Pachyneuroidea

Female Dilophus stigmaterus, copyright Bo Z.


Belongs within: Bibionomorpha.

The Pachyneuroidea are a group of flies in which the adult mandibles are absent, the antennal pedicel is slightly enlarged, and the base of wing vein M is oblique, and in which the mandibles of the larvae move horizontally (Blagoderov et al. 2002).

Pachyneuroidea
    |  i. s.: Alinkidae BLM02
    |--+--Heterorhyphidae GE05
    |  |--Procramptonomyiidae GE05
    |  |--Paraxymiidae GE05
    |  `--+--Ellia BLM02 [Elliidae GE05]
    |     |    `--E. colorissima BLM02
    |     `--Pachyneuridae GE05
    |          |--Pachyneura fasciata W81
    |          `--Cramptonomyiinae [Cramptonomyiidae] W81
    |               |--Cramptonomyia spenceri W81
    |               |--Pergratospes holoptica W81
    |               `--Haruka elegans W81
    `--+--Protopleciidae GE05
       `--Bibionidae [Bibionoidea] BLM02
            |--Hesperinus [Hesperinidae, Hesperininae] H81
            |    |--H. brevifrons H81
            |    `--H. rohdendorfi H81
            |--Penthetria [Penthetriinae] F09
            |    |--P. heteroptera H81
            |    `--P. holosericea H81
            |--Pleciinae [Pleciidae] H81
            |    |--Clothonopsis miocenica Hong & Wang 1993 R00
            |    `--Plecia H81
            |         |--P. americana H81
            |         |--P. dimidiata CM91
            |         |--P. myersi H81
            |         |--P. nearctica H81
            |         |--P. ornaticornis ZS10
            |         |--P. plagiata BW09
            |         `--P. pristina F09
            `--Bibioninae H81
                 |--Bibiodes aestivus H81
                 |--Bibionellus F09
                 |--Enicoscolus collessi F09, CM91
                 |--Bibio H81
                 |    |--B. hortulana (Linnaeus 1758) L02, L58 [=Tipula hortulana L02, Hirtea hortulana L02]
                 |    |--B. imitator YHT05
                 |    |--B. longipes H81
                 |    |--B. marci A71
                 |    |--B. sereri H81
                 |    `--B. xanthopus H81
                 `--Dilophus H81
                      |--D. albipennis K01
                      |--D. borealis F09
                      |--D. espeletiae F09
                      |--D. femoralis K01
                      |--D. matilei F09
                      |--D. sayi F09
                      `--D. stigmaterus H81

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[BLM02] Blagoderov, V. A., E. D. Lukashevich & M. B. Mostovski. 2002. Order Diptera Linné, 1758. The true flies (=Muscida Laicharting, 1781). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 227–240. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[BW09] Buck, M., N. E. Woodley, A. Borkent, D. M. Wood, T. Pape, J. R. Vockeroth, V. Michelsen & S. A. Marshall. 2009. Key to Diptera families—adults. In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 95–156. Ottawa, NRC Research Press.

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[F09] Fitzgerald, S. J. 2009. Bibionidae (March flies, love-bugs). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 245–251. Ottawa, NRC Research Press.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H81] Hardy, D. E. 1981. Bibionidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 217–222. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[K01] Kertész, K. 1901. Legyek [Dipteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 179–201. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[R00] Ross, E. S. 2000. Embia: Contributions to the biosystematics of the insect order Embiidina. Occasional Papers of the California Academy of Sciences 149: 1–53, 1–36.

[W81] Wood, D. M. 1981. Pachyneuridae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 213–216. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[YHT05] Yates, C. J., S. D. Hopper & R. H. Taplin. 2005. Native insect flower visitor diversity and feral honeybees on jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata) in Kings Park, an urban bushland remnant. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 88 (4): 147–153.

[ZS10] Zborowski, P., & R. Storey. 2010. A Field Guide to Insects in Australia 3rd ed. Reed New Holland: Sydney.

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