Sparassidae

Habitus of male (left) and female Vindullus angulatus, from Rheims & Jäger (2008).


Belongs within: Entelegynae.
Contains: Olios, Heteropoda, Pseudopoda, Thelcticopis.

The Sparassidae, huntsman spiders, are a primarily tropical and subtropical group of sometimes large laterigrade spiders. Female sparassids possess a claw on the end of each palp (absent in the males); in members of the subfamily Heteropodinae, this claw bears long, curved ventral teeth that are shorter and/or uncurved in members of others subfamilies.

Characters (from Jocqué & Dippenaar-Schoeman 2007): Medium-sized to very large; eight eyes present in two rows; cheliceral margins with rows of teeth; legs laterigrade, with two tarsal claws, soft trilobate membranes at apex of metatarsi; ecribellate; entelegyne.

<==Sparassidae [Heteropodidae, Heteropodoidae]
    |--Deleninae [Deleneae] J05
    |    |--Delena Walckenaer 1837 M54
    |    |    `--D. cancerides Walckenaer 1837 M54
    |    `--Pediana Simon 1880 [=Polydamna Thorell 1881] H89
    |         |--*P. regina (Koch 1875) [=Heteropoda regina, *Polydamna regina, Polydora (l. c.) regina] H89
    |         |--‘Polydamna’ aurichelis Strand 1907 H89
    |         |--P. horni (Hogg 1896) [=Isopeda horni] H89
    |         |--P. mainae Hirst 1995 H95
    |         |--P. occidentalis Hogg 1902 H95
    |         `--P. tenuis Hogg 1903 H89
    |--Heteropodinae [Heteropodeae] J08
    |    |--Heteropoda J08
    |    |--Pseudopoda J08
    |    |--Yiinthi Davis 1994 J08
    |    |--Sinopoda J08
    |    |--Bhutaniella J08
    |    `--Martensopoda J08
    |--Eusparassinae [Eusparassidae] M54
    |    |--Eusparassus Simon 1903 JK05
    |    |    `--*E. dufouri JK05
    |    |--Cercetius Simon 1902 JK05
    |    |    `--*C. perezi Simon 1902 JK05
    |    `--Micrommata Latreille 1804 K55, JK05
    |         |--*M. virescens (Clerck 1757) JK05, JPV06
    |         |--M. aljibica Urones 2004 F05
    |         |--M. aragonensis Urones 2004 F05
    |         |--M. darlingi Pocock 1901 JK05
    |         |--M. formosa Pavesi 1878 PO08
    |         `--M. ligurina (Koch 1847) K55
    |--Sparassinae RJ08
    |    |--Macrinus Simon 1887 RJ08, JR08
    |    |--Nolavia Kammerer 2006 RJ08, JR08 [=Valonia Piza 1939 (preoc.) JR08]
    |    |--Sparassus Walckenaer 1805 JR08
    |    |    |--S. fontanieri S95
    |    |    |--S. oculatus S95
    |    |    |--S. potanini Simon 1895 S95
    |    |    |--S. psittacinus Doleschall 1857 D57
    |    |    |--S. tersa [incl. S. doriae] S95
    |    |    `--S. walckenaeri S95
    |    `--Vindullus Simon 1880 RJ08
    |         |--V. gracilipes (Taczanowski 1872) (see below for synonymy) RJ08
    |         |--V. angulatus Rheims & Jäger 2008 RJ08
    |         |--V. concavus Rheims & Jäger 2008 RJ08
    |         |--V. gibbosus Rheims & Jäger 2008 RJ08
    |         |--V. kratochvili Caporiacco 1955 RJ08
    |         `--V. undulatus Rheims & Jäger 2008 RJ08
    `--Sparianthinae JK05
         |--Thelcticopis J05
         |--Pseudosparianthis Simon 1887 J05
         |--Sparianthis Simon 1880 J05
         |--Pleorotus Simon 1898 J05
         |    `--*P. braueri Simon 1898 JK05
         |--Rhacocnemis Simon 1897 J05
         |    `--*R. guttatus (Blackwall 1877) JK05
         |--Stipax Simon 1898 J05
         |    `--*S. triangulifer Simon 1898 JK05
         |--Thomasettia Hirst 1911 J05
         |    `--*T. seychellana Hirst 1911 JK05
         `--Stasina Simon 1877 JK05
              |--*S. vittata Simon 1877 JK05
              |--S. americana K92
              |--S. manicata Simon 1897 JK05
              |--S. nalandica Karsch 1892 K92
              `--S. paripes [=Themeropis paripes] K92

