Bees: Sixty essays on the life-histories of Australian bees, with specific descriptions of over 100 new species. Endeavour Press: Sydney.

[Re96] Rentz, D. 1996. Grasshopper Country: The abundant orthopteroid insects of Australia. University of New South Wales Press: Sydney.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms' General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[S87] Sabrosky, C. W. 1987. Chloropidae. In: McAlpine, J. F. (ed.) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1049–1067. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[S96] Sabrosky, C. W. 1996. Two additional species of Notaulacella Enderlein (Diptera: Chloropidae) from Panama. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 98 (3): 471–472.

[S94] Southcott, R. V. 1994. Revision of the larvae of the Microtrombidiinae (Acarina, Microtrombidiidae), with notes on life histories. Zoologica 48 (2): 1–155.

[W10] Wheeler, T. A. 2010. Chloropidae (frit flies, grass flies, eye gnats). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1137–1153. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690–5695.

Last updated: 30 June 2021.

No comments:

Post a Comment

Markup Key:
- <b>bold</b> = bold
- <i>italic</i> = italic
- <a href="">FoS</a> = FoS