Golden-brown fern moth Musotima nitidalis, copyright Tim Norriss.

Belongs within: Obtectomera.
Contains: Scopariinae, Pyraustinae, Schoenobiinae, Crambinae, Botys, Galleriinae, Pyralinae, Nymphulinae, Epipaschiinae, Anerastiini.

The Pyraloidea, snout moths, are a diverse group of moths bearing tympanic organs at the anterior of the abdomen. Members of this group may be divided into families based on the structure of these organs which are open in the Crambidae but almost closed in the Pyralidae. The tympani are reduced and not externally visible in the Lathrotelidae. Larvae are mostly herbivorous but some are predatory on other insects; some are even aquatic, living among submerged plants. Several species are economically important such as the meal moth Pyralis farinalis and the wax moth Galleria mellonella. Subgroups of the Pyraloidea include the Epipaschiinae which bear both ocelli and chaetosemata, and have raised tufts of scales on the fore wing (Nielsen & Common 1991). The Phycitinae are a particularly diverse subfamily of pyraloids but the majority of their larvae are leafrollers. The genus Musotima, characterised by an incision in the termen of the hind wing, has larvae that feed on ferns (Nielsen & Common 1991). The Spilomelinae are characterised by reduced or vestigial maxillary palpi and a ventrally projecting fornix tympani.

Characters (from Nielsen & Common 1991, for Pyralidae): Small to large; head smooth scaled, sometimes with anterior tuft; ocelli and chaetosemata present or absent; antennae filiform and ciliated, rarely uni- or bipectinate; proboscis densely scaled near base, sometimes reduced or vestigial; maxillary palps scaled, usually four-segmented, sometimes two- or three-segmented, rarely vestigial; labial palps porrect, beak-like, or ascending, especially in male, rarely reduced; epiphysis present, spurs 0-2-4, rarely 0-2-2; fore wing without chord and M stem in cell, with R3 and R4 stalked or coincident, M2 approximated to M3 at base. CuP rarely present, 1A+2A usually with large fork; hind wing of female with one to three frenular bristles, Sc+R1 approximated to, or shortly fused with, Rs beyond discal cell, M2 approximated to M3 at base, CuA sometimes with basal pecten, CuP rarely absent, anal area large, with two anal veins; tympanal organs present at base of abdomen, coremata often present. Eggs of flat type, usually oval. Larva usually without secondary setae, prothorax with two L setae, crochets usually bi- or triordinal, in a circle or mesal penellipse, rarely uni- or biordinal in two transverse bands; in Nymphulinae larvae adapted for aquatic life, respiration by means of filamentous gills or plastron or cutaneously; in shelters of webbed leaves or shoots, or tunnels in shoots, stems, sead heads, fruits or galls, or in silken galleries among mosses, herbaceous plants, or fallen leaves, or in shelters or cases among aquatic plants in fresh water, or in stored products, or in nests of Hymenoptera, rarely predaceous on coccoids. Pupa with pilifers defined, maxillary palps present (except in Epipaschiinae), antennae long, abdomen without dorsal spines, cremaster present or absent; in Nymphulinae abdominal spiracles may be reduced in number; in silken cocoon or in larval shelter, not protruded at ecdysis.