Sparassidae incertae sedis:
  Olios JR08
  Leucorchestris Lawrence 1962 NHJ08
    |--*L. arenicola Lawrence 1962 [incl. L. kochi Lawrence 1965] NHJ08
    |--L. alexandrina Lawrence 1966 NHJ08
    |--L. sabulosa Lawrence 1966 NHJ08
    |--L. setifrons Lawrence 1966 NHJ08
    `--L. steyni Lawrence 1965 NHJ08
  Typostola magnifica B96
  Holconia JPV06
    |--H. immanis (Koch 1867) JPV06 [=Isopeda immanis FF99]
    `--H. vasta B96
  Isopeda Koch 1875 PVD10
    |--I. canberrana Hirst 1992 E07
    |--I. leishmani Hogg 1903 [=Isopoda (l. c.) leishmani] E07
    |--I. montana FF99
    |--I. vastata Strand 1907 J98
    `--I. villosa Koch 1875 PVD10
  Neosparassus B96
    |--N. calligaster [=Olios calligaster] B96
    |--N. diana [=Olios diana] B96
    `--N. punctatus [=Olios punctatus] B96
  Isopedella Hirst 1990 PVD10
    |--I. conspersa (Koch 1875) [incl. Isopeda maculigastra Strand 1907, Isopedella maculigaster] J98
    |--I. pessleri (Thorell 1870) [=Isopeda pessleri] E07
    `--I. victorialis Hirst 1993 PVD10
  Palystella Lawrence 1928 JK05
    |--*P. sexmaculatus JK05
    |--‘Olios’ isongonis Strand 1915 J98
    |--P. namaquensis Lawrence 1938 JK05
    `--P. pallida Lawrence 1938 JK05
  Palystes Koch 1875 JK05
    |--*P. castaneus (Latreille 1819) JK05
    |--P. ellioti J98
    |--P. hoehneli Simon 1890 [incl. P. bornemiszai] JK05
    |--P. modificus Strand 1906 J98
    |    |--P. m. modificus J98
    |    `--P. m. minor Strand 1906 J98
    |--P. perornatus Pocock 1900 JK05
    |--P. speciosus Poc. 1898 R13
    `--P. superciliosus Koch 1875 J98
  Eodelena melanochelis (Strand 1913) [=Zachria melanochelis] J98
  Midamus Sim. 1880 T94
    `--M. lutescens Thorell 1894 T94
  Origes Simon 1897 JR08
    |--*O. pollens Simon 1897 JR08
    |--O. chloroticus Mello-Leitão 1945 JR08
    `--O. nigrovittatus (Keyserling 1880) [=Sparassus nigrovittatus, Olios nigrovittatus] JR08
  Prusias Pickard-Cambridge 1892 [incl. Ramnes Pickard-Cambridge 1892] JR08
    |--*P. nugalis Pickard-Cambridge 1892 JR08
    |--P. brasiliensis Mello-Leitão 1915 JR08
    |--P. lanceolatus Simon 1897 JR08
    `--P. semotus (Pickard-Cambridge 1892) [=*Ramnes semotus, Heteropoda simoni Bonnet 1957 (n. n.)] JR08
  Tibellomma Simon 1903 JR08
    `--*T. chazaliae (Simon 1898) [=Prusias chazaliae] JR08
  Paenula Simon 1897 JR08
    `--*P. paupercula Simon 1897 JR08
  Polybetes Simon 1896 JR08
  Adcatomus Karsch 1880 JR08
  Chrosioderma Simon 1897 JR08
    |--*C. albidum Simon 1897 JK05
    `--C. ranomafana Silva-Dávila 2005 JK05
  Dermochrosia Mello-Leitão 1940 JR08
  Sparianthina Banks 1929 JR08
    `--S. selenopoides Banks 1929 JR08
  Remmius Simon 1897 JR08
    |--*R. vultuosus Strand 1907 JK05
    `--R. badius Roewer 1961 JK05
  Quemedice Mello-Leitão 1942 JR08
    |--Q. enigmaticus Mello-Leitão 1942 FM11
    `--Q. piracuruca Rheims, Labarque & Ramírez 2008 FM11
  Anaptomecus Simon 1903 JR08
  Arandisa Lawrence 1938 JK05
    `--*A. deserticola Lawrence 1938 JK05
  Staianus Simon 1889 JK05
    `--*S. acuminatus Simon 1889 JK05
  Carparachne Lawrence 1962 JK05
