Hesperiidae

Common banded awl Hasora chromus, copyright Sumana Paul.


Belongs within: Rhopalocera.
Contains: Toxidia, Hesperilla, Trapezites, Telicota, Ocybadistes, Suniana.

The Hesperiidae, skippers, are a group of butterfly-like Lepidoptera with an erratic, quick flight. They have their antennal bases spaced far apart, and the antennal club usually has a small apical hook. Many skippers are dully coloured and species may be very difficult to distinguish. Several subfamilies are currently recognised, including the Megathyminae, giant skippers, of arid regions of North America that have sometimes been recognised as a distinct family. The Hesperiinae is a mostly tropical group of skippers, with larvae feeding on coarse grasses and palms (Nielsen & Common 1991).

Hesperiidae [Hesperioidea]
    |--Megathymus C90 [Megathyminae B00a, Megathymidae]
    |--Protopyrginae B00a
    |--Heteropterinae B00a
    |--Coeliadinae J03
    |    |--Choaspes J03
    |    |--Allora Waterhouse & Lyell 1914 B00a
    |    |    |--A. doleschallii (Felder 1860) B00a
    |    |    `--A. major (Rothschild 1915) B00a
    |    |--Badamia Moore 1881 B00a
    |    |    |--B. atrox (Butler 1877) B00a
    |    |    |    |--B. a. atrox PP02
    |    |    |    `--B. a. subflava PP02
    |    |    `--B. exclamationis (Fabricius 1775) B12
    |    `--Hasora Moore 1881 B00a
    |         |--H. celaenus (Stoll 1782) B00a
    |         |--H. chromus (Cramer 1780) B00a
    |         |    |--H. c. chromus PP02
    |         |    `--H. c. bilunata PP02
    |         |--H. discolor (Felder & Felder 1859) B00a
    |         |    |--H. d. discolor B00a
    |         |    `--H. d. mastusia Fruhstorfer 1911 B00a
    |         |--H. hurama (Butler 1870) B00a
    |         `--H. khoda (Mabille 1876) B00a
    |              |--H. k. khoda B00a
    |              `--H. k. haslia Swinhoe 1899 B00a
    |--Pyrginae [Pyrgidae] J03
    |    |--Capila J03
    |    |--Telemiades J03
    |    |--Eagris J03
    |    |--Celaenorrhinus Hübner 1919 B00a
    |    |    `--C. fritzgaertneri (Balley 1880) FS54
    |    |--Exometoeca Meyrick 1888 B00a
    |    |    `--E. nycteris Meyrick 1888 B00a
    |    |--Euschemon Doubleday 1846 B00a
    |    |    `--E. rafflesia (Macleay 1826) B00a
    |    |         |--E. r. rafflesia B00a
    |    |         `--E. r. alba Mabille 1903 B00a
    |    |--Netrocoryne Felder & Felder 1867 B00a
    |    |    |--N. repanda Felder & Felder 1867 B00a
    |    |    |    |--N. r. repanda B00a
    |    |    |    `--N. r. expansa Waterhouse 1932 B00a
    |    |    `--N. thaddaeus (Hewitson 1876) B00a
    |    |--Chaetocneme Felder 1860 B00a
    |    |    |--C. beata (Hewitson 1867) B00a
    |    |    |--C. critomedia (Guérin-Méneville 1831) B00a
    |    |    |    |--C. c. critomedia B00a
    |    |    |    `--C. c. sphinterifera (Fruhstorfer 1910) B00a
    |    |    |--C. denitza (Hewitson 1867) B00a
    |    |    `--C. porphyropsis (Meyrick & Lower 1902) B00a
    |    |--Tagiades Hübner 1819 B00a
    |    |    |--T. japetus (Stoll 1781) B00a
    |    |    |    |--T. j. japetus B00a
    |    |    |    `--T. j. janetta Butler 1870 B00a
    |    |    `--T. nestus (Felder 1860) B00b
    |    |         |--T. n. nestus B00b
    |    |         `--T. n. korela Mabille 1891 B00b
    |    `--Pyrgus Hübner 1819 BR05
    |         |--P. maculatus (Bremer & Grey 1852) I92
    |         |--P. malvae (Linnaeus 1758) I92
    |         |--P. notata (Blanchard 1852) FS54
    |         |--P. orcus (Cramer 1782) S55
    |         `--P. syrichtus (Fabricius 1775) FS54
    |              |--P. s. syrichtus FS54
    |              `--P. s. montivagus (Reakirt 1866) FS54
    |--Trapezitinae J03
    |    |--Toxidia B00a
    |    |--Hesperilla NC91
