Tephritoidea

Signal fly Rivellia sp., copyright Stephen Cresswell.


Belongs within: Schizophora.
Contains: Lonchaeidae, Richardiidae, Piophilidae, Ulidiidae, Tephritidae, Pyrgotidae.

The Tephritoidea are a group of acalyptrate flies united by the reduction or loss of sternite 6 in the male, the presence in females of anterior rod-like apodemes on sternites 4 to 7, and division of the female tergosternite 7 into two sections, with the anterior section forming a tubular oviscape and the posterior section comprising two pairs of longitudinal taeniae. Many tephritoids have strikingly patterned wings that are held outwards in display. Members include the Platystomatidae, signal flies, a varied group with often metallic-coloured bodies characterised by the absence of frontal setae or of any extension of the posterior apex of wing cell cup, and the presence of setulae along the entire length of vein R1 (Whittington 2010). The Ctenostylidae are nocturnal, long-legged flies with a large head, nearly the same size as the thorax (Korneyev 2010). The Tachiniscidae are tropical parasitoids (the only species whose larva has been identified has been raised from immature saturniid moths) that have often been treated as a subfamily of Tephritidae.

<==Tephritoidea [Otitoidea] WT11
    |--+--Lonchaeidae WT11
    |  `--Richardiidae WT11
    `--+--Piophilidae WT11
       `--+--Ulidiidae WT11
          `--+--+--+--Tephritidae WT11
             |  |  `--+--Pyrgotidae WT11
             |  |     `--Tachiniscidae [Tachiniscinae] WT11
             |  |          |--Tachinisca cyaneiventris N10
             |  |          |--Neortalotrypeta bicolor N10
             |  |          |--Agnitrena igniceps N10
             |  |          |--Ischyropteron nigricaudatum N10
             |  |          `--Protortalotrypeta N10
             |  `--Ctenostylidae [Ctenostylinae, Lochmostyliinae] WT11
             |       |--Nepaliseta ashleyi K10, WT11
             |       |--Furciseta plaumanni K10
             |       |--*Ctenostylum rufum K10
             |       |--Sinolochmostylia K10
             |       |--Tauroscypson K10
             |       |    |--T. andina K10
             |       |    `--T. guiana K10
             |       |--Lochmostylia K10
             |       |    |--*L. borgmeieri K10
             |       |    `--L. lopesi K10
             |       `--Ramuliseta K10
             |            |--R. ashleyi K10
             |            |--R. lindneri O98
             |            `--R. palpifera O98
             `--Platystomatidae [Achiasidae] WT11
                  |  i. s.: Giraffomyia GE05
                  |         Lamprogaster CM91
                  |           |--L. imperialis ZS10
                  |           |--L. semicyanea [=Dryomyza semicyanea] O98
                  |           `--L. violacea C91
                  |         Achias W10
                  |           |--A. australis CM91
                  |           |--A. kimi O98
                  |           |--A. minax O98
                  |           |--A. oculata [=Diopsis (Achias) oculata] G20
                  |           `--A. rothschildi GE05
                  |         Plagiostenopterina W10
                  |         Euprosopia tenuicornis CM91
                  |         Elassogaster linearis CM91
                  |         Duomyia CM91
                  |         Lenophila dentipes CM74
                  |         Asyntona O98
                  |         Cleitamia astrolabei O98
                  |         Zygaenula O98
                  |         Pterogenia O98
                  |         Naupoda O98
                  |         Atopognathus complens O98
                  |         Trigonosoma decorum O98
                  |--Phasiamya O98 [Trapherinae W10]
                  |--Plastotephritinae W10
                  |--Scholastinae W10
                  |    |--Neohemigaster O98
                  |    |--Mesoctenia O98
                  |    `--Scholastes O98
                  |         |--S. foordi RJ93
                  |         `--S. lonchifer O98
                  `--Platystomatinae [Angitulinae] W10
                       |--Himeroessa pretiosa W10, S87
                       |--Angitula nigra O98
                       |--Pogonortalis doclea O98, S87
                       |--Platystoma Meigen 1803 BR05
                       |    |--P. lugubre [incl. P. umbrarum] RD77
                       |    `--P. seminationis [=Micropeza (Platystoma) seminationis] G20
                       |--Amphicnephes W10
                       |    |--A. pullus S87
                       |    `--A. stellatus W10
                       |--Senopterina W10 [=Stenopterina S87; incl. Bricinnia W10, Bricinniella W10]
                       |    |--S. brevipes W10
                       |    |--S. caerulescens W10
                       |    `--S. mexicana W10
                       `--Rivellia W10
                            |--R. basilaris BM76
                            |--R. bosci R13
                            |--R. flavimana W10
                            |--R. inaequata W10
                            |--R. occulta W10
                            |--R. syngenesiae WT11
                            `--R. trigona BM76

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BM76] Bohart, R. M., & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[CM74] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1974. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers. Supplement 1974 pp. 91–96. Melbourne University Press.

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[C91] CSIRO. 1991. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[K10] Korneyev, V. A. 2010. Ctenostylidae (ctenostylid flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 963–969. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[N10] Norrbom, A. L. 2010. Tephritidae (fruit flies, moscas de frutas). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 909–954. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[O98] Oosterbroek, P. 1998. The Families of Diptera of the Malay Archipelago. Brill: Leiden.

[R13] Reuter, O. M. 1913. Lebensgewohnheiten und Instinkte der Insekten bis zum Erwachen der sozialen Instinkte. R. Friedländer & Sohn: Berlin.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms' General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[RJ93] Ross, A. J., & E. A. Jarzembowski. 1993. Arthropoda (Hexapoda; Insecta). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 363–426. Chapman & Hall: London.

[S87] Steyskal, G. C. 1987. Platystomatidae. In: McAlpine, J. F. (ed.) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 2 pp. 809–812. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[W10] Whittington, A. E. 2010. Platystomatidae (signal flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 903–907. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690–5695.

[ZS10] Zborowski, P., & R. Storey. 2010. A Field Guide to Insects in Australia 3rd ed. Reed New Holland: Sydney.

Last updated: 2 July 2021.

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