Obtectomera

Twenty-plume moth Orneodes hexadactyla, copyright Entomart.


Belongs within: Apoditrysia.
Contains: Copromorphoidea, Hesperiidae, Pieridae, Nymphalidae, Riodinidae, Lycaenidae, Papilionidae, Pyraloidea, Macroheterocera, Gelechioidea, Thyrididae, Alucitoidea, Pterophoridae.

The Obtectomera are a clade of Lepidoptera united in its circumscription below by molecular phylogenetic analysis (Kawahara et al. 2019). Historically, the clade has been characterised by pupae with abdominal segments 1–4 immobile and without a dorsal row of spines on the tergites (Grimaldi & Engel 2005); however, Obtectomera in this sense may not be monophyletic. Representatives of the Obtectomera include the Calliduloidea, a small group of diurnal moths with simple antennae and wings held back to back at rest, resembling small butterflies (Common 1970). Members of the superfamilies Alucitoidea and Pterophoroidea, plume moths, often have the fore and hind wings deeply cleft into multiple plumes. Pterophoroidea usually possess vein CuP in the fore wing whereas this vein is absent in Alucitoidea (Nielsen & Common 1991).

Obtectomera [Bombycina, Bombycites, Macrolepidoptera, Pyralidina] KP19
    |  i. s.: Hyblaea IR05 [Hyblaeidae, Hyblaeoidea NC91]
    |           |--H. ibidias NC91
    |           `--H. pleura IR05
    |         Copromorphoidea GE05
    |         Whalleyaniidae GE05
    |         Cypra delicatula [incl. Cozistra membranacea] M86
    |         Artaxa M86
    |           |--A. lutea M86
    |           `--A. paraneura Meyrick 1886 M86
    |--Papilionoidea [Papilionides, Rhopalocera] KP19
    |    |  i. s.: Thanatites vetula GE05
    |    |         Corades B66a
    |    |           |--C. cybele Butler 1866 B66a
    |    |           `--C. sareba B66a
    |    |         Daedelma B66a
    |    |           |--D. doraete B66a
    |    |           `--D. emilia Butler 1866 B66a
    |    |         Debis B66a
    |    |           |--D. chandica B66a
    |    |           |--D. europa WM66
    |    |           |--‘Papilio’ halyma Fabricius 1793 [=Neonympha halyma, Satyrus halyma] B66b
    |    |           |--D. isabella Butler 1866 B66a
    |    |           `--D. portlandia B66b
    |    |         Hetaera B66a
    |    |           |--H. aurora [incl. H. andromeda] B66a
    |    |           |--H. esmeralda B66a
    |    |           |--H. harpalyce Butler 1866 B66a
    |    |           |--H. pellucida Butler 1866 B6a
    |    |           |--H. philis B66a
    |    |           `--H. pireta B66a
    |    |         Callidryas WM66
    |    |           |--C. alcmeone WM66
    |    |           |--C. pyranthe WM66
    |    |           `--C. scylla R13
    |    |         Messaris erymanthus WM66
    |    |         Diadema WM66
    |    |           |--D. auge WM66
    |    |           `--D. bolina WM66
    |    |         Hestina assimilis WM66
    |    |           |--H. a. assimilis Iw92
    |    |           `--H. a. shirakii Shirôzu 1955 Iw92
    |    |         Athyma leucothoe WM66
    |    |         Ergolis coryta WM66
    |    |         Cyllo leda WM66
    |    |         Pterygospidea folus [incl. P. cicero] WM66
    |    |         Ismene ladon WM66
    |    |         Chionobas bore [incl. Papilio polixenes Fabricius 1793, Neonympha polixenes] B66b
    |    |         Enodia creola C37
    |    |         Amblyscirtes carolina C37
    |    |         Sarangesa eliminata B01c
    |    |         Pamphila P27
    |    |           |--P. augias WM66
    |    |           |--P. hobomoc P27
    |    |           |--P. maesa Moore 1865 WM66
    |    |           `--P. silvius F92
    |    |         Argyrophenga antipodum P27
    |    |         Archaeprepona GE05
    |    |         Heraclides cresphontes Im92
    |    |         Ericina G20
    |    |           |--E. cupido G20
    |    |           `--E. lysippus G20
    |    |--+--+--Hesperiidae KP19
    |    |  |  `--Hedylidae [Hedyloidea] GE05
    |    |  |       |--Hedyle Guenée 1857 BR05
    |    |  |       `--Macrosoma hedylaria KP19, GE05
    |    |  `--+--Pieridae KP19
    |    |     `--+--Nymphalidae GE05
    |    |        `--+--Riodinidae J03
    |    |           `--Lycaenidae GE05
    |    `--Papilionidae KP19
    `--+--+--Pyraloidea KP19
       |  `--+--Macroheterocera KP19
       |     `--Mimallonidae [Lacosomidae, Mimallonoidea] KP19
       |          |--Bedosia strigifera (Felder & Felder 1874) [=Perophora strigifera] NSp07
       |          |--Lacosoma chiridota KP19
       |          |--Menevia lantona KP19
       |          `--Cicinnus NSp07
       |               |--C. despecta (Walker 1855) [incl. Perophora sanguinolenta Felder & Felder 1874] NSp07
       |               `--C. melsheimeri P27
       `--+--Gelechioidea KP19
          `--+--+--Thyrididae KP19
             |  `--Calliduloidea KP19
             |       |--Pterothysanus [Pterothysanidae] RD77
             |       `--Callidulidae KP19
             |            |--Cleis scotti C70
             |            `--Pterodecta [Callidulinae] KP19
             |                 `--P. felderi KP19
             `--+--Alucitoidea KP19
                `--Pterophoroidea [Pterophorii] GE05
                     |--Pterophoridae GE05
                     `--Orneodes Latreille 1802 L02 [Orneodidae P27]
                          |--*O. hexadactyla L02, RD77 [=Pterophorus hexadactylus L02, Alucita hexadactyla H04]
                          |--O. objurgatella B88
                          |--O. phricodes P27
                          `--O. pygmaea RD77