    |    |--Trapezites B00a
    |    |--Felicina Waterhouse 1932 B00a
    |    |--Hewitsoniella Shepard 1931 B00a
    |    |--Rachelia Hemming 1964 B00a
    |    |    `--R. extrusus (Felder & Felder 1867) B00a
    |    |--Pasma Waterhouse 1932 B00a
    |    |    `--P. tasmanicus (Miskin 1889) B00a
    |    |--Dispar Waterhouse & Lyell 1914 B00a
    |    |    `--D. compacta (Butler 1882) B00a
    |    |--Proeidosa Atkins 1973 B00a
    |    |    `--P. polysema (Lower 1908) B12
    |    |--Signeta Waterhouse & Lyell 1914 B00a
    |    |    |--S. flammeata (Butler 1882) B00a
    |    |    `--S. tymbophora (Meyrick & Lower 1902) B00a
    |    |--Croitana Waterhouse 1932 B00a
    |    |    |--C. aestiva Edwards 1979 B00a
    |    |    |--C. arenaria Edwards 1979 B00a
    |    |    `--C. croites (Hewitson 1874) [incl. C. croites pindar (Waterhouse 1932)] B00a
    |    |--Neohesperilla Waterhouse & Lyell 1914 B00a
    |    |    |--N. croceus (Miskin 1889) B00a
    |    |    |--N. senta (Miskin 1891) B00a
    |    |    |--N. xanthomera (Meyrick & Lower 1902) B00a
    |    |    `--N. xiphiphora (Lower 1911) B00a
    |    |--Oreisplanus Waterhouse & Lyell 1914 B00a
    |    |    |--O. munionga (Olliff 1890) B00a
    |    |    |    |--O. m. munionga B00a
    |    |    |    `--O. m. larana Couchman 1962 B00a
    |    |    `--O. perornata (Kirby 1893) B00a
    |    |--Herimosa Atkins 1994 B00a
    |    |    `--H. albovenata (Waterhouse 1940) [=Anisynta albovenata] B00a
    |    |         |--H. a. albovenata B00a
    |    |         |--H. a. fuscata (Parson 1965) B00a
    |    |         `--H. a. weemala (Couchman 1954) B00a
    |    |--Mesodina Meyrick 1901 B00a
    |    |    |--M. aeluropis Meyrick 1901 B00a
    |    |    |--M. cyanophracta Lower 1911 B00a
    |    |    |--M. gracillima Edwards 1987 B00a
    |    |    |--M. halyzia (Hewitson 1868) B00a
    |    |    `--M. hayi Edwards & Graham 1995 B00a
    |    |--Motasingha Watson 1893 B00a
    |    |    |--M. dirphia (Hewitson 1868) B00a
    |    |    |--M. dominula P27
    |    |    `--M. trimaculata (Tepper 1882) B00a
    |    |         |--M. t. trimaculata B00a
    |    |         |--M. t. dilata Waterhouse 1932 [incl. M. trimaculata dea Waterhouse 1933] B00a
    |    |         `--M. t. occidentalis Moulds & Atkins 1986 B00a
    |    |--Antipodia Atkins 1984 B00a
    |    |    |--A. atralba (Tepper 1882) B00a
    |    |    |--A. chaostola (Meyrick 1888) [=Hesperilla chaostola] B00a
    |    |    |    |--A. c. chaostola B00a
    |    |    |    |--A. c. chares (Waterhouse 1933) B00a
    |    |    |    `--A. c. leucophaea (Couchman 1946) B00a
    |    |    `--A. dactyliota (Meyrick 1888) [=A. atralba dactyliota] B00a
    |    |         |--A. d. dactyliota B00a
    |    |         `--A. d. nila (Waterhouse 1932) B00a
    |    `--Anisynta Lower 1911 B00a
    |         |--A. cynone (Hewitson 1874) B00a
    |         |    |--A. c. cynone [incl. A. cynone gracilis (Tepper 1882), A. cynone grisea Waterhouse 1932] B00a
    |         |    `--A. c. gunneda Couchman 1954 B00a
    |         |--A. dominula (Plötz 1884) B00a
    |         |    |--A. d. dominula (see below for synonymy) B00a
    |         |    `--A. d. pria (Waterhouse 1932) B00a
    |         |--A. monticolae (Olliff 1890) B00a
    |         |--A. sphenosema (Meyrick & Lower 1902) B00a
    |         `--A. tillyardi Waterhouse & Lyell 1912 B00a
    `--Hesperiinae J03
         |  i. s.: Pelopidas Walker 1870 B00a
         |           |--P. agna (Moore 1866) B12
         |           |    |--P. a. agna B00a
         |           |    `--P. a. dingo Evans 1949 B00a
         |           |--P. lyelli (Rothschild 1915) B12
         |           `--P. mathias VHK02