<==Pyraloidea GE05
    |  i. s.: Elophila icciusalis KP19
    |--Lathrotelidae NC91
    |--Crambidae [Crambites] YS10
    |    |  i. s.: Neargyria argyraspis P27
    |    |         Tauroscopa gorgopis P27
    |    |         Ubida ramostriella P27
    |    |         Diptychophora ochracealis (Walk. 1838) (see below for synonymy) M86b
    |    |         Gadira acerella P27
    |    |         Calamotropha P27
    |    |           |--C. delatalis [=Crambus delatalis; incl. Chilo leptogrammellus Meyr. 1879] M86b
    |    |           `--C. parramattellus P27
    |    |         Mestolobes O94
    |    |         Udea O94
    |    |         Agriphila geniculea [=Crambus geniculeus] V09
    |    |         Argyria P27
    |    |           |--A. amoenalis P27
    |    |           `--A. plumbolinealis P27
    |    |         Orocrambus C88
    |    |           |--O. flexuosellus M83
    |    |           |--O. heliotes M83
    |    |           |--O. horistes C88
    |    |           |--O. mylites P27
    |    |           `--O. vitellus M83
    |    |         Thisanotia [=Thinasotia (l. c.)] K66
    |    |           |--T. lativittalis M86b
    |    |           `--T. torrentella M86b
    |    |--Scopariinae O94
    |    |--Pyraustinae ZK11
    |    |--Schoenobiinae KP19
    |    |--Crambinae C70
    |    `--Spilomelinae [Spilomelidae] KP19
    |         |--Lepyrodes geometralis WM66
    |         |--Cnaphalocrocis medinalis KP19
    |         |--Zebronia WM66
    |         |    |--Z. abdicalis WM66
    |         |    `--Z. perspicualis WM66
    |         `--Cirrhochrista KP19
    |              |--C. brizoalis KN03
    |              `--C. trizonalis P27
    `--Pyralidae [Botydidae, Pyralididae] GE05
         |  i. s.: Botyodes A71
         |         Filodes A71
         |         Pionea A71
         |           |--P. bifascialis Guénée 1849 E12
         |           `--P. conquistalis Guénée 1849 E12
         |         Typsanodes A71
         |         Balaenifrons ochrochroa KN03
         |         Bradypophila GE05
         |         Upiga virescens GE05
         |         Eurrhyperia GE05
         |         Munroessa GE05
         |         Anania GE05
         |         Dicymdomia julianalis GE05
         |         Metoecis GE05
         |         Chalcoela pegasalis [=Dicymolomia pegasalis] B37
         |         Bradypodicola GE05
         |         Cryptoses GE05
         |         Homochroa Hübner 1825 NO08
         |         Deanolis sublimbalis MHG04
         |         Hypotia delicatilis Asselbergs 2004 F05
         |         Arimania komaroffi YS10
         |         Thaumatopsis C1990
         |         Aetholix flavibasalis ZS10
         |         Pygospila tyres ZS10
         |         Hapalia machaeralis G84, VHK02
         |         Mampava rhodoneura G84
         |         Eurrhypara V09
         |           |--E. hortulata V09
         |           `--E. urticata F92
         |         Myelois circumvoluta V09
         |         Botys P01
         |         Eurycreon sticticalis P01
         |         Phostria odontosticta MC13
         |         Mimaglossa nauplialis NC91
         |         Stemorrhages C91
         |           |--S. lustralis PP72
         |           `--S. marthesiusalis C91
         |         Pachyarches psittacalis [=Margarodes psittacalis] M86a
         |         Archernis Meyrick 1886 M86a
         |           `--*A. callixantha Meyrick 1886 M86a
         |         Semioceros M86a
         |         Nosophora ochnodes Meyrick 1886 M86a
         |         Omiodes M86a
         |         Balanotis recurvalis [=Salma recurvalis; incl. Crambus melanospilellus, Exacosmia rubiginosa] M86b
         |         Aletes Rafinesque 1815 N47
         |         Dicymolomia julianalis B37
         |         Glendotricha olgae Kuznetsov 1941 P92
         |         Amyelois transitella KP19
         |         Beebea guglielmi PP72
         |         Spilodes aeruginalis C1890
         |--Galleriinae NC91
         |--Pyralinae NC91
         |--Nymphulinae GE05
         |--Niphopyralis NC91 [Wurthiinae GE05]
         |    `--N. chionesis NC91
         |--Styphlolepis [Cymbalomiinae] NC91
         |    `--S. agenor NC91
         |--Syntonarcha [Odontiinae] NC91
         |    `--S. iriastis NC91
         |--Chrysauginae C70
         |    |--Drymiarcha exanthes C70
         |    `--Streptopalpia deera H01
         |--Hellula [Glaphyriinae] NC91
         |    |--H. hydralis NC91
         |    |--H. phidilealis H01
         |    `--H. undalis NC91
         |--Evergestinae NC91
         |    |--Evergestis extimalis F92
         |    `--Crocidolomia NC91
         |         |--C. palindialis H01
         |         `--C. pavonana NC91
         |--Musotima [Musotiminae] NC91
         |    |--M. acrias P27
         |    |--M. aduncalis L27
         |    |--M. nitidalis NC91
         |    `--M. ochropteralis G84
         |--Hydrocampinae H01
         |    |--Ambia metalophota Hmpsn. 1897 H01
         |    |--Piletocera bufalis H01
         |    `--Hydrocampa E12
         |         |--H. algiralis Guénée 1849 E12
         |         `--H. verticalis F92
         |--Epipaschiinae H03
         `--Phycitinae [Phycitidae] H03
              |  i. s.: Tylochares H03
              |         Meyrickiella homosema H03
              |         Etiella H03
              |           |--E. behrii NC91
              |           `--E. zinkenella YS10
              |         Addyme H03
              |         Indomalayia H03
              |         Vinicia macrota H03
              |         Metephestia H03
              |         Ectomyelois ceratoniae H03, CK15
              |         Ephestia H03
              |           |--E. bipunctella Hampson 1901 H01
              |           |--E. cautella Wlk. 1863 H01
              |           |--E. elutella NC91
              |           |--E. figulilella C70
              |           `--E. kuehniella NC91
              |         Homoeosoma P27
              |           |--H. formacella P27
