Female Hydrotaea dentipes, copyright James K. Lindsey.

Belongs within: Calyptratae.
Contains: Coenosiinae, Mydaeinae, Muscinae.

The Muscidae, house flies, are a cosmopolitan group of ecologically diverse flies.

Characters (from Savage & Vockeroth 2010): Small to large flies (body length 2–20 mm). Stout or slender, generally dull grey, black or yellow but occasionally metallic blue or green. Male frons narrow to broad, with one to many frontal bristles. Female frons at least one-fourth as wide as head, with or without pair of cruciate interfrontal bristles. Eyes bare or setulose. Antennal pedicel with distinct dorsal seam, arista almost bare to long plumose or pectinate. Proboscis generally with prementum broad and labella fleshy, but with prementum tapering to slender apex and labella reduced in some. Thoracic bristles usually distinct and long, meron without row of strong bristles. Wings well developed, with vein A1 incomplete, not reaching wing margin, occasionally with setulae above or below R3 and R4+5. Both calypters generally well developed. Legs usually slender, occasionally with marked modifications or tufts of fine setae in males. Hind tibia without true dorsal bristle on apical half, but often with posterodorsal bristle (calcar) at about two-thirds from base. First hind tarsomere usually without sub-basal ventral seta. Abdominal scleritce 6–8 in males usually asymmetric.

<==Muscidae [Azeliinae, Eginiidae, Eginiinae, Phaoniinae] WT11
    |--+--+--Coenosiinae KP10
    |  |  `--Mydaeinae KP10
    |  `--Muscina KP10
    |       |--M. assimilis M90
    |       |--M. levida BW09
    |       `--M. stabulans A71
    `--+--Potamia KP10
       |    |--P. littoralis KP10
       |    `--P. scabra SV10
       `--+--Muscinae KP10
          `--+--Thricops KP10
             |    |  i. s.: T. innocuus SV10
             |    |--T. genarum KP10
             |    `--+--T. nigritellus KP10
             |       `--+--T. aculeipes KP10
             |          `--T. cunctans KP10
             `--+--Drymeia KP10 (see below for synonymy)
                |    |--D. alpicola WT11
                |    |--D. groenlandica HV87
                |    |--D. hamata KP10
                |    `--D. quadrisetosa SV10
                `--Hydrotaea KP10 [incl. Neohydrotaea HV87, Ophyra SV10; Hydrotaeini]
                     |  i. s.: H. aenescens SV10
                     |         H. anxia SV10
                     |         H. glabricula (Fallén 1825) I92
                     |         H. ignava SV10
                     |         H. ponti HV87
                     |         ‘Ophyra’ rostrata CM91
                     |--H. irritans KP10
                     `--+--H. cyrtoneurina KP10
                        `--H. dentipes KP10

Muscidae incertae sedis:
  Dichaetomyia DK08
  Atherigona B88 [Atherigoninae KP10]
    |--A. orientalis SV10
    `--A. soccata G01
  Lispocephala O94
  Lyperosia A71
    |--L. exigua B88
    `--L. irritans A71
  Dendrophaonia T90
  Neomyia SV10
    |--N. cornicina HV87
    `--N. corniseta SV10
  Limnospila albifrons K09
  Orthellia BM76
  Pyrellia BM76
    |--P. cyanicolor K01
    `--P. serena K01
  Graphomyia idessa SV10
  Philornis BMW09
    |--P. downsi HSS13
    `--P. pici SWK87
  Neomuscina tripunctata BW09
  Cyrtoneuropsis BW09
  Cyrtoneurina [Cyrtoneurininae] SV10
  Schoenomyza SV10
    |--S. aurifrons SV10
    `--S. dorsalis SV10
  Cordiluroides SV10
  Acanthiptera [Achanthipterinae] SV10
  Cariocamyia SV10
  Neivamyia SV10
  Charadrella SV10
    |--C. macrosoma SV10
    `--C. malacophaga SV10
  Sarcopromusca arcuata SV10
  Azelia SV10
    |--A. cilipes HV87
    `--A. neotropica SV10
  Agenamyia exotica SV10
  Biopyrellia bipuncta SV10
  Synthesiomyia nudiseta SV10
  Callainireinwardtia woodi SV10
  Polietina pruinosa HV87
  Hemichlora scordalus SV10
  Pseudoptilolepis SV10
  Chortinus bequaerti SV10
  Pachyceramyia SV10
  Tetramerinx littoralis SV10
  Bithoracochaeta leucoprocta HV87
  Brontaea humilis SV10
  Neodexiopsis SV10
    |--N. basalis SV10
    `--N. ovata [=Coenosia ovata] SV10
  Lispoides SV10
    |--L. aequifrons SV10
    `--L. guatemala SV10
  Pilispina medinai SV10
  Micropotamia SV10
    |--M. amazonica SV10
    `--M. fuscisquama [=Phorbia fuscisquama] SV10
  Chaetophaonia SV10
  Eginiini HV87
  Pentacricia aldrichii HV87
  Caricea alma HV87
  Pseudocoenosia fletcheri HV87
  Lophosceles cinereiventris HV87
  Allognota semivitta HV87
  Opsolasia orichalcea HV87
  Macrorchis HV87
  Neohelina CM74

