Trichoptera

Stenopsychodes sp., from here.


Belongs within: Panorpoidea.
Contains: Rhyacophiloidea, Integripalpia, Psychomyioidea, Hydropsychidae.

The Trichoptera, caddisflies, are a group of moth-like insects with aquatic larvae that feed on algae or organic detritus.

Characters (from Ivanov & Sukatsheva 2002): General appearance of adult similar to moths. Body size small to moderately large. Head hypognathous. with eye large, antenna thread-like, mandible weak or lost, maxilla and labium lacking inner lobes, hypopharynx well developed, used in licking liquids. Pronotum short: meso- and metathoraces subequal in length and structure. Legs cursorial, tibiae basically with apical and pracapical spurs, tarsi five-segmented. Wings almost always well developed, covered with setae and numerous short chaetoids among them, rarely with patches of scales. SC sometimes with additional branches. R with apical fork. In most cases RS and M with two apical forks (dichotomously four-branched). CuA with one apical fork. Fore wing with anal veins looped. Cross-veins present. Pterostigma sometimes present. Hind wing often with venation somewhat simplified, sometimes with anal region enlarged, often pleating in folded wings. Male with segment 9 forming entire ring, genitalia generally include aedeagus, gonopods, and modified segment 10. Female primary ovipositor lost; sometimes abdominal segments 8 and 9 elongate to form secondary, often retractable, ovipositor. Immatures aquatic or semiaquatic, without spiracles, using gill or skin breathing. Larva campodeiform, legs well developed, abdominal appendages absent except claw-bearing anal prolegs attached to segment 9. Mouthparts form maxillolabium with well developed silk-weaving spinneret. Larval leg six-segmented (seemingly seven-segmented in most groups due to two-segmented trochanter) with claw-like pretarsus provided with large trichoid sensilla. Pupa with powerful mandibles, leaving retreat to swim actively toward water surface for eclosion.

<==Trichoptera [Phryganeida]
    |--Spicipalpia BZ-M04
    |    |--Rhyacophiloidea IS02
    |    `--Integripalpia IS02
    `--Annulipalpia [Hydropsychina, Hydropsychoidea, Philopotamoidea] GE05
         |--+--Psychomyioidea GE05
         |  `--+--Arctopsychidae IS02
         |     `--Hydropsychidae GE05
         `--+--Stenopsychodes Ulmer 1916 N83 [Stenopsychidae GE05]
            |    |--*S. mjoebergi Ulmer 1916 N83
            |    |--S. aureonigra Schmid 1969 N83
            |    |--S. hiemalis Tillyard 1922 N83
            |    |--S. lineata Neboiss 1977 N83
            |    |--S. melanochrysa Tillyard 1922 N83
            |    |--S. montana Tillyard 1922 [incl. S. venusta Kimmins 1953] N83
            |    |--S. opsia Neboiss 1974 N83
            |    |--S. syrdena Neboiss 1974 N83
            |    `--S. tillyardi Banks 1939 N83
            `--Philopotamidae GE05
                 |  i. s.: Dolophilus McLachlan 1868 N83
                 |         Hydrobiosella Tillyard 1924 n83
                 |           |--*H. stenocerca Tillyard 1924 N83
                 |           |--H. amblyopia Neboiss 1982 N83
                 |           |--H. anasina Neboiss 1977 N83
                 |           |--H. arcuata Kimmins 1953 [=Sortosa (Hydrobiosella) arcuata] N83
                 |           |--H. armata Jacquemart 1965 N83
                 |           |--H. bispina Kimmins 1953 [=Sortosa (Hydrobiosella) bispina] N83
                 |           |--H. cerula Neboiss 1977 N83
                 |           |--H. cognata Kimmins 1953 (see below for synonymy) N83
                 |           |--H. corinna Neboiss 1977 N83
                 |           |--H. letti Korboot 1964 N83
                 |           |--H. michaelseni (Ulmer 1908) (see below for synonymy) N83
                 |           |--H. orba Neboiss 1977 N83
                 |           |--H. sagitta Neboiss 1977 N83
                 |           |--H. tasmanica Mosely 1953 [=Sortosa (Hydrobiosella) tasmanica] N83
                 |           `--H. waddama Mosely 1953 [=Sortosa (Hydrobiosella) waddama] N83
                 |--Chimarra Stephens 1829 [Chimarrinae] BZ-M04
                 |    |--*C. marginata (Linnaeus 1767) [=Phryganea marginata] N83
                 |    |--C. australis (Navás 1923) [=Chimarrha australis] N83
                 |    |--C. monticola Kimmins 1953 N83
                 |    `--C. uranka Mosely 1953 N83
                 `--Philopotaminae BZ-M04
                      |--Philopotamus Stephens 1829 BZ-M04
                      |    |--P. montanus (Donovan 1813) BZ-M04
                      |    `--P. variegatus (Scopoli 1763) BZ-M04
                      `--Wormaldia McLachlan 1865 BZ-M04
                           |--W. moesta WRM02
                           |--W. occipitalis B86
                           |--W. saldetica Botosaneanu & González 1984 BZ-M04
                           |--W. subterranea Radovanovic 1932 B86
                           `--W. triangulifera McLachlan 1878 BZ-M04