              |           |--H. longiventrella H01
              |           `--H. vagella G84
              |         Sclerobia tritalis (Walker 1863) K66 (see below for synonymy)
              |         Crocydopora cinigerella [=Nephopteryx cinigerella; incl. N. stenopterella Meyr. 1878] M86b
              |         Delogenes limodoxa P27
              |         Epicrocis P27
              |           |--E. oppositalis [=Trachonitis oppositalis; incl. Pempelia caliginosella Meyr. 1879] M86b
              |           |--E. patulalis [incl. Pempelia rufitinctella Meyr. 1878] M86b
              |           `--E. sublignalis [=Trachonitis sublignalis; incl. Pempelia strigiferella Meyr. 1878] M86b
              |         Olycella subumbrellum C1990
              |         Nephopteryx P01
              |           |--N. argyrella P01
              |           |--N. ephestiella Hampson 1901 H01
              |           |--N. janthinella P01
              |           `--N. pirivorella F92
              |         Plodia interpunctella NC91
              |         Cactoblastis cactorum NC91
              |         Hypargyria metalliferella NC91
              |         Creobota coccophthora NC91
              |         Cadra NC91
              |           |--C. cautella NC91
              |           `--C. figulilella NC91
              |         Hypsipyla robusta C70
              |         Eurythmia hospitella H01
              |         Unadilla H01
              |           |--U. latercula Zell in Hampson 1901 H01
              |           `--U. stictella Hampson 1901 H01
              |         Ephestiodes H01
              |           |--E. granulella Hampson 1901 H01
              |           `--E. uniformella Hampson 1901 H01
              |         Encystia Hampson 1901 H01
              |           `--*E. bonhoti Hampson 1901 H01
              |         Laetilia coccidivora H01
              |         Elasmopalpus H01
              |           |--E. lignosellus GW09
              |           `--E. rubedinellus Zell 1848 H01
              |         Stylopalpia Hampson 1901 H01
              |           `--*S. luniferella Hampson 1901 H01
              |         Lipographis subossella H01
              |         Palatka NS96
              |           |--P. nymphaeella NS96
              |           `--P. powelli Neunzig & Solis 1996 NS96
              |         Chararica N96
              |           |--C. circiimperfecta Neunzig 1996 N96
              |           `--C. hystriculella N96
              |         Aptunga N96
              |           |--A. culmenicola Neunzig 1996 N96
              |           |--A. macropasa N96
              |           |--A. setadebilia Neunzig 1996 N96
              |           `--A. vega Neunzig 1996 N96
              |         Moodna N96
              |           |--M. antilleana Neunzig 1996 N96
              |           `--M. pallidostrinella N96
              |         Caudellia N96
              |           |--C. clara N96
              |           `--C. pilosa Neunzig 1996 N96
              |         Varneria N96
              |           |--V. albiornatella Neunzig 1996 N96
              |           |--V. atrifasciella N96
              |           |--V. dubia N96
              |           |--V. nannodes N96
              |           `--V. postremella N96
              |         Ozamia N96
              |           |--O. lucidalis N96
              |           `--O. plagata Neunzig 1996 N96
              |         Dioryctria N96
              |           |--D. dominguensis Neunzig 1996 N96
              |           |--D. majorella N96
              |           |--D. merkeli N96
              |           |--D. postmajorella Neunzig 1996 N96
              |           `--D. xanthaenobares G17
              |         Dasypyga N96
              |           |--D. alternosquamella N96
              |           |--D. belizensis N96
              |           `--D. independencia Neunzig 1996 N96
              |         Lascelina N96
              |           |--*L. canens N96
              |           `--L. pedernalensis Neunzig 1996 N96
              |         Zamagiria rawlinsi Neunzig 1996 N96
              |         Caristanius N96
              |           |--C. pellucidellus N96
              |           `--C. tripartitus Neunzig 1996 N96
              |         Anegcephalesis arctella N96
              |         Piesmopoda R89
              |           |--P. auropurpurella Ragonot 1889 R89
              |           |--P. columnella R89
              |           |--P. laidion R89
              |           `--P. mimella Ragonot 1889 R89
              |         Palibothra Ragonot 1889 R89
              |           `--*P. fuscogrisella Ragonot 1889 R89
              |         Salebria R89
              |           |--S. euzopherella Ragonot 1889 R89
              |           |--S. formosa R89
              |           |--S. marmorata F92
              |           |--S. moestella Ragonot 1889 R89
              |           `--S. morosalis R89
              |         Laodamia R89
              |           |--L. aenochroella R89
              |           `--L. pernigerella Ragonot 1889 R89
              |         Sigmarthria R89
              |           |--S. aspiciella Ragonot 1889 R89
              |           `--S. palpella R89
              |         Papua Ragonot 1889 R89
              |           `--*P. latilimbella Ragonot 1889 R89
              |--Cabnia [Cabniini] H03
              |--Anerastiini H03
              |--Cryptoblabes [Cryptoblabini] H03
              |    `--C. gnidiella F92
              `--Phycitini [Acrobasina, Phycitina] H03
                   |--Phycita H01
                   |    |--P. laidion H01
                   |    `--P. ptyonopoda H01
                   `--Acrobasis H03
                        |--A. consociella F92
                        |--A. pyrivorella KN03
                        `--A. tumidana F92

