Papilionidae

Tailed jay Graphium agamemnon, copyright Peellden.


Belongs within: Rhopalocera.
Contains: Troidini, Papilio.

The Papilionidae, swallowtails, are a group of large butterflies characterised by the presence of an epiphysis on the fore tibia.

Characters (from Braby 2000): Adults large, boldly patterned, often with brilliant colours. Antennae relatively close together at base. Forewing with five-branched radial vein, R4 and R5 usually stalked, and two anal veins with 2A running freely to dorsum; hind wing with humeral vein present, single anal vein present, tornus often conspicuously tailed. Both sexes with six functional legs; fore tibia with epiphysis; tarsi with simple, well-developed apical claws. Egg almost spherical, usually smooth. Final instar larva stout, often bearing series of dorsal processes or spines that may be long and fleshy; thorax sometimes humped, always bearing eversible osmeterium; crochets of prolegs in biordinal or triordinal mesoseries. Pupa attached by cremaster, held upright by central girdle.

<==Papilionidae
    |--Baronia [Baroniinae] S-BF05
    |    `--B. brevicornis Salvin 1893 S-BF05
    `--+--Parnassiinae S-BF05
       |    |--Thaites ruminiana GE05
       |    |--Luehdorfitis bosniaskii GE05
       |    `--Parnassius S-BF05
       |         |--P. apollo Im92
       |         |--P. bremeri GE05
       |         |--P. citrinarius T07
       |         |--P. eversmanni Iw92
       |         |    |--P. e. eversmanni Iw92
       |         |    `--P. e. daisetsuzanus Matsumura 1926 Iw92
       |         |--P. nomion P01
       |         `--P. phoebus (Fabricius 1973) S-BF05
       `--Papilioninae S-BF05
            |  i. s.: Leptocircini NC91
            |         Teinopalpus [Teinopalpini] B00
            |--+--Troidini S-BF05
            |  `--Papilionini B00
            |       |--Papilio S-BF05
            |       `--Meandrusa B00
            `--Graphiini S-BF05
                 |--Protographium Munroe 1961 S-BF05, B00 [Lampropterini]
                 |    |--P. leosthenes (Doubleday 1846) B00
                 |    |    |--P. l. leosthenes B00
                 |    |    `--P. l. geimbia (Tindale 1927) B00
                 |    |--P. marcellinus J03
                 |    `--P. marcellus (Cramer 1777) [=Eurytides marcellus] S-BF05
                 `--Graphium Scopoli 1777 B00
                      |--G. agamemnon (Linnaeus 1758) S-BF05
                      |    |--G. a. agamemnon B00
                      |    `--G. a. ligatus (Rothschild 1895) B00
                      |--G. agesilaus S55
                      |    |--G. a. agesilaus S55
                      |    `--G. a. autosilaus (Bates 1861) S55
                      |--G. aristeus (Stoll 1780) B00
                      |    |--G. a. aristeus B00
                      |    `--G. a. parmatus (Gray 1853) B00
                      |--G. dolicaon S55
                      |    |--G. d. dolicaon S55
                      |    `--G. d. deileon (Felder 1864) S55
                      |--G. doson Iw92
                      |    |--G. d. doson Iw92
                      |    |--G. d. albidum (Wileman 1903) Iw92
                      |    `--G. d. perillus Iw92
                      |--G. eurypylus (Linnaeus 1758) B00
                      |    |--G. e. eurypylus B12
                      |    |--G. e. lycaon (Felder & Felder 1865) B00
                      |    |--G. e. lycaonides (Rothschild 1895) B00
                      |    `--G. e. nyctimus (Waterhouse & Lyell 1914) B12
                      |--G. harmodius (Doubleday 1846) S55
                      |--G. macfarlanei (Butler 1877) B00
                      |--G. macleayanus (Leach 1814) B00
                      |    |--G. m. macleayanus [incl. G. macleayanus wilsoni Couchman 1965] B00
                      |    |--G. m. insulana B00
                      |    `--G. m. moggana Couchman 1965 B00
                      |--G. pausanias (Hewitson 1852) S55
                      |--G. sarpedon (Linnaeus 1758) B00
                      |    |--G. s. sarpedon B00
                      |    `--G. s. choredon (Felder & Felder 1864) B00
                      `--G. telesilaus (Felder 1864) S55

Papilionidae incertae sedis:
  Bhutanitis GE05
  Praepapilio GE05
    |--P. colorado GE05
    `--P. gracilis GE05
  Iphiclides podalirius AN-A04
    |--I. p. podalirius AN-A04
    `--I. p. feisthamelii AN-A04
  Sericinus telamon P01
  Thais polyxena P01
  Zerynthia polyxena P93

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AN-A04] Askew, R. R., & J. L. Nieves-Aldrey. 2004. Further observations on Eupelminae (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Eupelmidae) in the Iberian Peninsula and Canary Islands, including descriptions of new species. Graellsia 60 (1): 27–39.

[B00] Braby, M. F. 2000. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 1. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[B12] Braby, M. F. 2012. The butterflies of El Questro Wilderness Park, with remarks on the taxonomy of the Kimberley fauna, Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 27 (2): 161–175.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[Im92] Imes, R. 1992. The Practical Entomologist. Aurum Press: London.

[Iw92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[J03] Jong, R. de. 2003. Are there butterflies with Gondwanan ancestry in the Australian region? Invertebrate Systematics 17: 143–156.

[NC91] Nielsen, E. S., & I. F. B. Common. 1991. Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 817–915. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[P01] Pável, J. 1901. Lepkék [Lepidopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 171–177. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[P93] Pittaway, A. R. 1993. The Hawkmoths of the Western Palaearctic. Harley Books: Colchester.

[S55] Schröder, H. 1955. Eine Falter-Ausbeute aus dem westlichen Bolivien. (Ins. Lepid. Rhopal.) Senckenbergiana Biologica 36: 329–338.

[S-BF05] Silva-Brandão, K. L., A. V. L. Freitas, A. V. Z. Brower & V. N. Solferini. 2005. Phylogenetic relationships of the New World Troidini swallowtails (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) based on COI, COII, and EF-1α genes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 36: 468–483.

[T07] Tsurusaki, N. 2007. The Chugoku Mountains—a hotspot of geographical differentiation of species. Taxa 22: 3–14.

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