Platygastridae

Scelio sp., copyright Edward Trammel.


Belongs within: Proctotrupomorpha.
Contains: Baeini, Telenominae.

The Platygastridae are a clade of small wasps that begin life as parasitoids of insect and spider eggs (though some may not emerge from the host until it has reached a more advanced stage of development). They are characterised by a unique telescoping ovipositor mechanism, and the presence of basiconic sensilla (presumably secretory) on the ventral surface of the first flagellomeres of the antennal clavus (Grimaldi & Engel 2005). The venation of the wings is reduced, particularly in the Platygasterinae whose forwings have only a knobbed submarginal vein or lack veins entirely. Non-platygasterine subfamilies were previously recognised as a distinct family Scelionidae before molecular phylogenetic analyses demonstrated the latter to represent a paraphyletic grouping.

Characters (from Naumann 1991, for Platygasteroidea): Parasites of eggs or larvae. Antennal sockets and clypeus very narrowly separated or contiguous. Scape relatively long (length more than 2.5 times width). Pronotum virtually continuous behind fore coxae; prepectus fused to posterior of pronotum and represented by posterior pronotal inflection. Mesoscutum without median sulcus. Axillae variable. Fore wing without pterostigma; costal cell present or absent and radial cell open posteriorly or absent. M+CuA absent from hind wing. Suture present between T2 and S2; metasomal spiracles absent. Ovipositor at rest concealed within metasoma, can be protruded by increase in hydrostatic pressure within metasoma. T9 divided into anterior and posterior parts with anterior part concealed and attached to base of tube-like ovipositor and posterior part either exposed and bearing cerci or membranous and concealed. First instar larvae teleaform, hymenopteriform or cyclopoid.

Platygastridae [Platygastroidea, Scelionidae]
    |--Scelioninae HR11
    |    |  i. s.: Archaeoteleia mellea HB13
    |    |         Hadronotus N91
    |    |           |--H. bicolor Ashmead 1894 GM79
    |    |           |--H. goethei Girault 1932 G32
    |    |           `--H. variocellus Girault 1926 G26a
    |    |         Mirobaeus A95
    |    |         Prosapegus R70
    |    |         Hoploteleia R70
    |    |--Psilanteridini N91
    |    |--Doddiella [Doddiellini] N91
    |    |--Neoscelio [Neoscelionini] N91
    |    |--Cremastobaeus [Cremastobaeini] N91
    |    |--Ladora [Aradophagini] N91
    |    |--Platyscelio [Platyscelionini] N91
    |    |--Mantibaria [Mantibariini] N91
    |    |    `--M. anomala N91
    |    |--Scelio [Scelionini] N91
    |    |    |--S. shakespearei Girault 1926 G26b
    |    |    `--S. walkeri A71
    |    |--Gryonini N91
    |    |    |--Gryon atriscapus B88, NS91
    |    |    `--Encyrtoscelio N91
    |    |--Embidobiini N91
    |    |    |--Embidobia R00
    |    |    `--Paleogryon musesebecki R00, GE05
    |    |--Thoronini N91
    |    |    |--Tiphodytes N91
    |    |    `--Microthoron N91
    |    |--Baryconini N91
    |    |    |--Baryconus N91
    |    |    |--Bracalba N91
    |    |    `--Oxyscelio N91
    |    |--Calliscelionini N91
    |    |    |--Macroteleia N91
    |    |    |--Probaryconus N91
    |    |    |--Calliscelio N91
    |    |    |--Lispoteleia N91
    |    |    |--Neoparidris N91
    |    |    |--Crama N91
    |    |    `--Jarabambius N91
    |    `--Baeini N91
    `--+--Platygasterinae [Inostemminae] N91
       |    |  i. s.: Leptacis N91
       |    |         Amblyaspis N91
       |    |         Synopeas N91
       |    |         Trichacis N91
       |    |         Iphitrachelus N91
       |    |         Inostemma N91
       |    |           |--I. boscii A71
       |    |           `--I. piricola A71
       |    |--Proplatygaster HR11
       |    `--+--Platygaster tuberosa HR11, MS01
       |       `--Isostasius HR11
       `--Telenominae HR11

