Zygaenoidea

Lactura suffusa, copyright David Rentz.


Belongs within: Apoditrysia.
Contains: Procris, Zygaena.

The Zygaenoidea are a group of moths with slug-like larvae that feed on planthoppers or in ant nests. The proboscis is well developed in members of the Zygaenidae but reduced or absent in other families (Nielsen & Common 1991).

Characters (from Nielsen & Common 1991): Small to large; ocelli and chaetosemata present or absent; M often present in cell, CuP usually present, hind wing with Sc+R1 not approximate to Rs beyond cell. Larva stout, sluggish, feeding exposed or ectoparasitic on planthoppers or in ant nests. Pupa relatively broad and short, with dorsal spines, and spiracles of first abdominal segment visible (except in Epipyropidae); protruded at ecdysis.

<==Zygaenoidea GE05
    |--Heterogynidae DS73
    |--Chrysopolomidae DS73
    |--Dalceridae GE05
    |--Somabrachyidae NC91
    |--Cyclotorna A71 [Cyclotornidae GE05]
    |    |--C. egena NC91
    |    `--C. monocentra A71
    |--Megalopygidae DS73
    |    |--Lagoa crispata P27
    |    `--Megalopyge lanata (Cramer 1780) [incl. Rhabdosia tharops (Stoll 1781)] NO08
    |--Epipyropidae GE05
    |    |--Heteropsyche NC91
    |    |    |--H. melanochroma NC91
    |    |    `--H. schawerdae A71
    |    `--Fulgoraecia A71
    |         |--F. cerolestes A71
    |         `--F. eurybrachydis A71
    |--Lacturidae GE05
    |    |--Eustixis leucophthalma [=Lactura leucophthalma] ZS10
    |    |--Anticrates NC91
    |    |--Aictis NC91
    |    |--Thyridectis Meyrick 1887 NC91, M87
    |    |    `--*T. psephonoma Meyrick 1887 M87
    |    `--Lactura NC91
    |         |--L. caminaea NC91
    |         |--L. dives M86
    |         |--L. egregiella P27
    |         `--L. suffusa NC91
    |--Limacodidae [Cochlidiidae, Eucleidae] GE05
    |    |--Susica humeralis P27
    |    |--Euclea paenulata GE05, P27
    |    |--Adoneta spinuloides P27
    |    |--Monoleuca semifascia P27
    |    |--Prolimacodes scapha P27
    |    |--Lithacodes fasciola P27
    |    |--Cochlidion biguttata P27
    |    |--Parasa lepida MHG04
    |    |--Pseudanapaea denotata ZS10
    |    |--Mecytha fasciata NC91
    |    |--Scopelodes NC91
    |    |--Apoda Haworth 1809 [=Cochlidium Hübner 1822, Limacodes Berthold in Latreille 1827] P08
    |    |    `--*A. limacodes (Hufnagel 1766) [=*Cochlidium limacodes, *Limacodes limacodes] P08
    |    |--Baria Karsch 1896 O08
    |    |    |--*B. elsa (Druce 1888) [=Natada elsa] O08
    |    |    `--B. transversata Karsch 1899 O08
    |    |--Comana NC91
    |    |    |--C. corones C91
    |    |    |--C. fasciata B88
    |    |    `--C. miltocosma CS70
    |    `--Doratifera B88
    |         |--D. casta N70
    |         |--D. oxleyi NC91
    |         `--D. vulnerans [=D. longerans (l. c.)] B88
    `--Zygaenidae GE05
         |  i. s.: Levuana iridescens H91
         |         Heteropan dolens H91
         |         Pollanisus ZS10
         |           |--P. iridescens P27
         |           |--P. nielseni ZS10
         |           |--P. trimaculus C91
         |           `--P. viridipulverulenta NC91
         |         Hystiaea DS73
         |           |--H. amazonica DS73
         |           `--H. proserpina DS73
         |         Erasmia GE05
         |           |--E. aliris DS73
         |           |--E. pulchella DS73
         |           `--E. sanguiflua DS73
         |         Rjabovia Efetov & Tarmann 1995 F05
         |           `--*R. horni (Alberti 1937) [=Procris horni] F05
         |         Solaniterna Efetov 2004 F05
         |           `--*S. subsolana (Staudinger 1862) [=Ino subsolana] F05
         |         Tremewania Efetov & Tarmann 1999 F05
         |           `--*T. notata (Zeller 1847) [=Atychia notata] F05
         |         Wiegelia Efetov & Tarman 1995 F05
         |           `--*W. amasina (Herrich-Schäffer 1851) [=Procris amasina] F05
         |         Thyrassia inconcinna NC91
         |         Hestiochora Meyrick 1886 M86
         |           |--H. erythrota Meyrick 1886 M86
         |           |--H. rufiventris [=Procris rufiventris] M86
         |           |--H. tricolor [=Procris tricolor] M86
         |           `--H. xanthocoma Meyrick 1886 M86
         |         Burlacena aegerioides NC91
         |         Onceropyga NC91
         |         Brachartona catoxantha Z93
         |         Homophylotis Co70
         |--Charideinae NC91
         |--Procris NC91
         |--Zygaena NC91
         `--Chalcosiinae [Chalcosiidae] DS73
              |--Clelea sapphirina WM66
              |--Phalanna polymena WM66
              `--Cadphises DS73
                   |--C. maculata DS73
                   `--C. moorei DS73

