Dictynidae

Female Dictyna arundinacea, copyright Robin Rigby.


Belongs within: Entelegynae.

The Dictynidae are a varied group of spiders found worldwide. The Dictyninae construct mesh-like webs on vegetation, whereas the Cicurininae and Tricholathysinae are ground-dwellers (Jocqué & Dippenaar-Schoeman 2007). The Cicurininae have a reduced cribellum and reduced anterior median eyes.

Characters (from Jocqué & Dippenaar-Schoeman 2007): Small; six or eight eyes present (anterior median eyes reduced in Cicurininae); endites converging; legs with three tarsal claws; calamistrum uniseriate; branched tracheae; cribellate, with cribellum wide, or with cribellum reduced; entelegyne.

<==Dictynidae
    |--Cicurininae GC99
    |    |--Cicurina JD-S07
    |    |    |--C. brevis JVHN90
    |    |    `--C. cicur (Fabricius 1793) SL14
    |    `--Lathys Sim. 1884 GC99, KK90
    |         |--L. alba Koch & Keyserling 1890 KK90
    |         |--L. humilis (Blackwall 1855) S02 [=Lethia humilis V09]
    |         `--L. maculata Koch & Keyserling 1890 KK90
    `--+--Tricholathys [Tricholathysinae] GC99
       |    `--T. spiralis Chamberlin & Ivie 1935 S02
       `--Dictyninae GC99
            |--Nigma walckenaeri GC99, V09
            `--Dictyna Sundevall 1833 JD-S07
                 |--D. arundinacea Linnaeus 1758 S02
                 |--D. brevitarsa Emerton 1915 PS08
                 |--D. calcarata Banks 1904 S02
                 |--D. civica E95
                 |--D. innocens P.-Cambridge 1872 S02
                 |--D. latens E95
                 |--D. minuta JVHN90
                 |--D. phylax JDW90
                 |--D. procera Kulczyński 1901 K01
                 |--D. pusilla V09
                 |--D. reticulata Gertsch & Ivie 1936 S02
                 |--D. uncinata Thorell 1856 S02
                 |--D. urquharti Roewer 1951 [=Linyphia decolora Urquhart 1894] NS00
                 |--D. volucripes E95
                 `--D. volupis E95

Dictynidae incertae sedis:
  Archaeodictyna ulova Griswold & Meikle-Griswold 1987 A02
  Devade Simon 1884 S02
  Mallos S02
    |--M. gregalis JD-S07
    |--M. pallidus Banks 1904 S02
    `--M. trivittatus E95
  Viridictyna Forster 1970 PVD10
    |--*V. kikkawai Forster 1970 PVD10
    |--V. australis Forster 1970 PVD10
    |--V. nelsonensis Forster 1970 PVD10
    |--V. parva Forster 1970 PVD10
    `--V. picata Forster 1970 PVD10
  Paradictyna Forster 1970 PVD10
    |--*P. rufoflava (Chamberlain 1946) PVD10
    `--P. ilamia Forster 1970 PVD10
  Arangina Lehtinen 1967 PVD10
    |--*A. cornigera (de Dalmas 1917) PVD10 [=Dictyna cornigera FF99]
    `--A. pluva Forster 1970 PVD10
  Emblyna annulipes (Blackwall 1846) PS08
  Aebutina GC99
  Mexitlia trivittata BS09
  Argenna D90
  Heterodictyna puella V09

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A02] Agnarsson, I. 2002. Sharing a web—on the relation of sociality and kleptoparasitism in theridiid spiders (Theridiidae, Araneae). Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 181–188.

[BS09] Blackledge, T. A., N. Scharff, J. A. Coddington, T. Szüts, J. W. Wenzel, C. Y. Hayashi & I. Agnarsson. 2009. Reconstructing web evolution and spider diversification in the molecular era. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 106 (13): 5229–5234.

[D90] Dondale, C. D. 1990. Litter Araneae (Araneida). In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 477–502. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[E95] Elgar, M. A. 1995. The duration of copulation in spiders: comparative patterns. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 52: 1–11.

[FF99] Forster, R., & L. Forster. 1999. Spiders of New Zealand and their World-wide Kin. University of Otago Press: Dunedin (New Zealand).

[GC99] Griswold, C. E., J. A. Coddington, N. I. Platnick & R. R. Forster. 1999. Towards a phylogeny of entelegyne spiders (Araneae, Araneomorphae, Entelegynae). Journal of Arachnology 27: 53–63.

[JDW90] Jennings, D. T., J. B. Dimond & B. A. Watt. 1990. Population densities of spiders (Araneae) and spruce budworms (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) on foliage of balsam fir and red spruce in east-central Maine. Journal of Arachnology 18: 181–194.

[JVHN90] Jennings, D. T., W. M. Vander Haegen & A. M. Narahara. 1990. A sampling of forest-floor spiders (Araneae) by expellant, Moosehorn National Wildlife Refuge, Maine. Journal of Arachnology 18: 173–180.

[JD-S07] Jocqué, R., & A. S. Dippenaar-Schoeman. 2007. Spider Families of the World. Royal Museum for Central Africa: Tervuren (Belgium).

[KK90] Koch, L., & E. Keyserling. 1884–1890. Die Arachniden Australiens nach der Natur beschrieben und abgebildet vol. 2. Bauer & Raspe: Nürnberg.

[K01] Kulczyński, V. 1901. Arachnoideák [Arachnoidea]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 311–369. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[NS00] Nicholls, D. C., P. J. Sirvid, S. D. Pollard & M. Walker. 2000. A list of arachnid primary types held in Canterbury Museum. Records of the Canterbury Museum 14: 37–48.

[PVD10] Paquin, P., C. J. Vink & N. Dupérré. 2010. Spiders of New Zealand: annotated family key and species list. Manaaki Whenua Press: Lincoln (New Zealand).

[PS08] Pinzón, J., & J. Spence. 2008. Performance of two arboreal pitfall trap designs in sampling cursorial spiders from tree trunks. Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 280–286.

[SL14] Samu, F., G. Lengyel, É. Szita, A. Bidló & P. Ódor. 2014. The effect of forest stand characteristics on spider diversity and species composition in deciduous-coniferous mixed forests. Journal of Arachnology 42 (2): 135–141.

[S02] Selden, P. A. 2002. Missing links between Argyroneta and Cybaeidae revealed by fossil spiders. Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 189–200.

[V09] Verdcourt, B. (ed.) 2009. Additions to the Wild Fauna and Flora of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. XXVI. Miscellaneous records. Kew Bulletin 64 (1): 183–194.

Last updated: 16 November 2017.

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