Trichoptera incertae sedis:
  Liadotaulius major (Handlirsch 1906) IS02
  Prorhyacophila [Prorhyacophilidae] IS02
    |--P. furcata IS02
    `--P. iani [=Eocorona iani] KIR02
  Phenacopsyche larvalis S02
  Neurochorema forsteri PSV00
  Rhynchopsyche [Rhynchopsychidae] C79
  Anabolia nervosa D56
  Platychorista [Platychoristidae] R70
    `--P. venosa R70

Hydrobiosella cognata Kimmins 1953 [=Sortosa (Hydrobiosella) cognata; incl. H. spinosa Jacquemart 1965] N83

Hydrobiosella michaelseni (Ulmer 1908) [=Dolophilus michaelseni, Sortosa (Hydrobiosella) michaelseni] N83

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BZ-M04] Bonada, N., C. Zamora-Muñoz, M. Rieradevall & N. Prat. 2004. Trichoptera (Insecta) collected in Mediterranean river basins of the Iberian Peninsula: taxonomic remarks and notes on ecology. Graellsia 60 (1): 41–69.

[B86] Botosaneanu, L. 1986. Insecta: Plecoptera, Trichoptera. In: Botosaneanu, L. (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) p. 619. E. J. Brill/Dr W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[C79] Craw, R. C. 1979. Generalized tracks and dispersal in biogeography: a response to R. M. McDowall. Systematic Zoology 28 (1): 99–107.

[D56] Dawes, B. 1956. The Trematoda with special reference to British and other European forms. University Press: Cambridge.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[IS02] Ivanov, V. D., & I. D. Sukatsheva. 2002. Order Trichoptera Kirby, 1813. The caddisflies (=Phryganeida Latreille, 1810). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 199–220. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[KIR02] Kozlov, M. V., V. D. Ivanov & A. P. Rasnitsyn. 2002. Order Lepidoptera Linné, 1758. The butterflies and moths (=Papilionida Laicharting, 1781). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 220–227. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[N83] Neboiss, A. 1983. Checklist and bibliography of the Australian caddis-flies (Trichoptera). Australian Society for Limnology Special Publication 5: 1–132.

[PSV00] Patrick, B. H., P. Sirvid & C. Vink. 2000. Obituary: Raymond Robert Forster D.Sc., F.E.S.N.Z., Q.S.O. 19 June 1922 - 1 July 2000. New Zealand Entomologist 23: 95–99.

[R70] Riek, E. F. 1970. Fossil history. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 168–186. Melbourne University Press.

[S02] Sinitshenkova, N. D. 2002. Ecological history of the aquatic insects. In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 388–426. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[WRM02] Wiegmann, B. M., J. C. Regier & C. Mitter. 2002. Combined molecular and morphological evidence on the phylogeny of the earliest lepidopteran lineages. Zoologica Scripta 31 (1): 67–81.

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