Durango bark scorpion Centruroides suffusus, copyright Tomascastelazo.

Belongs within: Orthosterni.
Contains: Microtityus, Buthinae, Tityus.

The Buthoidea are a group of scorpions that lack ventral trichobothria on the patella of the chela (Soleglad & Fet 2001). Members are currently divided between the cosmopolitan Buthidae and the Madagascan Microcharmidae though it has been suggested that the latter represents a subgroup of the former.

    |--Microcharmidae SF01
    `--Buthidae [Androctonini, Androctonoidae, Buthoidae, Centruridae, Centrurini] B-TN08
         |  i. s.: Charmus laneus K92
         |         Uroplectes J98
         |           |--U. emiliae (Werner 1916) [=Lychas emiliae] J98
         |           `--U. occidentalis L49
         |         Microtityus B-TN08
         |         Lissothus SF01
         |         Karasbergia S-BF04
         |         Microbuthus S-BF04
         |         Orthochirus SF01
         |         Zabius SF01
         |         Pakistanorthochirus SF01
         |         Baloorthochirus SF01
         |         Orthochiroides SF01
         |         Apistobuthus SF01
         |         Razianus SF01
         |         Palaeolychas balticus Lourenço & Weitschat 1996 S-BF04
         |         Palaeotityobuthus longiaculeus Lourenço & Weitschat 2000 S-BF04
         |         Palaeoprotobuthus pusillus Lourenço & Weitschat 2000 S-BF04
         |         Palaeoakentrobuthus knodeli Lourenço & Weitschat 2000 S-BF04
         |         Palaeoananteris ribnitiodamgartensis Lourenço & Weitschart 2001 S-BF04
         |         Grosphus hirtus Kraepelin 1901 AS-N08
         |         Stenochirus Karsch 1892 K92
         |           `--*S. sarasinorum Karsch 1892 K92
         |         Rhopalurus Thorell 1876 B-TN08
         |           `--R. rochai (Borelli 1910) SS08
         |         Centrurus B06 [Centrurinae K77]
         |           |--C. degeeri T89
         |           |--C. nitidus T89
         |           |--C. tenuis T89
         |           `--C. vittatus B06
         |         Ananteris Thorell 1891 B-TN08 [Ananterinae K77]
         |           |--*A. balzanii Thorell 1891 B-T08
         |           |--A. arcadioi Botero-Trujillo 2008 B-T08
         |           |--A. ashmolei Lourenço 1981 B-T08
         |           |--A. charlescorfieldi Lourenço 2001 AO02
         |           |--A. columbiana Lourenço 1991 B-TN08
         |           |--A. cussinii Borelli 1910 B-T08
         |           |--A. dorae Botero-Trujillo 2008 B-T08
         |           |--A. ehrlichi Lourenço 1994 B-T08
         |           |--A. gorgonae Lourenço & Flórez 1989 B-T08
         |           |--A. leilae Lourenço 1999 B-T08
         |           |--A. myriamae Botero-Trujillo 2007 B-T08
         |           |--A. pydanieli Lourenço 1982 L-M-HG08
         |           `--A. tolimana Teruel & García 2007 B-T08
         |--+--Hottentotta trilineatus SF15
         |  `--+--Androctonus Ehrenberg 1828 SF15, SO18
         |     |    |--A. australis (Linnaeus 1758) GE02
         |     |    `--A. bicolor SF01
         |     `--Mesobuthus Vachon 1950 SF15, GK04
         |          |  i. s.: M. martensii SF15
         |          |--M. caucasicus (Nordmann 1840) GK04
         |          |--M. eupeus (Koch 1839) GK04
         |          `--+--M. cyprius Gantenbein & Kropf 2000 GK04
         |             `--M. gibbosus (Brullé 1832) GK04
         `--+--Buthinae SF15
            `--+--Parabuthus SF15
               |    |--P. brevimanus [=Buthus brevimanus] P01
               |    |--P. cristatus Pocock 1901 P01
               |    |--P. granulatus (Ehrenberg 1831) [incl. P. granulatus bergeri Werner 1916] J98
               |    |    |--P. g. granulatus P01
               |    |    `--P. g. fuscus Pocock 1901 P01
               |    |--P. laevifrons (Simon 1888) [incl. P. ibelli Werner 1916] J98
               |    `--P. transvaalicus SF15
               `--+--Tityus SF15
                  `--Centruroides Marx 1890 SF15, B-TN08
                       |--C. exilicauda (Wood 1863) SS08
                       |--C. gracilis (Latreille 1804) SS08
                       |--C. hentzi CS90
                       |--C. hoffmanni Armas 1996 S-LFP13
                       |--C. limpidus WS10
                       |--C. margaritatus (Gervais 1841) AO02
                       |--C. nigrimanus (Pocock 1898) C-MF13
                       |--C. nigrovariatus (Pocock 1898) S-LFP13
                       |--C. nitidus [incl. C. beynai] SF01
                       |--C. sculpturatus M-RL88
                       |--C. suffusus Pocock 1902 C-MF13
                       `--C. vittatus (Say 1821) S00

*Type species of generic name indicated


[AO02] Acosta, L. E., & J. A. Ochoa. 2002. Lista de los escorpiones bolivianos (Chelicerata: Scorpiones), con notas sobre su distribución. Revista de la Sociedad Entomológica Argentina 61 (3–4): 15–23.

[AS-N08] Aguiar, A. P. N., P. L. Santana-Neto, J. R. B. Souza & C. M. R. de Albuquerque. 2008. Relationship between litter characteristics and female size in Tityus stigmurus (Scorpiones, Buthidae). Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 464–467.

