Pyraloidea

Spotted borer Chilo sacchariphagus, copyright Tonton Bernardo.


Belongs within: Apoditrysia.
Contains: Botys, Galleriinae, Schoenobiinae, Pyralinae, Anerastiini, Pyraustinae, Crambus, Scopariinae.

The Pyraloidea, snout moths, are a diverse group of moths bearing tympanic organs at the anterior of the abdomen. Members of this group may be divided into families based on the structure of these organs, which are open in the Crambidae but almost closed in the Pyralidae. Larvae are mostly herbivorous, but some are predatory on other insects; some are even aquatic, living among submerged plants. Several species are economically important, such as the meal moth Pyralis farinalis and the wax moth Galleria mellonella. Subgroups of the Pyraloidea include the Crambinae which have prominent, distally dilated maxillary palps together with long and porrect labial palps, and whose larvae live in silk tubes at the base of the grasses and other herbaceous monocotyledons on which they feed (Nielsen & Common 1991). The Phycitinae are a particularly diverse subfamily of pyraloids but the majority of their larvae are leafrollers.

Characters (from Nielsen & Common 1991, for Pyralidae): Small to large; head smooth scaled, sometimes with anterior tuft; ocelli and chaetosemata present or absent; antennae filiform and ciliated, rarely uni- or bipectinate; proboscis densely scaled near base, sometimes reduced or vestigial; maxillary palps scaled, usually four-segmented, sometimes two- or three-segmented, rarely vestigial; labial palps porrect, beak-like, or ascending, especially in male, rarely reduced; epiphysis present, spurs 0-2-4, rarely 0-2-2; fore wing without chord and M stem in cell, with R3 and R4 stalked or coincident, M2 approximated to M3 at base. CuP rarely present, 1A+2A usually with large fork; hind wing of female with one to three frenular bristles, Sc+R1 approximated to, or shortly fused with, Rs beyond discal cell, M2 approximated to M3 at base, CuA sometimes with basal pecten, CuP rarely absent, anal area large, with two anal veins; tympanal organs present at base of abdomen, coremata often present. Eggs of flat type, usually oval. Larva usually without secondary setae, prothorax with two L setae, crochets usually bi- or triordinal, in a circle or mesal penellipse, rarely uni- or biordinal in two transverse bands; in Nymphulinae larvae adapted for aquatic life, respiration by means of filamentous gills or plastron or cutaneously; in shelters of webbed leaves or shoots, or tunnels in shoots, stems, sead heads, fruits or galls, or in silken galleries among mosses, herbaceous plants, or fallen leaves, or in shelters or cases among aquatic plants in fresh water, or in stored products, or in nests of Hymenoptera, rarely predaceous on coccoids. Pupa with pilifers defined, maxillary palps present (except in Epipaschiinae), antennae long, abdomen without dorsal spines, cremaster present or absent; in Nymphulinae abdominal spiracles may be reduced in number; in silken cocoon or in larval shelter, not protruded at ecdysis.