Platygastridae incertae sedis:
  Nixonia watshami MH11
  Sceliomorpha HB13
  Chromateleia HB13
  Piestopleura canariensis Buhl 2005 F05
  Brachinostemma R70
  Tetrabaeus R70
  Sceliotrachelinae N91
    |--Aphanomerella N91
    |--Aphanomerus N91
    |--Parabaeus N91
    |--Amitus N91
    `--Platygastoides N91
         |--P. latus Girault 1925 G25
         |--P. magnus Girault 1926 G26b
         `--P. nitidus G25
  ‘Coelocyba’ musila Fernando 1957 B88
  Hoplogryon A71
  Oxytelia R70
  Teleasinae N91
    |--Xenomerus [Xenomerini] N91
    `--Teleasini N91
         |--Teleas clavicornis MS01
         `--Trimorus N91

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[A95] Austin, A. D. 1995. New species of baeine parasitoids of spider eggs (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) from Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 52: 253–263.

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[F05] Fernández, J. 2005. Noticia de nuevos táxones para la ciencia en el ámbito Íbero-Balear y Macaronésico. Nuevos táxones animales descritos en la península Ibérica y Macaronesia desde 1994 (IX). Graellsia 61 (2): 261–282.

[G25] Girault, A. A. 1925. New Queensland insects captured without any reference to use. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 194–195).

[G26a] Girault, A. A. 1926a. Hymenoptera minutae nova Australiensis. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 196).

[G26b] Girault, A. A. 1926b. Characteristics of new Australian insects. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 197–198).

[G32] Girault, A. A. 1932. New lower Hymenoptera from Australia and India. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 293–298).

[GM79] Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 1–400.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[HB13] Heraty, J. M., R. A. Burks, A. Cruaud, G. A. P. Gibson, J. Liljeblad, J. Munro, J.-Y. Rasplus, G. Delvare, P. Janšta, A. Gumovsky, J. Huber, J. B. Woolley, L. Krogmann, S. Heydon, A. Polaszek, S. Schmidt, D. C. Darling, M. W. Gates, J. Mottern, E. Murray, A. D. Molin, S. Triapitsyn, H. Baur, J. D. Pinto, S. van Noort, J. George & M. Yoder. 2013. A phylogenetic analysis of the megadiverse Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera). Cladistics 29: 466–542.

[HR11] Heraty, J., F. Ronquist, J. M. Carpenter, D. Hawks, S. Schulmeister, A. P. Dowling, D. Murray, J. Munro, W. C. Wheeler, N. Schiff & M. Sharkey. 2011. Evolution of the hymenopteran megaradiation. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 60: 73–88.

[MS01] Mocsáry, A., & V. Szépligeti. 1901. Hymenopterák [Hymenopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 121–169. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[MH11] Munro, J. B., J. M. Heraty, R. A. Burks, D. Hawks, J. Mottern, A. Cruaud, J.-Y. Rasplus & P. Jansta. 2011. A molecular phylogeny of the Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera). PloS One 6 (11): e27023.

[NS91] Nagelkerke, C. J., & M. W. Sabelis. 1991. Precise sex-ratio control in the pseudo-arrhenotokous phytoseiid mite Typhlodromus occidentalis Nesbitt. In: Schuster, R., & P. W. Murphy (eds) The Acari: Reproduction, development and life-history strategies pp. 193–207. Chapman & Hall: London.

[N91] Naumann, I. D. 1991. Hymenoptera (wasps, bees, ants, sawflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 916–1000. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[R70] Riek, E. F. 1970. Hymenoptera (wasps, bees, ants). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 867–959. Melbourne University Press.

[R00] Ross, E. S. 2000. Embia: Contributions to the biosystematics of the insect order Embiidina. Occasional Papers of the California Academy of Sciences 149: 1–53, 1–36.

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