Diptychophora ochracealis (Walk. 1838) [=Cataclysta ochracealis; incl. Eromene dilatella Meyr. 1878, E. praematurella Meyr. 1878] M86b

Sclerobia tritalis (Walker 1863) K66 [=Hypochalcia tritalis K66, Eucarphia tritalis M86b, Hypochalchia (l. c.) tritalis K66, Sclerobia tritialis (l. c.) K66; incl. Eucarphia cnephaeella Meyr. 1879 M86b, E. vulgatella Meyrick 1878 M86b]

*Type species of generic name indicated


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[YS10] Yefremova, Z. A., & I. S. Strakhova. 2010. A review of the species of the genus Elasmus Westwood (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae) from Russia and neighboring countries. Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie 89 (3): 634–661.

[ZK11] Zahiri, R., I. J. Kitching, J. D. Lafontaine, M. Mutanen, L. Kaila, J. D. Holloway & N. Wahlberg. 2011. A new molecular phylogeny offers hope for a stable family level classification of the Noctuoidea (Lepidoptera). Zoologica Scripta 40 (2): 158–173.

[ZS10] Zborowski, P., & R. Storey. 2010. A Field Guide to Insects in Australia 3rd ed. Reed New Holland: Sydney.

Last updated: 24 April 2022.

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