Platygastridae

Scelio sp., copyright Edward Trammel.


Belongs within: Proctotrupomorpha.
Contains: Baeini, Telenominae.

The Platygastridae are a clade of small wasps that begin life as parasitoids of insect and spider eggs (though some may not emerge from the host until it has reached a more advanced stage of development). They are characterised by a unique telescoping ovipositor mechanism, and the presence of basiconic sensilla (presumably secretory) on the ventral surface of the first flagellomeres of the antennal clavus (Grimaldi & Engel 2005). The venation of the wings is reduced, particularly in the Platygasterinae and Sceliotrachelinae (Platygastridae sensu stricto) whose forwings have only a knobbed submarginal vein or lack veins entirely. Subfamilies outside the Platygastridae sensu stricto were previously recognised as a distinct family Scelionidae before molecular phylogenetic analyses demonstrated the latter to represent a paraphyletic grouping. Species of Platygasterinae and Sceliotrachelinae also differ from 'Scelionidae' in having hymenopteriform or cyclopoid larvae rather than teleaform larvae (Naumann 1991).

Characters (from Naumann 1991, for Platygasteroidea): Parasites of eggs or larvae. Antennal sockets and clypeus very narrowly separated or contiguous. Scape relatively long (length more than 2.5 times width). Pronotum virtually continuous behind fore coxae; prepectus fused to posterior of pronotum and represented by posterior pronotal inflection. Mesoscutum without median sulcus. Axillae variable. Fore wing without pterostigma; costal cell present or absent and radial cell open posteriorly or absent. M+CuA absent from hind wing. Suture present between T2 and S2; metasomal spiracles absent. Ovipositor at rest concealed within metasoma, can be protruded by increase in hydrostatic pressure within metasoma. T9 divided into anterior and posterior parts with anterior part concealed and attached to base of tube-like ovipositor and posterior part either exposed and bearing cerci or membranous and concealed. First instar larvae teleaform, hymenopteriform or cyclopoid.

Platygastridae [Platygastroidea, Scelionidae, Scelioninae]
    |--+--Telenominae MH11
    |  `--+--Calliscelionini N91
    |     |    |--Macroteleia MH11
    |     |    |--Probaryconus N91
    |     |    |--Calliscelio N91
    |     |    |--Lispoteleia N91
    |     |    |--Neoparidris N91
    |     |    |--Crama N91
    |     |    `--Jarabambius N91
    |     `--Gryonini N91
    |          |--Gryon atriscapus MH11, NS91
    |          `--Encyrtoscelio N91
    `--+--Archaeoteleia mellea MH11, HB13
       `--+--Nixonia watshami MH11
          `--Platygasterinae [Inostemminae] N91
               |  i. s.: Leptacis N91
               |         Amblyaspis N91
               |         Trichacis N91
               |         Iphitrachelus N91
               |         Inostemma N91
               |           |--I. boscii A71
               |           `--I. piricola A71
               |         Isostasius HR11
               |--Proplatygaster MH11
               `--+--Sceliotrachelinae N91
                  |    |--Aphanomerella N91
                  |    |--Aphanomerus MH11
                  |    |--Parabaeus N91
                  |    |--Amitus N91
                  |    `--Platygastoides N91
                  |         |--P. latus Girault 1925 G25
                  |         |--P. magnus Girault 1926 G26b
                  |         `--P. nitidus G25
                  `--+--Platygaster tuberosa MH11, MS01
                     `--Synopeas MH11

