Thomisidae

Male Stephanopis barbipes, copyright Ed Nieuwenhuys.


Belongs within: Dionycha.
Contains: Diaea, Ozyptila, Thomisus, Xysticus.

The Thomisidae, crab spiders, are a diverse group of spiders primarily found hunting on vegetation. Members of the family include Borboropactus, a genus of moderately large, ground-dwelling thomisids found in the Asian and African tropics that characteristically have the body coated with mud. The genus Stephanopis, found in Australasia and South America, includes species with the anterior eye row strongly recurved and the larger anterior lateral eyes positioned on a pair of protruding points at the front of the cephalothorax.

Characters (from Jocqué & Dippenaar-Schoeman 2007): Small to large; eight eyes present in two rows, lateral eyes usually on tubercles; legs laterigrade, with two tarsal claws, legs I and II usually longer than III and IV; ecribellate; entelegyne.

<==Thomisidae [Misumenoidae, Stephanopinae, Stephanopseae, Thomisoidea] S93
    |--+--Epidius parvati R14
    |  `--Stephanopoides R14
    |       |--S. brasiliana R14
    |       |--S. sexmaculata R14
    |       `--S. simoni R14
    `--+--Cebrenninus rugosus R14
       `--+--+--Geraesta hirta R14
          |  `--+--Borboropactus Simon 1884 R14, JD-S07 [Borboropactidae]
          |     |    `--B. bituberculatus R14
          |     `--Stephanopis Cambridge 1869 R14, H09 [=Stephanopsis (l. c.) nec Bedot 1896 nec Lambert 1900 H09]
          |          |--S. barbipes Koch & Keyserling 1890 KK90
          |          |--S. benhami Hogg 1909 H09
          |          |--S. cambridgei R14
          |          |--S. ditissima R14
          |          |--S. longipes H09
          |          `--S. ornata B96
          `--+--Boliscus [Bominae] R14
             |    `--B. tuberculatus R14
             `--+--Thomisus R14
                `--+--Tmarus R14
                   |    |--T. holmbergi R14
                   |    `--T. piger K01
                   `--+--Xysticus R14
                      `--+--Strophius [Strophiinae] R14
                         |    `--S. albofasciatus R14
                         `--Aphantochilus R14 [Aphantochilinae JD-S07]
                              |--A. rogersi R14
                              `--A. taurifrons R14

Thomisidae incertae sedis:
  Cymbachina Bryant 1933 PVD10
    `--*C. albobrunnea (Urquhart 1893) PVD10 [=Xysticus albobrunnea NS00]
  Saccodamus formivorus B96
  Runcinia JD-S07
    |--R. acuminata B96
    |--R. flavida JD-S07
    `--R. grammica R14
  Synema Simon 1864 PVD10
    |--S. globosum (Fabricius 1775) K55 [incl. S. globosum var. nigriventris Kulczyński 1901 K01]
    |--S. japonicum K01
    |--S. ornatum K01
    `--S. suteri Dahl 1907 PVD10
  Heriaeus hirtus (Latreille 1819) K55
  Camaricus striatipes (Van Hass 1882) [=Platythomisus striatipes; incl. C. formosus Thorell 1887] T94
  ‘Pasithea’ Blackwall 1858 non Lea 1833 S69
  Erissoides argentinus Mello-Leitão 1931 M-L31
  Bucranium L-M-HM11
  Tharpyna PVD10
    |--T. campestrata Koch 1874 E07
    `--T. munda Koch 1875 PVD10
  Cymbacha festiva Koch 1874 E07
  Amyciaea albomaculata ZS10, B96
  Pistius truncatus K01
  Rhynchognatha Thorell 1887 K92
    `--R. cinerascens Thorell 1887 K92
  Misumena Latreille 1804 M01, C01
    |--M. vatia (Clerck 1757) (see below for synonymy) C01
    |--M. nesiotis Simon 1899 S99
    |--M. oblonga K18
    |--M. plumbea [=Diaea plumbea] S99
    |--M. samlandica Petrunkevitch 1942 S93
    `--M. tricuspidata K01
  Daradius Sim. 1886 K92
    |--D. bipunctatus (Thorell 1877) [=Pistius bipunctatus] K92
    `--D. callidus Thorell 1890 K92
  Platythomisus Doleschall 1859 T94
    |--*P. phryniformis Doleschall 1859 D59
    `--P. jucundus Thorell 1894 T94
  Sidymella Strand 1942 PVD10
    |--S. angularis (Urquhart 1885) [=Sparassus angularis] NS00
    |--S. angulata (Urquhart 1885) PVD10 [=Sparassus angulatus NS00]
    |--S. benhami (Hogg 1910) PVD10
    |--S. lampei (Strand 1913) [=Sidyma lampei] J98
    |--S. lobata B96
    `--S. longipes (Koch 1874) PVD10
  Misumenops L-M-HM11
    |--M. asperatus GV09
    |--M. californicus P74
    |--M. gabrielensis P74
    |--M. lepidus MC02
    |--M. nepenthicola GV09
    |--M. rothi P74
    `--M. tricuspidatus R14
  Diaea PVD10
  Ozyptila K55
  Monaeses JD-S07
  Thomisops pupa JD-S07
  Pherecydes JD-S07
  Misumenoides formosipes E95
  Pselloninae S99
    |--Psellonus planus S99
    `--Pterelas Simon 1899 S99
         `--*P. schauinslandi Simon 1899 S99
  Facundia clara Petrunkevitch 1942 S93
  Fiducia tenuipes Petrunkevitch 1942 S93
  Filiolella argentata (Petrunkevitch 1942) S93
  Medela baltica Petrunkevitch 1942 S93
  Alcimochthes limbatus R14
  Titidius R14
  Dietinae JD-S07
  Stiphropodinae JD-S07

Misumena vatia (Clerck 1757) [=Araneus vatius; incl. Aranea citrea, Heteropoda citrea, *Misumena citrea, Thomisus citreus] C01

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B96] Brunet, B. 1996. Spiderwatch: A Guide to Australian Spiders. Reed New Holland: Sydney.

