Lycosidae

Female Xerolycosa nemoralis, from Spiders of the Netherlands.


Belongs within: Lycosoidea.
Contains: Evippa, Lycosinae, Arctosa, Artoriinae, Piratinae, Venonia.

The Lycosidae, wolf spiders, are a cosmopolitan group of mostly ground-hunting spiders, characterised by having the anterior eyes smaller than the posterior eyes and forming a single row near the front margin of the carapace. Subgroups of the Lycosidae include the Venoniinae, a group of small, slender spiders with glistening hairs on the abdomen, found in the Indo-Australian region, that construct simple sheet webs.

Characters (from Jocqué & Dippenaar-Schoeman 2007): Small to very large; eight eyes present in three rows, with anterior row of four small eyes, second row with two large (posterior median) eyes and third row of two intermediate-sized eyes on anterolateral surface of carapace; legs with three tarsal claws; ecribellate; male palp usually without retrolateral tibial apophysis; entelegyne; female carries egg-sac attached to spinnerets.

<==Lycosidae [Hippaseae, Hippasinae, Lycoseae, Lycosoidae]
    |--+--‘Arctosa’ ebicha PY07
    |  `--‘Arctosa’ kwangreungensis PY07
    `--+--Xerolycosa Dahl 1908 PY07, MGK03
       |    |--X. albofasciata (Brullé 1832) K55
       |    |--X. miniata (Koch 1834) MGK03
       |    `--X. nemoralis (Westring 1861) MGK03
       `--+--+--Lycosinae PY07
          |  `--+--‘Trochosa’ oraria (Koch 1876) PY07, VMP02
          |     `--+--Arctosa PY07
          |        `--Artoriinae PY07
          `--+--Piratinae PY07
             `--Venoniinae YF06
                  |  i. s.: *Satta cannibalorum Lehtinen & Hippa 1979 YF06
                  |         Agalenocosa Mello-Leitão 1944 FL13
                  |--‘Venonia’ spirocysta Chai 1991 YF06
                  `--+--Allotrochosina Roewer 1960 PY07, YF06
                     |    |--*A. schauinslandi (Simon 1899) PVD10
                     |    `--A. karri YF06
                     `--+--Venonia YF06
                        `--Anomalosa Roewer 1960 YF06
                             |--A. kochi Simon 1898 YF06
                             `--A. oz Framenau 2006 YF06

Lycosidae incertae sedis:
  Tricca alpigena (Doleschall 1852) K02
  Brevilabus gillonorum Cornic 1980 J02
  Acantholycosa lignaria (Clerck 1757) RKD02
  Evippa MGK03
  Wadicosa Zyuzin 1985 [Wadicosinae] MGK03
    |--W. fidelis (Pickard-Cambridge 1872) MGK03
    `--W. quadrifera (Gravely 1924) MG03
  Allohogna Roewer 1955 MGK03
    `--A. singoriensis (Laxmann 1770) [=Lycosa singoriensis] MGK03
  Mustelicosa Roewer 1960 MGK03
    `--M. dimidiata (Thorell 1875) [=Trochosa dimidiata] MGK03
  Tarentuloides Doleschall 1859 K92, D59
    `--*T. boiei (Doleschall 1859) [=Lycosa (Tarentuloides) boiei] D59
  Megarctosa leopardus (Sundevall 1832) K55
  Bradystichinae C90
  Sosippinae F07
    |--Sosippus Simon 1888 YF06
    |    `--S. nitidus (Mello-Leitão 1944) [=Hippasella nitida] C90
    `--Porrimosa C90
         |--P. callipoda (n. d.) C90
         |--P. castanea C90
         |--P. diversa (n. d.) C90
         |--P. glieschi (n. d.) C90
         |--P. harknessi C90
         |--P. lagotis C90
         `--P. securifera (n. d.) C90
  Schizocosa Chamberlin 1904 RU14
    |--S. crassipes PR01
    |--S. ocreata (Hentz 1844) RU14
    |--S. rovneri (Uetz & Dondale 1979) RU14
    |--S. saltatrix E95
    |--S. stridulans Stratton 1984 RU14
    |--S. uetzi Stratton 1997 RU14
    `--S. yurae (Strand 1908) [=Tarentula yurae, Avicosa yurae] J98
  Tarentula J98
    |--T. solivaga (Kulczyński 1901) [=Lycosa (Tarentula) solivaga] K01
    `--T. swakopmundensis Strand 1916 J98
  Zoicinae YF06
    |--Zoica Simon 1898 YF06
    |--Zantheres Thorell 1887 YF06
    |--Lysania Thorell 1890 YF06
    |--Shapna Hippa & Lehtinen 1983 YF06
    `--Margonia Hippa & Lehtinen 1983 YF06
         `--M. himalayensis (Gravely 1924) [=Venonia himalayensis] YF06
  Aglaoctenus Tullgren 1905 [incl. Porrima] YF06
    `--A. lagotis (Holmberg 1876) FM11
  Anomalomma Simon 1890 YF06
    `--*A. lycosinum Simon 1890 YF06
  Tricassinae F07
  Passiena torbjoerni Lehtinen 2005 FY06
  Trabeops D90
  Piratula minuta (Emerton 1885) SB14
  Gladicosa SB14
    |--G. gulosa CM07
    `--G. pulchra (Keyserling 1877) SB14
  Donacosa merlini JD-S07

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[C90] Capocasale, R. M. 1990. Las especies de la subfamilia Hippasinae de America del Sur (Araneae, Lycosidae). Journal of Arachnology 18: 131–142.