Platygastridae incertae sedis:
  Sceliomorpha HB13
  Chromateleia HB13
  Piestopleura canariensis Buhl 2005 F05
  Brachinostemma R70
  Tetrabaeus R70
  ‘Coelocyba’ musila Fernando 1957 B88
  Hoplogryon A71
  Oxytelia R70
  Teleasinae N91
    |--Xenomerus [Xenomerini] N91
    `--Teleasini N91
         |--Teleas clavicornis MS01
         `--Trimorus N91
  Hadronotus N91
    |--H. bicolor Ashmead 1894 GM79
    |--H. goethei Girault 1932 G32
    `--H. variocellus Girault 1926 G26a
  Mirobaeus A95
  Prosapegus R70
  Hoploteleia R70
  Psilanteridini N91
  Doddiella [Doddiellini] N91
  Neoscelio [Neoscelionini] N91
  Cremastobaeus [Cremastobaeini] N91
  Ladora [Aradophagini] N91
  Platyscelio [Platyscelionini] N91
  Mantibaria [Mantibariini] N91
    `--M. anomala N91
  Scelio [Scelionini] N91
    |--S. shakespearei Girault 1926 G26b
    `--S. walkeri A71
  Embidobiini N91
    |--Embidobia R00
    `--Paleogryon musesebecki R00, GE05
  Thoronini N91
    |--Tiphodytes N91
    `--Microthoron N91
  Baryconini N91
    |--Baryconus N91
    |--Bracalba N91
    `--Oxyscelio N91
  Baeini N91

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[A95] Austin, A. D. 1995. New species of baeine parasitoids of spider eggs (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) from Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 52: 253–263.

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[F05] Fernández, J. 2005. Noticia de nuevos táxones para la ciencia en el ámbito Íbero-Balear y Macaronésico. Nuevos táxones animales descritos en la península Ibérica y Macaronesia desde 1994 (IX). Graellsia 61 (2): 261–282.

[G25] Girault, A. A. 1925. New Queensland insects captured without any reference to use. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 194–195).

[G26a] Girault, A. A. 1926a. Hymenoptera minutae nova Australiensis. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 196).

[G26b] Girault, A. A. 1926b. Characteristics of new Australian insects. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 197–198).

[G32] Girault, A. A. 1932. New lower Hymenoptera from Australia and India. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 293–298).

[GM79] Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 1–400.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[HB13] Heraty, J. M., R. A. Burks, A. Cruaud, G. A. P. Gibson, J. Liljeblad, J. Munro, J.-Y. Rasplus, G. Delvare, P. Janšta, A. Gumovsky, J. Huber, J. B. Woolley, L. Krogmann, S. Heydon, A. Polaszek, S. Schmidt, D. C. Darling, M. W. Gates, J. Mottern, E. Murray, A. D. Molin, S. Triapitsyn, H. Baur, J. D. Pinto, S. van Noort, J. George & M. Yoder. 2013. A phylogenetic analysis of the megadiverse Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera). Cladistics 29: 466–542.

[HR11] Heraty, J., F. Ronquist, J. M. Carpenter, D. Hawks, S. Schulmeister, A. P. Dowling, D. Murray, J. Munro, W. C. Wheeler, N. Schiff & M. Sharkey. 2011. Evolution of the hymenopteran megaradiation. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 60: 73–88.

[MS01] Mocsáry, A., & V. Szépligeti. 1901. Hymenopterák [Hymenopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 121–169. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[MH11] Munro, J. B., J. M. Heraty, R. A. Burks, D. Hawks, J. Mottern, A. Cruaud, J.-Y. Rasplus & P. Jansta. 2011. A molecular phylogeny of the Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera). PloS One 6 (11): e27023.

[NS91] Nagelkerke, C. J., & M. W. Sabelis. 1991. Precise sex-ratio control in the pseudo-arrhenotokous phytoseiid mite Typhlodromus occidentalis Nesbitt. In: Schuster, R., & P. W. Murphy (eds) The Acari: Reproduction, development and life-history strategies pp. 193–207. Chapman & Hall: London.

[N91] Naumann, I. D. 1991. Hymenoptera (wasps, bees, ants, sawflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 916–1000. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[R70] Riek, E. F. 1970. Hymenoptera (wasps, bees, ants). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 867–959. Melbourne University Press.

[R00] Ross, E. S. 2000. Embia: Contributions to the biosystematics of the insect order Embiidina. Occasional Papers of the California Academy of Sciences 149: 1–53, 1–36.

Last updated: 28 April 2019.

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