[B06] Banks, N. 1906. Arachnida from the Bahamas. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 22: 185–189.

[B-T08] Botero-Trujillo, R. 2008. The scorpion genus Ananteris in Colombia: comments on the taxonomy and description of two new species (Scorpiones, Buthidae). Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 287–299.

[B-TN08] Botero-Trujillo, R., & J. A. Noriega. 2008. First record of the scorpion genus Microtityus from Colombia, with the description of a new species (Scorpiones, Buthidae). Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 259–266.

[CS90] Corey, D. T., & I. J. Stout. 1990. Ground surface arachnids in sandhill communities of Florida. Journal of Arachnology 18: 167–172.

[C-MF13] Cupul-Magaña, F. G., & O. F. Francke. 2013. Tres especies de alacranes (Scorpiones: Buthidae y Vaejovidae) embotellados en mezcal mexicano. Revista Ibérica de Aracnología 22: 123–124.

[GK04] Gantenbein, B., & P. D. Keightley. 2004. Rates of molecular evolution in nuclear genes of east Mediterranean scorpions. Evolution 58 (11): 2486–2497.

[GE02] Giribet, G., G. D. Edgecombe, W. C. Wheeler & C. Babbitt. 2002. Phylogeny and systematic position of Opiliones: a combined analysis of chelicerate relationships using morphological and molecular data. Cladistics 18: 5–70.

[J98] Jäger, P. 1998. Das Typenmaterial der Spinnentiere (Arachnida: Acari, Amblypygi, Araneae, Opiliones, Pseudoscorpiones, Scorpiones, Uropygi) aus dem Museum Wiesbaden. Jahrbuecher des Nassauischen Vereins fuer Naturkunde 119: 81–91.

[K92] Karsch, F. 1892. Arachniden von Ceylon und von Minikoy gesammelt von den Herren Doctoren P. und F. Sarasin. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 36 (2): 267–310.

[K77] Koch, L. E. 1977. The taxonomy, geographic distribution and evolutionary radiation of Australo-Papuan scorpions. Records of the Western Australian Museum 5 (2): 83–367.

[L49] Lawrence, R. F. 1949. A collection of Opiliones and scorpions from north-east Angola made by Dr. A. de Barros Machados in 1948. Diamang Publicações Culturais 1949: 1–20.

[L-M-HG08] Lo-Man-Hung, N. F., T. A. Gardner, M. A. Ribeiro-Júnior, J. Barlow & A. B. Bonaldo. 2008. The value of primary, secondary, and plantation forests for Neotropical epigeic arachnids. Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 394–401.

[M-RL88] Meyer-Rochow, V. B., & A. R. Liddle. 1988. Structure and function of the eyes of two species of opilionid from New Zealand glow-worm caves (Megalopsalis tumida: Palpatores, and Hendea myersi cavernicola: Laniatores). Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B—Biological Sciences 233: 293–319.

[P01] Pocock, R. I. 1901. Descriptions of some new African Arachnida. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 284–288.

[S-BF04] Santiago-Blay, J. A., V. Fet, M. E. Soleglad & P. R. Craig. 2004. The second Cretaceous scorpion specimen from Burmese amber (Arachnida: Scorpiones). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology 2 (2): 147–152.

[S-LFP13] Santibáñez-López, C. E., O. F. Francke & L. Prendini. 2013. Systematics of the keyserlingii group of Diplocentrus Peters, 1861 (Scorpiones: Diplocentridae), with descriptions of three new species from Oaxaca, Mexico. American Museum Novitates 3777: 1–47.

[SS08] Sarmento, S. M. N., A. M. de Souza, M. V. Meiado & C. M. R. de Albuquerque. 2008. Notes on the life history traits of Rhopalurus rochai (Scorpiones, Buthidae) under different feeding regimes. Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 476–479.

[SF15] Sharma, P. P., R. Fernández, L. A. Esposito, E. González-Santillán & L. Monod. 2015. Phylogenomic resolution of scorpions reveals multilevel discordance with morphological phylogenetic signal. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B—Biological Sciences 282: 20142953.

[S00] Shultz, J. W. 2000. Skeletomuscular anatomy of the harvestman Leiobunum aldrichi (Weed, 1893) (Arachnida: Opiliones: Palpatores) and its evolutionary significance. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 128: 401–438.

[SF01] Soleglad, M. E., & V. Fet. 2001. Evolution of scorpion orthobothriotaxy: a cladistic approach. Euscorpius 1: 1–38.

[SO18] Šťáhlavský, F., V. Opatova, P. Just, L. N. Lotz & C. R. Haddad. 2018. Molecular technique reveals high variability of 18S rDNA distribution in harvestmen (Opiliones, Phalangiidae) from South Africa. Comparative Cytogenetics 12 (1): 41–59.

[T89] Thorell, T. 1889. Viaggio di Leonardo Fea in Birmania e regioni vicine. XXI.—Aracnidi Artrogastri Birmani raccolti da L. Fea nel 1885–1887. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 521–729.

[WS10] Wang, M., S. Sun, C. Li & X. Shen. 2010. Distinctive mitochondrial genome of the calanoid copepod Calanus sinicus, a useful molecular marker for phylogenetic and population studies. In: China-Russia Bilateral Symposium: Proceedings of the China-Russia Bilateral Symposium of "Comparison on Marine Biodiversity in the Northwest Pacific Ocean", 10–11 October 2010, Qingdao (China) pp. 187–192. Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences; A. V. Zhirmunsky Institute of Marine Biology, Far East Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

Last updated: 16 June 2020.

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