Western grass dart Taractrocera papyria agraulia, copyright Fred Hort.

Belongs within: Hesperiidae.
Contains: Telicota, Ocybadistes, Suniana.

The Hesperiinae are a cosmopolitan group of skippers whose larvae feed on species of monocotyledons, particularly on grasses (Braby 2000).

Characters (from Braby 2000): Length of antenna variable, less or greater than half length of costa of fore wing; labial palp with third segment porrect or erect, short and stout, or long and slender; fore wing with vein M2 downwardly curved near origin, arising closer to M3 than M1; hind wing with cell normal with discocellular vein between M2 and M3 angled or inclined towards tornus or termen, termen rounded or distinctly lobed and produced at tornus.

<==Hesperiinae J03
    |--+--Plastingia J03
    |  |--Prada J03
    |  `--Tiacellia J03
    |--Hesperia J03
    |    |--H. agna Moore 1865 WM66
    |    |--H. comma P01
    |    |--H. conjuncta R13
    |    |--H. divodasa Moore 1865 WM66
    |    |--H. evalthe [=Papilio evalthe] L02
    |    |--H. licas [=Papilio licas] L02
    |    |--H. lineola P01
    |    |--H. malvae L02
    |    `--H. proteus L02
    `--+--+--Pastria J03
       |  `--+--Oriens angustula (Herrich-Schäffer 1869) J03, B00
       |     `--Cephrenes Waterhouse & Lyell 1914 J03, B00
       |          |--C. augiades (Felder 1860) B00
       |          |    |--C. a. augiades B00
       |          |    `--C. a. sperthias (Felder 1862) B00
       |          `--C. trichopepla (Lower 1908) B12
       `--+--+--Banta J03
          |  |--Kobrona J03
          |  |--Telicota J03
          |  `--+--Mimene Joicey & Talbot 1917 J03, B00
          |     |    `--M. atropatene (Fruhstorfer 1911) B00
          |     `--Sabera Swinhoe 1908 J03, B00
          |          |--S. caesina (Hewitson 1866) B00
          |          |    |--S. c. caesina B00
          |          |    `--S. c. albifascia (Miskin 1889) B00
          |          |--S. dobboe (Plötz 1885) B00
          |          |    |--S. d. dobboe B00
          |          |    `--S. d. autoleon (Miskin 1889) B00
          |          `--S. fuliginosa (Miskin 1889) B00
          `--+--Arrhenes Mabille 1904 J03
             |    |--A. dschilus (Plötz 1885) B00
             |    |    |--A. d. dschilus B00
             |    |    `--A. d. iris (Waterhouse 1932) B00
             |    `--A. marnas (Felder 1860) B00
             |         |--A. m. marnas B00
             |         `--A. m. affinis (Waterhouse & Lyell 1912) B00
             `--+--Potanthus J03
                `--+--Ocybadistes J03
                   `--+--Suniana J03
                      `--Taractrocera Butler 1870 J03, B00
                           |--T. anisomorpha (Lower 1911) B12
                           |--T. dolon (Plötz 1884) B00
                           |    |--T. d. dolon B00
                           |    `--T. d. diomedes Waterhouse 1933 B00
                           |--T. ilia Waterhouse 1932 B00
                           |--T. ina Waterhouse 1932 B00
                           `--T. papyria (Boisduval 1832) B00
                                |--T. p. papyria B00
                                `--T. p. agraulia (Hewitson 1868) B00

Hesperiinae incertae sedis:
  Pelopidas Walker 1870 B00
    |--P. agna (Moore 1866) B12
    |    |--P. a. agna B00
    |    `--P. a. dingo Evans 1949 B00
    |--P. lyelli (Rothschild 1915) B12
    `--P. mathias VHK02
         |--P. m. mathias F92
         `--P. m. oberthueri F92
  Notocrypta de Niceville 1889 B00
    `--N. waigensis (Plötz 1882) B00
         |--N. w. waigensis B00
         `--N. proserpina (Butler 1883) B00
  Parnara Moore 1881 B00
    |--P. amalia (Semper 1879) B00
    |--P. bada (Moore 1878) [=P. naso bada] B00
    |    |--P. b. bada B00
    |    `--P. b. sida (Waterhouse 1934) B00
    |--P. guttata NI11
    |--P. mathias P01
    `--P. ogasawaraensis Matsumura 1906 I92
  Borbo Evans 1949 B00
    |--B. cinnara (Wallace 1866) B00
    `--B. impar (Mabille 1883) B00
         |--B. i. impar B00
         |--B. i. lavinia (Waterhouse 1932) B00
         `--B. i. tetragraphus (Mabille 1891) B00
  Pseudoborbo Lee 1966 B00
    `--P. bevani (Moore 1878) [=Borbo bevani] B00

Nomen nudum: Hesperia cinnara Moore in Wallace & Moore 1866 WM66

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B00] Braby, M. F. 2000. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 1. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[B12] Braby, M. F. 2012. The butterflies of El Questro Wilderness Park, with remarks on the taxonomy of the Kimberley fauna, Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 27 (2): 161–175.

[F92] Fan Z. 1992. Key to the Common Flies of China 2nd ed. Science Press: Beijing.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[J03] Jong, R. de. 2003. Are there butterflies with Gondwanan ancestry in the Australian region? Invertebrate Systematics 17: 143–156.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[NI11] Norhafiza, A. F., & A. B. Idris. 2011. A catalogue of Ichneumoninae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) from Malaysia. Serangga 16 (1): 29–50.

[P01] Pável, J. 1901. Lepkék [Lepidopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 171–177. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[R13] Reuter, O. M. 1913. Lebensgewohnheiten und Instinkte der Insekten bis zum Erwachen der sozialen Instinkte. R. Friedländer & Sohn: Berlin.

[VHK02] Verma, M., M. Hayat & S. I. Kazmi. 2002. The species of Elasmus from India (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Eulophidae). Oriental Insects 36: 245–306.

[WM66] Wallace, A. R., & F. Moore. 1866. List of lepidopterous insects collected at Takow, Formosa, by Mr. R. Swinhoe. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 355–365.

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