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[B66a] Butler, A. G. 1866a. Descriptions of some new exotic butterflies in the National Collection. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 39–42.

[B66b] Butler, A. G. 1866b. A monograph of the genus Euptychia, a numerous race of butterflies belonging to the family Satyridae; with descriptions of sixty species new to science, and notes on their affinities &c. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 458–504.

[B01] Butler, A. G. 1901. On a collection of butterflies from the Uganda Protectorate, forwarded by C. Steuart Betton, Esq., in 1900. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 562.

[C37] Clark, A. H. 1937. The butterflies of Virginia. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 39 (5): 116.

[C70] Common, I. F. B. 1970. Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 765–866. Melbourne University Press.

[F92] Fan Z. 1992. Key to the Common Flies of China 2nd ed. Science Press: Beijing.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H04] Haeckel, E. 1899–1904. Kunstformen der Natur. Bibliographisches Institut: Leipzig und Wien.

[IR05] Idris, A. B., & A. Rizki. 2005. Notes on the tribe Ephialtini (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Pimplinae) of Malaysia. Serangga 10 (1–2): 111–126.

[Im92] Imes, R. 1992. The Practical Entomologist. Aurum Press: London.

[Iw92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[J03] Jong, R. de. 2003. Are there butterflies with Gondwanan ancestry in the Australian region? Invertebrate Systematics 17: 143–156.

[KP19] Kawahara, A. Y., D. Plotkin, M. Espeland, K. Meusemann, E. F. A. Toussaint, A. Donath, F. Gimnich, P. B. Frandsen, A. Zwick, M. dos Reis, J. R. Barber, R. S. Peters, S. Liu, X. Zhou, C. Mayer, L. Podsiadlowski, C. Storer, J. E. Yack, B. Misof & J. W. Breinholt. 2019. Phylogenomics reveals the evolutionary timing and pattern of butterflies and moths. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 116 (45): 22657–22663.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[M86] Meyrick, E. 1886. On some Lepidoptera from the Fly River. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (2): 241–258.

[NC91] Nielsen, E. S., & I. F. B. Common. 1991. Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 817–915. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[P27] Philpott, A. 1927. The maxillae in the Lepidoptera. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 721–746.

[R13] Reuter, O. M. 1913. Lebensgewohnheiten und Instinkte der Insekten bis zum Erwachen der sozialen Instinkte. R. Friedländer & Sohn: Berlin.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms' General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[WM66] Wallace, A. R., & F. Moore. 1866. List of lepidopterous insects collected at Takow, Formosa, by Mr. R. Swinhoe. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 355–365.

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