Drymeia KP10 [incl. Bebryx HV87, Eupogonomyia HV87, Pogonomyia HV87, Pogonomyioides HV87, Trichopticoides HV87]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[BM76] Bohart, R. M., & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[BMW09] Brown, B. V., S. A. Marshall & D. M. Wood. 2009. Natural history. In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 51–63. Ottawa, NRC Research Press.

[BW09] Buck, M., N. E. Woodley, A. Borkent, D. M. Wood, T. Pape, J. R. Vockeroth, V. Michelsen & S. A. Marshall. 2009. Key to Diptera families—adults. In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 95–156. Ottawa, NRC Research Press.

[CM74] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1974. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers. Supplement 1974 pp. 91–96. Melbourne University Press.

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[DK08] Dohm, P., D. Kovač, A. Freidberg & R. Bin Hashim. 2008. Biology of the Oriental bamboo-inhabiting fly Felderimyia gombakensis and observations on mating trophallaxis in Felderimyia (Insecta, Diptera, Tephritidae, Phytalmiinae, Acanthonevrini). Senckenbergiana Biologica 88 (2): 311–318.

[G01] Gupta, S. K. 2001. A conspectus of natural enemies of phytophagous mites and mites as potential biocontrol agents of agricultural pests in India. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 484–497. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[HSS13] Hirschfeld, E., A. Swash & R. Still. 2013. The World’s Rarest Birds. Princeton University Press: Princeton (New Jersey).

[HV87] Huckett, H. C., & J. R. Vockeroth. 1987. Muscidae. In: McAlpine, J. F. (ed.) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1115–1131. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[K01] Kertész, K. 1901. Legyek [Dipteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 179–201. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[K09] Köhler, G. 2009. Heuschrecken (Saltatoria) und Ohrwürmner (Dermaptera) im Immissionsgebiet des Düngemittelwerkes Steudnitz/Thüringen—eine Langzeitstudie (1978–2001). Mauritiana 20 (3): 601-646.

[KP10] Kutty, S. N., T. Pape, B. M. Wiegmann & R. Meier. 2010. Molecular phylogeny of the Calyptratae (Diptera: Cyclorrhapha) with an emphasis on the superfamily Oestroidea and the position of Mystacinobiidae and McAlpine's fly. Systematic Entomology 35: 614–635.

[M90] McAlpine, J. F. 1990. Insecta: Diptera adults. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1211–1252. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[O94] Otte, D. 1994. The Crickets of Hawaii: origin, systematics and evolution. The Orthopterists’ Society: The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia.

[SV10] Savage, J., & J. R. Vockeroth. 2010. Muscidae (house flies, stable flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1281–1295. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[SWK87] Snyder, N. F. R., J. W. Wiley & C. B. Kepler. 1987. The Parrots of Luquillo: Natural history and conservation of the Puerto Rican parrot. Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology: Los Angeles.

[T90] Teskey, H. J. 1990. Insecta: Diptera larvae. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1253–1276. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690–5695.

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