Heliocheilus cramboides, copyright Donald Hobern.

Belongs within: Noctuidae.
Contains: Heliothis.

The Heliothinae, bollworms and related forms, are a group of moths whose larvae feed mostly on the reproductive organs (flowers, fruits and seeds) of plants, with some species being significant horticultural pests.

Characters (from Matthews 1999): Small to medium-sized, robust moths. Frons generally rounded, bulging with well-developed ventral lip. Labial palps moderately long, weakly upcurved. Antennal filiform or minimally biserrate in male, filiform in female. Compound eye smooth, unlashed. Head and thorax covered with mixed hairlike and spathulate scales. Hind wing venation trifine; vein M2, if present, reduced and lying in median fold of hind wing. Male genitalia with valve usually simple and strap-like, quite long and narrow, rather flat, often curved distally, usually lacking processes except sometimes with a small ampulla; apical corona usually consisting of one or more rows of spine-like setae, occasionally absent; sacculus generally not well distinguished. Aedeagus short or long, straight or slightly curved, often bearing a denticulate 'scobinate' patch at apex; scobinate patch may occur at base of vesica; vesica varying from simple and sac-like to long and coiled, usually a number of diverticula present from a 'basal pouch'; vesica may bear cornuti. Female genitalia with papillae anales (ovipositor) varying from soft and pad-like with may setae to sclerotised and knife-like with fewer setae; ductus bursae varying from short to long, opening posteriorly through ostium bursae, variably ribbed and sclerotised; appendix bursae usually present, with ductus seminalis lying at apex; fundus bursae usually bearing from one to four signa. Larvae with spiny skin; prothoracic lateral setae with transverse position in later instars.

Heliothinae [Heliothidae] M99
    |  i. s.: Eutricopis nexilis M99
    |         Heliothodes diminutiva M99
    |         Periphanes ZK11
    |--Pyrrhia umbra (Hufnagel 1766) M99, JP05
    |--Melaporphyria M99
    |--+--Protadisura M99
    |  `--+--+--Heliolonche M99
    |     |  `--Schinia M99
    |     |       |--S. dobla M99
    |     |       `--S. florida M99
    |     `--Adisura Moore 1881 [incl. Astonycha Turner 1920] M99
    |          |--*A. atkinsoni Moore 1881 M99
    |          |--A. cana M99
    |          |--A. litarga (Turner 1920) [=*Astonycha litarga] M99
    |          |--A. marginalis (Walker 1858) (see below for synonymy) M99
    |          |--A. parva M99
    |          `--A. stigmatica M99
    `--+--Heliothis M99
       |--+--Australothis Matthews 1991 [=Australoverpa Matthews 1991] M99
       |  |    |--*A. rubrescens (Walker 1858) (see below for synonymy) M99
       |  |    |--A. exopisso Matthews 1999 M99
       |  |    |--A. tertia (Roepke 1941) [=Heliothis tertia] M99
       |  |    `--A. volatilis M99
       |  `--Helicoverpa Hardwick 1965 M99
       |       |  i. s.: H. assulta (Guenée 1852) (see below for synonymy) M99
       |       |         H. fletcheri M99
       |       |         H. hardwicki Matthews 1999 M99
       |       |         H. prepodes (Common 1985) [=Heliothis prepodes] M99
       |       |--H. punctigera (Wallengren 1860) [=Heliothis punctigera; incl. Chloridea marmada Swinhoe 1918] M99
       |       `--+--H. gelotopoeon M99
       |          `--+--H. hawaiiensis M99
       |             `--+--*H. armigera (Hübner 1803–1808) M99 (see below for synonymy)
       |                `--+--H. confusa M99
       |                   `--H. zea M99
       `--Heliocheilus Grote 1865 [incl. Canthylidia Butler 1886, Raghuva Moore 1881, Rhodosea Grote 1883] M99
            |--*H. paradoxus Grote 1865 M99
            |--H. abaccheutus Matthews 1999 M99
            |--H. aberrans (Butler 1886) [=Heliothis aberrans] M99
            |--H. albipunctella M99
            |--H. albivenata (Montague 1914) (see below for synonymy) M99
            |--H. aleurota (Lower 1902) (see below for synonymy) M99
            |--H. atrilinea (Turner 1943) [=Canthylidia atrilinea] M99
            |--H. canusina (Swinhoe 1901) (see below for synonymy) M99
            |--H. cistella (Swinhoe 1901) [=Canthylidia cistella] M99
            |--H. cladotus Swinhoe 1901 (see below for synonymy) M99
            |--H. confertissima (Walker 1865) [=Leucania confertissima, *Raghuva confertissima] M99
            |--H. confundens (Warren 1913) [=Canthylidia confundens] M99
            |--H. cramboides (Guenée 1852) (see below for synonymy) M99
            |--H. eodora (Meyrick 1902) [=Heliothis eodora; incl. Canthylidia tenuistria Turner 1902] M99
            |--H. ferruginosa (Turner 1911) [=Canthylidia ferruginosa; incl. C. epigrapha Turner 1920] M99
            |--H. flavitincta (Lower 1908) [=Melicleptria flavitincta] M99
            |--H. halimolimnus Matthews 1999 M99
            |--H. ionola (Swinhoe 1901) [=Adisura ionola, Melicleptria ionola] M99
            |--*Rhodosea’ julia Grote 1883 M99
            |--H. melibaphes (Hampson 1903) [=Melicleptria melibaphes] M99
            |--H. mesoleuca (Lower 1902) [=Canthylidia mesoleuca, Melicleptria mesoleuca] M99
            |--H. moribunda (Guenée 1852) M99 (see below for synonymy)
            |--H. neurota (Lower 1903) (see below for synonymy) M99
            |--H. pallida (Butler 1886) (see below for synonymy) M99
            |--H. puncticulata (Warren 1913) [=Canthylidia puncticulata] M99
            |--H. ranalaetensis Matthews 1999 M99
            |--H. rhodopolia (Turner 1911) [=Canthylidia rhodopolia] M99
            |--H. thelycritus Matthews 1999 M99
            `--H. vulpinotatus Matthews 1999 M99