[C01] Cambridge, F. O. P. 1901. A revision of the genera of the Araneae or spiders with reference to their type species. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 51–65.

[D59] Doleschall, C. L. 1859. Tweede Bijdrage tot de kennis der Arachniden van den Indischen Archipel. Verhandelingen der Natuurkundige Vereeniging in Nederlandsch Indie [Acta Societatis Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae] 5 (5): 1–60, pls 1–18.

[E95] Elgar, M. A. 1995. The duration of copulation in spiders: comparative patterns. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 52: 1–11.

[E07] Elliott, M. G. 2007. Annotated catalogue of the Pompilidae (Hymenoptera) of Australia. Zootaxa 1428: 1–83.

[GV09] Giribet, G., L. Vogt, A. Pérez González, P. Sharma & A. B. Kury. 2009. A multilocus approach to harvestman (Arachnida: Opiliones) phylogeny with emphasis on biogeography and the systematics of Laniatores. Cladistics 25: 1–30.

[H09] Hogg, H. R. 1909. Some New Zealand and Tasmanian Arachnidae. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 42: 273–283.

[J98] Jäger, P. 1998. Das Typenmaterial der Spinnentiere (Arachnida: Acari, Amblypygi, Araneae, Opiliones, Pseudoscorpiones, Scorpiones, Uropygi) aus dem Museum Wiesbaden. Jahrbuecher des Nassauischen Vereins fuer Naturkunde 119: 81–91.

[JD-S07] Jocqué, R., & A. S. Dippenaar-Schoeman. 2007. Spider Families of the World. Royal Museum for Central Africa: Tervuren (Belgium).

[K92] Karsch, F. 1892. Arachniden von Ceylon und von Minikoy gesammelt von den Herren Doctoren P. und F. Sarasin. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 36 (2): 267–310.

[KK90] Koch, L., & E. Keyserling. 1884–1890. Die Arachniden Australiens nach der Natur beschrieben und abgebildet vol. 2. Bauer & Raspe: Nürnberg.

[K18] Kohl, F. F. 1918. Die Hautflügergruppe "Sphecinae". IV. Teil. Die natürliche Gattung Sceliphron Klug (Pelopoeus Latr.). Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museum in Wien 32: 1–171.

[K55] Kraus, O. 1955. Spinnen von Korsika, Sardinien und Elba (Arach., Araneae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 36: 371–394.

[K01] Kulczyński, V. 1901. Arachnoideák [Arachnoidea]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 311–369. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[L-M-HM11] Lo-Man-Hung, N. F., R. Marichal, D. F. Candiani, L. S. Carvalho, R. P. Indicatti, A. B. Bonaldo, D. H. R. Cobo, A. Feijoo M., S. Tselouiko, C. Praxedes, G. Brown, E. Velasquez, T. Decaëns, J. Oszwald, M. Martins & P. Lavelle. 2011. Impact of different land management on soil spiders (Arachnida: Araneae) in two Amazonian areas of Brazil and Colombia. Journal of Arachnology 39 (2): 296–302.

[M-L31] Mello-Leitão, C. F. de. 1931. Notas sobre arachnideos argentinos. Annaes da Academia Brasileira de Sciencias 3 (2): 83–97.

[MC02] Miliczky, E. R., & C. O. Calkins. 2002. Spiders (Araneae) as potential predators of leafroller larvae and egg masses (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in central Washington apple and pear orchards. Pan-Pacific Entomologist 78 (2): 140–150.

[M01] Morse, D. H. 2001. Harvestmen as commensals of crab spiders. Journal of Arachnology 29: 273–275.

[NS00] Nicholls, D. C., P. J. Sirvid, S. D. Pollard & M. Walker. 2000. A list of arachnid primary types held in Canterbury Museum. Records of the Canterbury Museum 14: 37–48.

[PVD10] Paquin, P., C. J. Vink & N. Dupérré. 2010. Spiders of New Zealand: annotated family key and species list. Manaaki Whenua Press: Lincoln (New Zealand).

[P74] Paulson, D. R. 1974. Reproductive isolation in damselflies. Systematic Zoology 23 (1): 40–49.

[R14] Ramírez, M. J. 2014. The morphology and phylogeny of dionychan spiders (Araneae: Araneomorphae). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 390: 1–374.

[S93] Selden, P. A. 1993. Arthropoda (Aglaspidida, Pycnogonida and Chelicerata). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 297–320. Chapman & Hall: London.

[S99] Simon, E. 1899. Ergebnisse einer Reise nach dem Pacific (Schauinsland 1896–1897. Zoologische Jahrbücher, Abteilung für Systematik, Geographie un Biologie der Thiere 12 (4): 411–437.

[S69] Stoliczka, F. 1869. Contribution to the knowledge of Indian Arachnoidea. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 38 pt 2 (4): 201–251, pls 18–20.

[T94] Thorell, T. 1894. Förteckning öfver Arachnider från Java och närgränsande öar, insamlade af docenten D:r Carl Aurivillius; jemte beskrifingar å några sydasiatiska och sydamerikanska Spindlar. Bihang till K. Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademiens Handlingar 20 pt 4 (4): 1–63.

[ZS10] Zborowski, P., & R. Storey. 2010. A Field Guide to Insects in Australia 3rd ed. Reed New Holland: Sydney.

Last updated: 26 September 2019.

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