Female Dilophus stigmaterus, copyright Bo Z.

Belongs within: Bibionomorpha.

The Pachyneuroidea are a group of flies in which the adult mandibles are absent, the antennal pedicel is slightly enlarged, and the base of wing vein M is oblique. Larvae have mandibles which move horizontally (Blagoderov et al. 2002). Living members of this clade are divided between the Pachyneuridae, long-legged flies with larvae found boring in rotten wood (Wood 1981), and Bibionidae, rather hairy flies whose larvae are usually found in decaying organic matter (Hardy 1981). The Pachyneuridae include just four species found in the Holarctic region, three of which are united as the subfamily Cramptonomyiinae owing to the absence in larvae of a posterior thoracic spiracle (Wood 1981).

    |  i. s.: Alinkidae BLM02
    |--+--Heterorhyphidae GE05
    |  |--Paraxymiidae GE05
    |  |--Procramptonomyia RJ93 [Procramptonomyiidae GE05]
    |  |    `--P. sibirica Kovalev in Kalugina & Kovalev 1985 RJ93
    |  `--+--Ellia BLM02 [Elliidae GE05]
    |     |    `--E. colorissima BLM02
    |     `--Pachyneuridae GE05
    |          |--Pachyneura fasciata W81
    |          `--Cramptonomyiinae [Cramptonomyiidae] W81
    |               |--Cramptonomyia spenceri W81
    |               |--Pergratospes holoptica W81
    |               `--Haruka elegans W81
    `--+--Archipleciomima RJ93 [Protopleciidae GE05]
       |    `--A. obtusipennis RJ93
       `--Bibionidae [Bibionoidea, Penthetriidae] BLM02
            |--Penthetria [Penthetriinae] F09
            |    |--P. heteroptera F09
            |    `--P. holosericea H81 [=Bibio (Penthetria) holosericus G20]
            |--Pleciinae [Pleciidae] F09
            |    |--Clothonopsis miocenica Hong & Wang 1987 R00, EG06
            |    |--Fushunoplecia Hong 2002 H02
            |    |    `--*F. eocenica Hong 2002 H02
            |    `--Plecia F09
            |         |--P. americana F09
            |         |--P. dimidiata CM91
            |         |--P. dorsalis Macq. 1838 R01
            |         |--P. myersi H81
            |         |--P. nearctica F09
            |         |--P. ornaticornis ZS10
            |         |--P. plagiata F09
            |         `--P. pristina F09
            |--Hesperininae [Hesperinidae] F09
            |    |--Longicornia Hong 2002 H02
            |    |    `--*L. tenuis Hong 2002 H02
            |    `--Heperinus Walker 1848 H02
            |         |--*H. renifrons Walker 1848 H02
            |         |--H. brevifrons H81
            |         `--H. rohdendorfi H81
            `--Bibioninae F09
                 |--Bibiodes aestivus F09
                 |--Bibionellus F09
                 |--Enicoscolus collessi F09, CM91
                 |--Dilophus F09
                 |    |--D. albipennis K01
                 |    |--D. borealis F09
                 |    |--D. espeletiae F09
                 |    |--D. femoralis K01
                 |    |--D. matilei F09
                 |    |--D. sayi F09
                 |    |--D. stigmaterus F09
                 |    `--D. vulgaris [=Bibio (Dilophus) vulgaris] G20
                 `--Bibio F09
                      |--B. albipennis F96
                      |--B. autumnalis Fitzgerald 1996 F96
                      |--B. curtipes James 1936 [incl. B. kansensis James 1936, B. melanopilosus Hardy 1936] F96
                      |--B. flukei Hardy 1937 F96
                      |--B. fumipennis Walker 1848 (see below for synonymy) F96
                      |--B. hortulanus (Linnaeus 1758) G20, L58 [=Tipula hortulana L02, Hirtea hortulana L02]
                      |--B. imitator CM91
                      |--B. johannis R13
                      |--B. longipes F09
                      |--B. marci A71
                      |--B. sereri H81
                      |--B. slossonae F96
                      `--B. xanthopus [incl. B. humeralis] F96

Bibio fumipennis Walker 1848 [incl. B. inaequalis Loew 1864, B. macateei James 1936, B. simplicis Curran 1923] F96

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[BLM02] Blagoderov, V. A., E. D. Lukashevich & M. B. Mostovski. 2002. Order Diptera Linné, 1758. The true flies (=Muscida Laicharting, 1781). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 227–240. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[EG06] Engel, M. S., & D. A. Grimaldi. 2006. The earliest webspinners (Insecta, Embiodea). American Museum Novitates 3514: 1–15.

[F96] Fitzgerald, S. J. 1996. Notes on Nearctic Bibio (Diptera: Bibionidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 98 (1): 50–54.

[F09] Fitzgerald, S. J. 2009. Bibionidae (March flies, love-bugs). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 245–251. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H81] Hardy, D. E. 1981. Bibionidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 217–222. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[H02] Hong Y. 2002. Amber Insect of China. Beijing Scientific and Technological Publishing House.

[K01] Kertész, K. 1901. Legyek [Dipteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 179–201. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[R13] Reuter, O. M. 1913. Lebensgewohnheiten und Instinkte der Insekten bis zum Erwachen der sozialen Instinkte. R. Friedländer & Sohn: Berlin.

[R01] Ricardo, G. 1901. Notes on Diptera from South Africa (concluded). Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 89–110.

[RJ93] Ross, A. J., & E. A. Jarzembowski. 1993. Arthropoda (Hexapoda; Insecta). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 363–426. Chapman & Hall: London.

[R00] Ross, E. S. 2000. Embia: Contributions to the biosystematics of the insect order Embiidina. Occasional Papers of the California Academy of Sciences 149: 1–53, 1–36.

[W81] Wood, D. M. 1981. Pachyneuridae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 213–216. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[ZS10] Zborowski, P., & R. Storey. 2010. A Field Guide to Insects in Australia 3rd ed. Reed New Holland: Sydney.

Last updated: 4 February 2021.

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