Adisura marginalis (Walker 1858) [=Anthophila marginalis; incl. Heliothis delicia Felder & Rogenhofer 1874, A. dulcis Moore 1881, A. purgata Warren 1913, A. similis Moore 1881] M99

*Australothis rubrescens (Walker 1858) [=Thalpophila rubrescens; incl. Chloridea aresca Turner 1911, C. caesia Warren 1913, Heliothis hyperchroa Turner 1920, C. rufa Warren 1913] M99

*Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner 1803–1808) M99 [=Noctua armigera M99, Heliothis (Helicoverpa) armigera M83; incl. N. barbara Fabricius 1794 (nom. rej.) M99, Helicoverpa armigera commoni Hardwick 1965, Heliothis conferta Walker 1857 M99, Helic. armigera conferta M99, Heliothis armigera ab. fusca Cockerell 1889 M99, Heliothis guidelii Costantino 1922 M99, Heliothis obsoleta (Fabricius 1793) M99, GM79, Heliothis pulverosa Walker 1857 M99, Heliothis rama Bhattacharjee & Gupta 1972 M99, Chloridea obsoleta ab. rufa Warren 1911 non C. rufa Warren 1913 M99, Heliothis uniformis Wallengren 1860 M99]

Helicoverpa assulta (Guenée 1852) [=Heliothis assulta; incl. Helic. assulta afra Hardwick 1965, Heliothis separata Walker 1857, Heliothis succinea Moore 1881, Heliothis temperata Walker 1857] M99

Heliocheilus albivenata (Montague 1914) [=Melicleptria albivenata; incl. M. bipartita Strand 1924, M. stramineipicta Strand 1924, Canthylidia zorophanes Turner 1929, C. zurophanes (l. c.)] M99

Heliocheilus aleurota (Lower 1902) [=Melicleptria aleurota, Canthylidia alleurota (l. c.); incl. C. cana Turner 1943, C. aleurota ab. spissata Warren 1913] M99

Heliocheilus canusina (Swinhoe 1901) [=Canthylidia canusina; incl. C. anemodes Lower 1902, C. canusina ab. intacta Warren 1913] M99

Heliocheilus cladotus Swinhoe 1901 [incl. Canthylidia cladotus ab. densata Warren 1913, C. cladotus ab. hyalina Warren 1913, C. cladotus ab. hyalosticta Warren 1913, C. cramboides ab. semigrisea Warren 1913] M99

Heliocheilus cramboides (Guenée 1852) [=Leucania cramboides; incl. Canthylidia capnoneura Turner 1932, C. discolor Warren 1913, Heliocheilus discolor, C. cramboides ab. intensa Warren 1913, C. nervosa Turner 1943, Heliothis neurias Meyrick 1902, Heliocheilus neurias, C. cramboides ab. semiochrea Warren 1913, C. sericea Warren 1913, C. sulphurea Warren 1913, C. sumbensis Warren 1913, C. venata Warren 1913, Heliocheilus venata] M99

Heliocheilus moribunda (Guenée 1852) M99 [=Leucania moribunda M99, Canthylidia moribunda P27; incl. C. arenosa Turner 1943 M99, Leucania invaria Walker 1856 M99, C. invaria pallescens Warren 1913 M99]

Heliocheilus neurota (Lower 1903) [=Tarache neurota; incl. Canthylidia clathrata Warren 1913, C. crocopepla Turner 1925, Oruza crocotoschema Turner 1936, C. eurhythma Turner 1915, C. clathrata ab. exesa Warren 1913, C. clathrata ab. notata Warren 1913, C. clathrata ab. pallida Warren 1913 non C. pallida Butler 1886] M99

Heliocheilus pallida (Butler 1886) [=*Canthylidia pallida; incl. C. albida Warren 1913, H. osmidus Swinhoe 1901, C. rosea Warren 1913] M99

*Type species of generic name indicated


[GM79] Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 1–400.

[JP05] Jungmann, E., & U. Poller. 2005. Neunachweise und Wiederfunde für die Schmetterlingsfauna (Insecta; Lepidoptera) des Altenburger Landes. Mauritiana 19 (2): 317–326.

[M83] Martin, N. A. 1983. Miscellaneous observations on a pasture fauna: an annotated species list. DSIR Entomology Division Report 3: 1–98.

[M99] Matthews, M. 1999. Heliothine Moths of Australia: A guide to bollworms and related noctuid groups. CSIRO Publishing.

[P27] Philpott, A. 1927. The maxillae in the Lepidoptera. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 721–746.

[ZK11] Zahiri, R., I. J. Kitching, J. D. Lafontaine, M. Mutanen, L. Kaila, J. D. Holloway & N. Wahlberg. 2011. A new molecular phylogeny offers hope for a stable family level classification of the Noctuoidea (Lepidoptera). Zoologica Scripta 40 (2): 158–173.

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