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[Co70] Common, I. F. B. 1970. Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 765–866. Melbourne University Press.

[CS70] CSIRO. 1970. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers. Melbourne University Press.

[C91] CSIRO. 1991. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[DS73] Dickens, M., & E. Storey. 1973. The World of Moths. Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc.: New York.

[F05] Fernández, J. 2005. Noticia de nuevos táxones para la ciencia en el ámbito Íbero-Balear y Macaronésico. Nuevos táxones animales descritos en la península Ibérica y Macaronesia desde 1994 (IX). Graellsia 61 (2): 261–282.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H91] Howarth, F. G. 1991. Environmental impacts of classical biological control. Annual Review of Entomology 36: 485–509.

[MHG04] Maynard, G. V., J. G. Hamilton & J. F. Grimshaw. 2004. Quarantine—phytosanitary, sanitary and incursion management: an Australian entomological perspective. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 318–328.

[M86] Meyrick, E. 1886. Revision of Australian Lepidoptera. I. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (3): 687–802.

[M87] Meyrick, E. 1887. Descriptions of new Lepidoptera. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (4): 1037–1048.

[NO08] Nässig, W. A., & R. G. Oberprieler. 2008. An annotated catalogue of the genera of Eupterotidae (Insecta, Lepidoptera, Bombycoidea). Senckenbergiana Biologica 88 (1): 53–80.

[NC91] Nielsen, E. S., & I. F. B. Common. 1991. Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 817–915. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[N70] Norris, K. R. 1970. General biology. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 107–140. Melbourne University Press.

[O08] Özdikmen, H. 2008. Nomenclatural changes for some preoccupied harvestman genus group names (Arachnida: Opiliones). Turkish Journal of Arachnology 1 (1): 37–43.

[P08] Paclt, J. 2008. On the triple usage of the family name Apodidae in zoology (Aves; Crustacea; Insecta). Senckenbergiana Biologica 88 (1): 49–52.

[P27] Philpott, A. 1927. The maxillae in the Lepidoptera. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 721–746.

[WM66] Wallace, A. R., & F. Moore. 1866. List of lepidopterous insects collected at Takow, Formosa, by Mr. R. Swinhoe. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 355–365.

[ZS10] Zborowski, P., & R. Storey. 2010. A Field Guide to Insects in Australia 3rd ed. Reed New Holland: Sydney.

[Z93] Zimmerman, E. C. 1993. Australian Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea) vol. 3. Nanophyidae, Rhynchophoridae, Erirhinidae, Curculionidae: Amycterinae, literature consulted. CSIRO Australia.

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