         |         Notocrypta de Niceville 1889 B00a
         |           `--N. waigensis (Plötz 1882) B00a
         |                |--N. w. waigensis B00a
         |                `--N. proserpina (Butler 1883) B00a
         |         Parnara Moore 1881 B00a
         |           |--P. amalia (Semper 1879) B00a
         |           |--P. bada (Moore 1878) [=P. naso bada] B00a
         |           |    |--P. b. bada B00a
         |           |    `--P. b. sida (Waterhouse 1934) B00a
         |           |--P. guttata NI11
         |           |--P. mathias P01
         |           `--P. ogasawaraensis Matsumura 1906 I92
         |         Borbo Evans 1949 B00a
         |           |--B. cinnara (Wallace 1866) B00a
         |           `--B. impar (Mabille 1883) B00a
         |                |--B. i. impar B00a
         |                |--B. i. lavinia (Waterhouse 1932) B00a
         |                `--B. i. tetragraphus (Mabille 1891) B00a
         |         Pseudoborbo Lee 1966 B00a
         |           `--P. bevani (Moore 1878) [=Borbo bevani] B00a
         |--+--Plastingia J03
         |  |--Prada J03
         |  `--Tiacellia J03
         |--Hesperia J03
         |    |--H. agna Moore 1865 WM66
         |    |--H. comma P01
         |    |--H. divodasa Moore 1865 WM66
         |    |--H. evalthe [=Papilio evalthe] L02
         |    |--H. licas [=Papilio licas] L02
         |    |--H. lineola P01
         |    |--H. malvae L02
         |    `--H. proteus L02
         `--+--+--Pastria J03
            |  `--+--Oriens angustula (Herrich-Schäffer 1869) J03, B00a
            |     `--Cephrenes Waterhouse & Lyell 1914 J03, B00a
            |          |--C. augiades (Felder 1860) B00a
            |          |    |--C. a. augiades B00a
            |          |    `--C. a. sperthias (Felder 1862) B00a
            |          `--C. trichopepla (Lower 1908) B12
            `--+--+--Banta J03
               |  |--Kobrona J03
               |  |--Telicota J03
               |  `--+--Mimene Joicey & Talbot 1917 J03, B00a
               |     |    `--M. atropatene (Fruhstorfer 1911) B00a
               |     `--Sabera Swinhoe 1908 J03, B00a
               |          |--S. caesina (Hewitson 1866) B00a
               |          |    |--S. c. caesina B00a
               |          |    `--S. c. albifascia (Miskin 1889) B00a
               |          |--S. dobboe (Plötz 1885) B00a
               |          |    |--S. d. dobboe B00a
               |          |    `--S. d. autoleon (Miskin 1889) B00a
               |          `--S. fuliginosa (Miskin 1889) B00a
               `--+--Arrhenes Mabille 1904 J03
                  |    |--A. dschilus (Plötz 1885) B00a
                  |    |    |--A. d. dschilus B00a
                  |    |    `--A. d. iris (Waterhouse 1932) B00a
                  |    `--A. marnas (Felder 1860) B00a
                  |         |--A. m. marnas B00a
                  |         `--A. m. affinis (Waterhouse & Lyell 1912) B00a
                  `--+--Potanthus J03
                     `--+--Ocybadistes J03
                        `--+--Suniana J03
                           `--Taractrocera Butler 1870 J03, B00a
                                |--T. anisomorpha (Lower 1911) B12
                                |--T. dolon (Plötz 1884) B00a
                                |    |--T. d. dolon B00a
                                |    `--T. d. diomedes Waterhouse 1933 B00a
                                |--T. ilia Waterhouse 1932 B00a
                                |--T. ina Waterhouse 1932 B00a
                                `--T. papyria (Boisduval 1832) B00a
                                     |--T. p. papyria B00a
                                     `--T. p. agraulia (Hewitson 1868) B00a