<==Pyraloidea GE05
    |--Pyralidae [Botydidae, Pyralididae] GE05
    |    |  i. s.: Botyodes A71
    |    |         Filodes A71
    |    |         Pagyda A71
    |    |         Pionea A71
    |    |           |--P. bifascialis Guénée 1849 E12
    |    |           `--P. conquistalis Guénée 1849 E12
    |    |         Typsanodes A71
    |    |         Balaenifrons ochrochroa KN03
    |    |         Laetilia coccidivora GE05
    |    |         Bradypophila GE05
    |    |         Upiga virescens GE05
    |    |         Eurrhyperia GE05
    |    |         Syllepte GE05
    |    |         Munroessa GE05
    |    |         Anania GE05
    |    |         Dicymdomia julianalis GE05
    |    |         Metoecis GE05
    |    |         Chalcoela GE05
    |    |         Bradypodicola GE05
    |    |         Cryptoses GE05
    |    |         Glyphodes ZS10
    |    |           |--G. actorionalis [incl. Lypotigris jovialis] M86a
    |    |           |--G. bivitralis WM66
    |    |           |--G. canthusalis ZS10
    |    |           `--G. zelincalis WM66
    |    |         Homochroa Hübner 1825 NO08
    |    |         Deanolis sublimbalis MHG04
    |    |         Pilocrocis cruciferalis B88
    |    |         Hypotia delicatilis Asselbergs 2004 F05
    |    |         Arimania komaroffi YS10
    |    |         Thaumatopsis C90
    |    |         Aetholix flavibasalis ZS10
    |    |         Pygospila tyres ZS10
    |    |         Hapalia machaeralis G84, VHK02
    |    |         Mampava rhodoneura G84
    |    |         Eurrhypara hortulata V09
    |    |         Myelois circumvoluta V09
    |    |         Botys P01
    |    |         Eurycreon sticticalis P01
    |    |         Elasmopalpus lignosellus GW09
    |    |         Phostria odontosticta MC13
    |    |         Mimaglossa nauplialis NC91
    |    |         Stemorrhages marthesiusalis C91
    |    |         Pachyarches psittacalis [=Margarodes psittacalis] M86a
    |    |         Archernis Meyrick 1886 M86a
    |    |           `--*A. callixantha Meyrick 1886 M86a
    |    |         Semioceros M86a
    |    |         Nosophora ochnodes Meyrick 1886 M86a
    |    |         Omiodes M86a
    |    |         Balanotis recurvalis [=Salma recurvalis; incl. Crambus melanospilellus, Exacosmia rubiginosa] M86b
    |    |         Aletes Rafinesque 1815 N47
    |    |--Niphopyralis [Wurthiinae] NC91
    |    |    `--N. chionesis NC91
    |    |--Styphlolepis [Cymbalomiinae] NC91
    |    |    `--S. agenor G84
    |    |--Syntonarcha [Odontiinae] NC91
    |    |    `--S. iriastis NC91
    |    |--Drymiarcha [Chrysauginae] C70
    |    |    `--D. exanthes C70
    |    |--Evergestinae NC91
    |    |    |--Evergestis GE05
    |    |    `--Crocidolomia pavonana NC91
    |    |--Hellula [Glaphyriinae] NC91
    |    |    |--H. hydralis MC13
    |    |    `--H. undalis NC91
    |    |--Musotima [Musotiminae] NC91
    |    |    |--M. acrias P27
    |    |    |--M. aduncalis L27
    |    |    |--M. nitidalis L27
    |    |    `--M. ochropteralis G84
    |    |--Epipaschiinae H03
    |    |    |--Macalla concisalis NC91, P27
    |    |    |--Catamola thyrisalis NC91
    |    |    |--Stericta carbonalis NC91
    |    |    |--Titanoceros thermoptera NC91
    |    |    `--Epipaschia nauplialis C70
    |    |--Nymphulinae [Acentropinae] GE05
    |    |    |--Blechroglossa nitens NC91
    |    |    |--Parapoynx tullialis NC91
    |    |    `--Nymphula PC66
    |    |         |--N. dicentra P27
    |    |         `--N. nitens PC66
    |    |--Galleriinae P27
    |    |--Schoenobinae P27
    |    |--Pyralinae NC91
    |    |--Phycitinae [Phycitidae] H03
    |    |    |  i. s.: Tylochares H03
    |    |    |         Meyrickiella homosema H03
    |    |    |         Etiella H03
    |    |    |           |--E. behrii G84
    |    |    |           `--E. zinkenella YS10
    |    |    |         Addyme H03
    |    |    |         Indomalayia H03
    |    |    |         Vinicia macrota H03
    |    |    |         Metephestia H03
    |    |    |         Ectomyelois H03
    |    |    |         Ephestia H03
    |    |    |           |--E. cautella GJR97
    |    |    |           |--E. elutella NC91
    |    |    |           |--E. figulilella C70
    |    |    |           `--E. kuehniella G84
    |    |    |         Homoeosoma P27
    |    |    |           |--H. formacella P27
