Tetragnathidae

Female orchard spider Leucauge venusta, copyright Kaldari.


Belongs within: Araneoidea.
Contains: Meta, Tetragnatha.

The Tetragnathidae are a cosmopolitan family of orb-weaving spiders. Many, but not all, species have characteristically long, well-developed chelicerae.

Characters (from Jocqué & Dippenaar-Schoeman 2007): Small to very large; eight eyes present; legs with three tarsal claws; ecribellate; entelegyne or secondarily haplogyne; male genitalia comparatively simple, with large paracymbium and often several cymbial processes, conductor and embolus coiled apically; median apophysis absent.

Tetragnathidae [Pachygnathidae]
    |--+--Meta BS09
    |  `--Metellina BS09
    |       |--M. mengei (Blackwall 1870) BBM02
    |       |--M. merianae (Scopoli 1763) GA11
    |       `--M. segmentata (Clerck 1757) BS09, BH02 [=Meta segmentata V09]
    `--+--Tetragnatha BS09
       `--Leucauge BS09 [Leucauginae]
            |--L. argyra Walckenaer 1842 WA02
            |--L. decorate (Blackwell 1864) HU08
            |--L. dromedaria (Thorell 1881) [incl. Nephila argentatum Urquhart 1887] NS00
            |--L. festiva JD-S07
            |--L. grata R13 (see below for synonymy)
            |--L. mariana Taczanowski 1881 WA02
            `--L. venusta Walckenaer 1842 WA02

Tetragnathidae incertae sedis:
  Pachygnatha BBM02
    |--P. clercki Sundevall 1823 BBM02
    |--P. degeeri Sundevall 1829 VPB11
    `--P. listeri RKD02
  Eugnatha KK84
    |--E. cylindracea Koch & Keyserling 1887 KK84
    |--E. cylindrica KK84
    `--E. rubriventris (Doleschall 1857) [=Tetragnatha rubriventris; incl. T. lupata Koch 1872] KK84
  Eucta Sim. 1881 KK84
    |--E. anguilla (Thorell 1877) [=Tetragnatha anguilla] KK84
    `--E. caudifera Koch & Keyserling 1887 KK84
  Tylorida ventralis FF99
  Glenognatha Simon 1887 HD90
    |--G. centralis Chamberlin 1925 HD90
    |--G. emertoni HD90
    |--G. foxi (McCook 1894) WCH11
    |--G. heleios Hormiga & Döbel 1990 HD90
    |--G. iviei Levi 1980 HD90
    |--G. minuta Banks 1898 HD90
    `--G. mira Bryant 1945 HD90
  Plesiometa argyra GE05
  Metleucauge B11
    |--M. kompirensis (Bösenberg & Strand 1906) B11
    `--M. yunohamensis (Bösenberg & Strand 1906) B11
  Dolichognatha [Dolichognathinae] JD-S07
  Dyschiriognatha JD-S07

Leucauge grata R13 [=Epeira grata R13, Argyroepeira grata R13; incl. E. coccinea Doleschall 1857 R13, Meta coccinea KK84]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BH02] Bell, J. R., A. J. Haughton, N. D. Boatman & A. Wilcox. 2002. Do incremental increases of the herbicide glyphosate have indirect consequences for spider communities? Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 288–297.

[B11] Blackledge, T. A. 2011. Prey capture in orb weaving spiders: are we using the best metric? Journal of Arachnology 39 (2): 205–210.

[BS09] Blackledge, T. A., N. Scharff, J. A. Coddington, T. Szüts, J. W. Wenzel, C. Y. Hayashi & I. Agnarsson. 2009. Reconstructing web evolution and spider diversification in the molecular era. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 106 (13): 5229–5234.

[BBM02] Bonte, D., L. Baert & J.-P. Maelfait. 2002. Spider assemblage structure and stability in a heterogeneous coastal dune system (Belgium). Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 331–343.

[FF99] Forster, R., & L. Forster. 1999. Spiders of New Zealand and their World-wide Kin. University of Otago Press: Dunedin (New Zealand).

[GA11] Gregorič, M., I. Agnarsson, T. A. Blackledge & M. Kuntner. 2011. Darwin's bark spider: giant prey in giant orb webs (Caerostris darwini, Araneae: Araneidae)? Journal of Arachnology 39 (2): 287–295.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[HU08] Hore, U., & V. P. Uniyal. 2008. Diversity and composition of spider assemblages in five vegetation types of the Terai Conservation Area, India. Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 251–258.

[HD90] Hormiga, G., & H. G. Döbel. 1990. A new Glenognatha (Araneae, Tetragnathidae) from New Jersey, with redescriptions of G. centralis and G. minuta. Journal of Arachnology 18: 195–204.

[JD-S07] Jocqué, R. & A. S. Dippenaar-Schoeman. 2007. Spider Families of the World. Royal Museum for Central Africa: Tervuren (Belgium).

[KK84] Koch, L., & E. Keyserling. 1884-1890. Die Arachniden Australiens nach der Natur beschrieben und abgebildet vol. 2. Bauer & Raspe: Nürnberg.

[NS00] Nicholls, D. C., P. J. Sirvid, S. D. Pollard & M. Walker. 2000. A list of arachnid primary types held in Canterbury Museum. Records of the Canterbury Museum 14: 37–48.

[R13] Rainbow, W. J. 1913. Arachnida from the Solomon Islands. Records of the Australian Museum 10 (1): 1–16.

[RKD02] Relys, V., S. Koponen & D. Dapkus. 2002. Annual differences and species turnover in peat bog spider communities. Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 416–424.

[VPB11] Varet, M., J. Pétillon & F. Burel. 2011. Comparative responses of spider and carabid beetle assemblages along an urban-rural boundary gradient. Journal of Arachnology 39 (2): 236–243.

[V09] Verdcourt, B. (ed.) 2009. Additions to the Wild Fauna and Flora of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. XXVI. Miscellaneous records. Kew Bulletin 64 (1): 183–194.

[WCH11] Welch, K. D., P. R. Crain & J. D. Harwood. 2011. Phenological dynamics of web-building spider populations in alfalfa: implications for biological control. Journal of Arachnology 39 (2): 244–249.

[WA02] Whitehouse, M., I. Agnarsson, T. Miyashita, D. Smith, K. Cangialosi, T. Matsumoto, D. Li & Y. Henaut. 2002. Argyrodes: phylogeny, sociality and interspecific interactions—a report on the Argyrodes symposium, Badplaas 2001. Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 238–245.

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