Hesperiidae incertae sedis:
  Phareas Westwood 1852 [=Phareus (l. c.) non Simon 1879] K03
  Urbanus FS54
    |--U. dorantes (Stoll 1791) FS54
    |--U. eurycles (Latreille 1723) FS54
    |    |--U. e. eurycles FS54
    |    `--U. e. latipennis (Marille & Vuillot 1891) FS54
    |--U. gracilicauda (Plötz 1880) FS54
    |--U. proteus (Linnaeus 1758) FS54
    `--U. undulatus (Hewitson 1867) FS54
  Epargyreus exadeus (Cramer 1782) S55
  Thymele fulminans Herrich-Schäffer 1869 FS54
  Autochton FS54
    |--A. aunus (Fabricius 1781) FS54
    |--A. cincta Herrich-Schäffer & Plötz 1882 FS54
    `--A. subalbatus (Plötz 1882) FS54
  Nascus phocus (Cramer 1779) S55
  Cogia calchas (Herrich-Schäffer 1869) FS54
  Achalarus toxeus (Plötz 1882) FS54
  Spathilepia clonius (Cramer 1779) FS54
  Phanus vitreus (Cramer 1782) S55
  Pellicia S55
    |--P. bromias (Godman & Salvin 1894) FS54
    `--P. polyctor (Prittwitz 1868) S55
  Mylon S55
    |--M. brasilicola (Strand 1920) S55
    `--M. lassia (Hewitson 1868) FS54
  Antigonus erosus (Hübner 1820) FS54
  Pholisora FS54
    |--P. azteca Scudder 1871 FS54
    `--P. orsines (Godman & Salvin 1896) FS54
  Copaeodes aurantiaca (Hewitson 1868) FS54
  Hylephila phylaeus (Drury 1770) FS54
  Polites athenion (Hübnewr 1816) FS54
  Poanes melane (Edwards 1869) FS54
  Atrytone gala Godman & Salvin 1900 FS54
  Calpodes ethlius (Cramer 1782) FS54
  Panoquina vala (Mabille 1891) FS54
  Cobalus subcordata FS54
  Lerodea edata FS54
  Perichares corydon (Fabricius 1775) FS54
  Pyrrhopyge GE05
    |--P. creon GE05
    `--P. josephina Draudt 1921 S55
  Mysoria thasus (Cramer 1782) S55
  Jemadia suzetta Mabille & Boullet 1908 S55
  Goniurus S55
    |--G. decurtatus Herrich-Schäffer 1869 S55
    |--G. eurycles Latreille 1823 S55
    |--G. leucogramma Mabille 1888 S55
    `--G. undulatus Hewitson 1867 S55
  Chioides catillus (Cramer 1782) S55
  Telegonus S55
    |--T. creteus (Cramer 1782) S55
    `--T. mephitis Hewitson 1876 S55
  Paches loxus (Westwood & Hewitson 1852) S55
  Eudamidas ozema (Butler 1870) S55
  Ebrietas infanda (Butler 1877) S55
  Heliopetes S55
    |--H. alana (Reakirt 1868) S55
    `--H. arsalte (Linnaeus 1758) S55
  Thymelicus S55
    |--T. athenion (Hübner 1816) S55
    `--T. lineolus Ochsenheimer 1808 B08
  Carystus ebusa (Cramer 1782) S55
  Pyrrhopygopsis cleanthes (Latreille 1823) S55
  Elbella etna GE05
  Pamphilites abdita GE05
  Erionota thrax MHG04
  Syrichthus P01
    |--S. alveus [incl. S. alveus var. onopordi] P01
    `--S. malvae P01
  Carterocephalus P01
    |--C. palaemon I92
    |    |--C. p. palaemon I92
    |    `--C. p. satakei (Matsumura 1919) I92
    `--C. silvius P01

