Philodromidae

Male Philodromus, possibly P. aureolus, copyright Sarefo.


Belongs within: Entelegynae.

The Philodromidae are a group of long-legged, somewhat flat-bodied spiders found hunting on the ground or among vegetation.

Characters (from Jocqué & Dippenaar-Schoeman 2007): Small to medium-sized; eight eyes present in two rows, secondary eyes lacking a tapetum; chelicerae lacking teeth; legs laterigrade, slender, with two tarsal claws, distinct claw tufts and scopulae; ecribellate; entelegyne.

<==Philodromidae
    |--Ebo D90
    |--Thanatus J98
    |    |--T. cronebergi Simon 1895 S95
    |    |--T. flavidus [incl. T. testaceus] S95
    |    |--T. formicinus (Clerck 1757) K02
    |    |--T. gnaquiensis Strand 1908 J98
    |    |--T. imbecillius CM07
    |    |--T. meronensis Levy 1977 PO08
    |    |--T. mus Strand 1908 J98
    |    |--T. pagenstecheri Strand 1906 J98
    |    |--T. sibiricus Kulczyński 1901 K01
    |    |--T. striatus Koch 1845 BBM02
    |    `--T. vulgaris Simon 1870 PO08
    `--Philodromus Walckenaer 1826 JD-S07
         |--P. aureolus V09
         |--P. caespiticola K01
         |--P. calidus Lucas 1846 E12
         |--P. californicus MC02
         |--P. cespitum (Walckenaer 1802) BBM02
         |--P. collinus Koch 1835 BH02
         |--P. corticinus (Koch 1837) K55
         |--P. diardi Doleschall 1859 D59
         |--P. dispar Walckenaer 1826 BH02
         |--P. emarginatus K01
         |--P. exilis JDW90
         |--P. fuscolimbatus Lucas 1846 E12
         |--P. histrio K01
         |--P. imbecillus WY88
         |--P. oblongiusculus Lucas 1846 E12
         |--P. ornatus Lucas 1846 E12
         |--P. gracilentus Lucas 1846 E12
         |--P. pernix Blackwall 1846 PS08
         |--P. placidus Bansk 1892 PS08
         |--P. poecilus K01
         |--P. pulchellus Lucas 1846 E12
         `--P. rufus PS08
              |--P. r. rufus PS08
              `--P. r. quartus Dondale & Redner 1968 PS08

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BH02] Bell, J. R., A. J. Haughton, N. D. Boatman & A. Wilcox. 2002. Do incremental increases of the herbicide glyphosate have indirect consequences for spider communities? Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 288–297.

[BBM02] Bonte, D., L. Baert & J.-P. Maelfait. 2002. Spider assemblage structure and stability in a heterogeneous coastal dune system (Belgium). Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 331–343.

[CM07] Cokendolpher, J. C., & P. G. Mitov. 2007. Natural enemies. In: Pinto-da-Rocha, R., G. Machado & G. Giribet (eds) Harvestmen: The Biology of Opiliones pp. 339–373. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[D59] Doleschall, C. L. 1859. Tweede Bijdrage tot de kennis der Arachniden van den Indischen Archipel. Verhandelingen der Natuurkundige Vereeniging in Nederlandsch Indie [Acta Societatis Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae] 5 (5): 1–60, pls 1–18.

[D90] Dondale, C. D. 1990. Litter Araneae (Araneida). In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 477–502. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l'Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[J98] Jäger, P. 1998. Das Typenmaterial der Spinnentiere (Arachnida: Acari, Amblypygi, Araneae, Opiliones, Pseudoscorpiones, Scorpiones, Uropygi) aus dem Museum Wiesbaden. Jahrbuecher des Nassauischen Vereins fuer Naturkunde 119: 81–91.

[JDW90] Jennings, D. T., J. B. Dimond & B. A. Watt. 1990. Population densities of spiders (Araneae) and spruce budworms (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) on foliage of balsam fir and red spruce in east-central Maine. Journal of Arachnology 18: 181–194.

[JD-S07] Jocqué, R., & A. S. Dippenaar-Schoeman. 2007. Spider Families of the World. Royal Museum for Central Africa: Tervuren (Belgium).

[K02] Koponen, S. 2002. Ground-living spiders in bogs in northern Europe. Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 262–267.

[K55] Kraus, O. 1955. Spinnen von Korsika, Sardinien und Elba (Arach., Araneae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 36: 371–394.

[K01] Kulczyński, V. 1901. Arachnoideák [Arachnoidea]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] Band II. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 311–369. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[MC02] Miliczky, E. R., & C. O. Calkins. 2002. Spiders (Araneae) as potential predators of leafroller larvae and egg masses (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in central Washington apple and pear orchards. Pan-Pacific Entomologist 78 (2): 140–150.

[PS08] Pinzón, J., & J. Spence. 2008. Performance of two arboreal pitfall trap designs in sampling cursorial spiders from tree trunks. Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 280–286.

[PO08] Pluess, T., I. Opatovsky, E. Gavish-Regev, Y. Lubin & M. H. Schmidt. 2008. Spiders in wheat fields and semi-desert in the Negev (Israel). Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 368–373.

[S95] Simon, E. 1895. Arachnides recueillis par Mr G. Potanine en Chine et en Mongolie (1876–1879). Izviestĭia Imperatorskoi Akademĭi Nauk” [Bulletin de l’Academie Imperiale des Sciences de St. Pétersbourg], Ser. 5, 4: 331–345.

[V09] Verdcourt, B. (ed.) 2009. Additions to the Wild Fauna and Flora of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. XXVI. Miscellaneous records. Kew Bulletin 64 (1): 183–194.

[WY88] Welbourn, W. C. & O. P. Young. 1988. Mites parasitic on spiders, with a description of a new species of Eutrombidium (Acari, Eutrombidiidae). Journal of Arachnology 16: 373–385.

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