[CM07] Cokendolpher, J. C., & P. G. Mitov. 2007. Natural enemies. In: Pinto-da-Rocha, R., G. Machado & G. Giribet (eds) Harvestmen: The Biology of Opiliones pp. 339–373. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[D59] Doleschall, C. L. 1859. Tweede Bijdrage tot de kennis der Arachniden van den Indischen Archipel. Verhandelingen der Natuurkundige Vereeniging in Nederlandsch Indie [Acta Societatis Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae] 5 (5): 1–60, pls 1–18.

[D90] Dondale, C. D. 1990. Litter Araneae (Araneida). In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 477–502. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[E95] Elgar, M. A. 1995. The duration of copulation in spiders: comparative patterns. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 52: 1–11.

[F07] Framenau, V. W. 2007. Revision of the new Australian genus Artoriopsis in a new subfamily of wolf spiders, Artoriinae (Araneae: Lycosidae). Zootaxa 1391: 1–34.

[FL13] Framenau, V. W., & A. E. Leung. 2013. Costacosa, a new genus of wolf spider (Araneae, Lycosidae) from coastal north-west Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 83: 173–184.

[FY06] Framenau, V. W., & J.-S. Yoo. 2006. Systematics of the new Australian wolf spider genus Tuberculosa (Araneae: Lycosidae). Invertebrate Systematics 20: 185–202.

[FM11] Freire-Jr, G. de B., & P. C. Motta. 2011. Effects of experimental fire regimes on the abundance and diversity of cursorial arachnids of Brazilian savannah (cerrado biome). Journal of Arachnology 39 (2): 263–272.

[J98] Jäger, P. 1998. Das Typenmaterial der Spinnentiere (Arachnida: Acari, Amblypygi, Araneae, Opiliones, Pseudoscorpiones, Scorpiones, Uropygi) aus dem Museum Wiesbaden. Jahrbuecher des Nassauischen Vereins fuer Naturkunde 119: 81–91.

[J02] Jocqué, R. 2002. Genitalic polymorphism—a challenge for taxonomy. Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 298–306.

[JD-S07] Jocqué, R., & A. S. Dippenaar-Schoeman. 2007. Spider Families of the World. Royal Museum for Central Africa: Tervuren (Belgium).

[K92] Karsch, F. 1892. Arachniden von Ceylon und von Minikoy gesammelt von den Herren Doctoren P. und F. Sarasin. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 36 (2): 267–310.

[K02] Koponen, S. 2002. Ground-living spiders in bogs in northern Europe. Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 262–267.

[K55] Kraus, O. 1955. Spinnen von Korsika, Sardinien und Elba (Arach., Araneae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 36: 371–394.

[K01] Kulczyński, V. 1901. Arachnoideák [Arachnoidea]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 311–369. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[MG03] Marusik, Yu. M., & E. F. Guseinov. 2003. Spiders (Arachnida: Aranei) of Azerbaijan. 1. New family and genus records. Arthropoda Selecta 12 (1): 29–46.

[MGK03] Marusik, Yu. M., E. F. Guseinov & S. Koponen. 2003. Spiders (Arachnida: Aranei) of Azerbaijan. 2. Critical survey of wolf spiders (Lycosidae) found in the country with description of three new species and brief review of Palaearctic Evippa Simon, 1885. Arthropoda Selecta 12 (1): 47–65.

[PVD10] Paquin, P., C. J. Vink & N. Dupérré. 2010. Spiders of New Zealand: annotated family key and species list. Manaaki Whenua Press: Lincoln (New Zealand).

[PY07] Park, Y. C., J.-S. Yoo, M. P. Schwarz, N. Murphy & J.-P. Kim. 2007. Molecular phylogeny of east Asian wolf spiders (Araneae: Lycosidae) inferred from mitochondrial 12S ribosomal DNA. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 100 (1): 1–8.

[PR01] Punzo, F., & C. Reeves. 2001. Geographical variation in male courtship behaviour of the giant whipscorpion Mastigoproctus giganteus (Lucas) (Arachnida, Uropygi). Bulletin of the British Arachnological Society 12 (2): 93–96.

[RKD02] Relys, V., S. Koponen & D. Dapkus. 2002. Annual differences and species turnover in peat bog spider communities. Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 416–424.

[RU14] Rutledge, J. M., & G. W. Uetz. 2014. Juvenile experience and adult female mating preferences in two closely related Schizocosa species. Journal of Arachnology 42 (2): 170–177.

[SB14] Suter, R. B., & K. Benson. 2014. Nocturnal, diurnal, crepuscular: activity assessments of Pisauridae and Lycosidae. Journal of Arachnology 42 (2): 178–191.

[VMP02] Vink, C. J., A. D. Mitchell & A. M. Paterson. 2002. A preliminary molecular analysis of phylogenetic relationships of Australasian wolf spider genera (Araneae, Lycosidae). Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 227–237.

[YF06] Yoo, J.-S., & V. W. Framenau. 2006. Systematics and biogeography of the sheet-web building wolf spider genus Venonia (Araneae: Lycosidae). Invertebrate Systematics 20: 675–712.

Last updated: 16 November 2017.

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