Nomen nudum: Hesperia cinnara Moore in Wallace & Moore 1866 WM66

Anisynta dominula dominula [incl. A. dominula drachmophora (Meyrick 1885), A. dominula draco Waterhouse 1938, A. dominula dyris Waterhouse 1938] B00a

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B08] Bálint, Z. 2008. Lepidoptera collections of historical importance in the Hungarian Natural History Museum. Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici 100: 17–35.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[B00a] Braby, M. F. 2000a. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 1. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[B00b] Braby, M. F. 2000b. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 2. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[B12] Braby, M. F. 2012. The butterflies of El Questro Wilderness Park, with remarks on the taxonomy of the Kimberley fauna, Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 27 (2): 161–175.

[C90] Crawford, C. S. 1990. Scorpiones, Solifugae, and associated desert taxa. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 421–475. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[FS54] Franz, E., & H. Schröder. 1954. Tagfalter (Lep. Rhopalocera) aus El Salvador. Senckenbergiana Biologica 35: 75–87.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[J03] Jong, R. de. 2003. Are there butterflies with Gondwanan ancestry in the Australian region? Invertebrate Systematics 17: 143–156.

[K03] Kury, A. B. 2003. Annotated catalogue of the Laniatores of the New World (Arachnida, Opiliones). Revista Ibérica de Aracnología, volumen especial monográfico 1: 1–337.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[MHG04] Maynard, G. V., J. G. Hamilton & J. F. Grimshaw. 2004. Quarantine—phytosanitary, sanitary and incursion management: an Australian entomological perspective. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 318–328.

[NC91] Nielsen, E. S., & I. F. B. Common. 1991. Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 817–915. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[NI11] Norhafiza, A. F., & A. B. Idris. 2011. A catalogue of Ichneumoninae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) from Malaysia. Serangga 16 (1): 29–50.

[PP02] Patrick, B., & H. Patrick. 2002. Butterflies of Fiji. Weta 24: 5–12.

[P01] Pável, J. 1901. Lepkék [Lepidopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 171–177. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[P27] Philpott, A. 1927. The maxillae in the Lepidoptera. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 721–746.

[S55] Schröder, H. 1955. Eine Falter-Ausbeute aus dem westlichen Bolivien. (Ins. Lepid. Rhopal.) Senckenbergiana Biologica 36: 329–338.

[VHK02] Verma, M., M. Hayat & S. I. Kazmi. 2002. The species of Elasmus from India (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Eulophidae). Oriental Insects 36: 245–306.

[WM66] Wallace, A. R., & F. Moore. 1866. List of lepidopterous insects collected at Takow, Formosa, by Mr. R. Swinhoe. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 355–365.

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