    |    |    |           `--H. vagella G84
    |    |    |         Sclerobia tritalis P27
    |    |    |         Crocydopora cinigerella [=Nephopteryx cinigerella; incl. N. stenopterella Meyr. 1878] M86b
    |    |    |         Delogenes limodoxa P27
    |    |    |         Papua rhabdota P27
    |    |    |         Epicrocis P27
    |    |    |           |--E. oppositalis [=Trachonitis oppositalis; incl. Pempelia caliginosella Meyr. 1879] M86b
    |    |    |           |--E. patulalis [incl. Pempelia rufitinctella Meyr. 1878] M86b
    |    |    |           `--E. sublignalis [=Trachonitis sublignalis; incl. Pempelia strigiferella Meyr. 1878] M86b
    |    |    |         Olycella subumbrellum C90
    |    |    |         Nephopteryx P01
    |    |    |           |--N. argyrella P01
    |    |    |           `--N. janthinella P01
    |    |    |         Plodia interpunctella MC13
    |    |    |         Cactoblastis cactorum NC91
    |    |    |         Hypargyria metalliferella NC91
    |    |    |         Creobota coccophthora NC91
    |    |    |         Cadra NC91
    |    |    |           |--C. cautella NC91
    |    |    |           `--C. figulilella NC91
    |    |    |         Eucarphia tritalis (see below for synonymy) M86b
    |    |    |         Hypsipyla robusta C70
    |    |    |--Cryptoblabes [Cryptoblabini] H03
    |    |    |--Cabnia [Cabniini] H03
    |    |    |--Anerastiini H03
    |    |    `--Phycitini [Acrobasina, Phycitina] H03
    |    |         |--Phycita H03
    |    |         `--Acrobasis pyrivorella H03, KN03
    |    `--Pyraustinae P27
    |--Lathrotelidae NC91
    `--Crambidae [Crambites] O94
         |  i. s.: Talis bivitella P27
         |         Neargyria argyraspis P27
         |         Tauroscopa gorgopis P27
         |         Ubida ramostriella P27
         |         Diptychophora ochracealis (Walk. 1838) (see below for synonymy) M86b
         |         Gadira acerella P27
         |         Calamotropha P27
         |           |--C. delatalis [=Crambus delatalis; incl. Chilo leptogrammellus Meyr. 1879] M86b
         |           `--C. parramattellus P27
         |         Mestolobes O94
         |         Udea O94
         |         Cnaphalocrocis medinalis YS10
         |         Agriphila geniculea [=Crambus geniculeus] V09
         |         Argyria P27
         |           |--A. amoenalis P27
         |           `--A. plumbolinealis P27
         |         Orocrambus C88
         |           |--O. flexuosellus M83
         |           |--O. heliotes M83
         |           |--O. horistes C88
         |           |--O. mylites P27
         |           `--O. vitellus M83
         |         Thinasotia M86b
         |           |--T. lativittalis M86b
         |           `--T. torrentella M86b
         |--Crambinae C70
         |    |--Crambus P01
         |    |--Hednota C70
         |    |    |--H. pedionoma NC91
         |    |    `--H. xylophaea Meyrick 1887 M87
         |    `--Chilo C70
         |         |--C. auricilius MHG04
         |         |--C. infuscatellus VHK02
         |         |--C. lativittalis P27
         |         |--C. partellus MHG04
         |         |--C. sacchariphagus MHG04
         |         |--C. suppressalis S91
         |         `--C. terrenellus MHG04
         `--Scopariinae O94

Diptychophora ochracealis (Walk. 1838) [=Cataclysta ochracealis; incl. Eromene dilatella Meyr. 1878, E. praematurella Meyr. 1878] M86b

Eucarphia tritalis [=Hypochalcia tritalis; incl. E. cnephaeella Meyr. 1879, Crambus vetustellus, E. vulgatella Meyr. 1878] M86b

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

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[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[C70] Common, I. F. B. 1970. Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 765–866. Melbourne University Press.

[C88] Craw, R. 1988. Continuing the synthesis between panbiogeography, phylogenetic systematics and geology as illustrated by empirical studies on the biogeography of New Zealand and the Chatham Islands. Systematic Zoology 37 (3): 291–310.

[C90] Crawford, C. S. 1990. Scorpiones, Solifugae, and associated desert taxa. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 421–475. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

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