    |--*C. alba Lawrence 1962 JK05
    `--C. aureoflava Lawrence 1966 JK05
  Cebrennus Simon 1880 JK05
    |--*C. wagae JK05
    `--C. aethiopicus Simon 1880 JK05
  Parapalystes Croeser 1996 JK05
    |--*P. euphorbiae Croeser 1996 JK05
    |--P. cultrifer (Pocock 1900) JK05
    |--P. lycosinus (Pocock 1900) JK05
    `--P. whiteae (Pocock 1902) JK05
  Anchonastus Simon 1898 JK05
    |--*A. caudatus Simon 1898 JK05
    `--A. plumosus (Pocock 1899) JK05
  Barylestis Simon 1910 JK05
    |--*B. blaisei JK05
    |--B. fagei (Lessert 1929) [=Torania fagei] JK05
    |--B. montandoni Lessert 1929 [=Torania montandoni] JK05
    |--B. occidentalis (Simon 1887) [=Torania occidentalis] JK05
    |--B. scutatus (Pocock 1903) [=Torania scutata] JK05
    `--B. variatus (Pocock 1899) [=Torania variata] JK05
  Berlandia Lessert 1921 JK95
    |--*B. longipes Lessert 1921 JK05
    `--B. tenebricola Simon & Fage 1922 JK05
  Cerbalus Simon 1897 JK05
    |--C. ergensis JK05
    `--C. pulcherrimus (Simon 1880) (see below for synonymy) JK05
  Damastes Simon 1880 JK05
    `--*D. grandidieri JK05
  Gnathopalystes Rainbow 1899 JK05
    `--*G. ferox JK05
  Megaloremmius Simon 1903 JK05
    `--*M. leo Simon 1903 JK05
  Microrchestris Lawrence 1962 JK05
    |--*M. melanogaster Lawrence 1962 JK05
    `--M. scutatus Lawrence 1966 JK05
  Nisueta Simon 1880 JK05
    |--*N. quadrispilota Simon 1880 JK05
    `--N. kolosvaryi Caporiacco 1947 JK05
  Nonianus Simon 1885 JK05
    |--*N. pictus JK05
    `--N. unilateralis Strand 1908 J98
  Orchestrella Lawrence 1965 JK05
    `--*O. longipes JK05
  Panaretella Lawrence 1937 JK05
    |--*P. distincta (Pocock 1896) JK05
    |--P. immaculata Lawrence 1952 JK05
    |--P. minor Lawrence 1952 JK05
    |--P. scutata (Pocock 1902) JK05
    `--P. zuluana Lawrence 1937 JK05
  Pseudomicrommata Järvi 1914 JK05
    `--*P. longipes (Bösenberg & Strand 1895) JK05
  Sarotesius Pocock 1898 JK05
    `--*S. melanognathus Pocock 1898 JK05
  Rhitymna JK05
    |--R. hildebrandti Järvi 1914 JK05
    `--R. saccata Järvi 1912 JK05
  Stasinoides Berland 1922 JK05
    `--*S. aethiopica Berland 1922 JK05
  Irileka iridescens Hirst 1998 T13
  Zachria Koch 1875 H95
    |--Z. flavicoma Koch 1875 H95
    `--Z. oblonga H95
  Pandercetes Koch 1875 PVD10
    |--P. isopus S10
    `--P. peronianus (Walckenaer 1837) PVD10

Cerbalus pulcherrimus (Simon 1880) [incl. C. angustifrons Denis 1960, C. sahariensis Jézéquel & Junqua 1966] JK05

Vindullus gracilipes (Taczanowski 1872) [=Olios gracilipes, Sparassus gracilipes; incl. *V. viridans Simon 1880, Olios viridans, Sparassus viridans] RJ08

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B96] Brunet, B. 1996. Spiderwatch: A Guide to Australian Spiders. Reed New Holland: Sydney.

[D57] Doleschall, C. L. 1857. Bijdrage tot de kennis der Arachniden van den Indischen Archipel. Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië, series 3, 3 (5–6): 399–434, pls 1–2.

[E07] Elliott, M. G. 2007. Annotated catalogue of the Pompilidae (Hymenoptera) of Australia. Zootaxa 1428: 1–83.

[F05] Fernández, J. 2005. Noticia de nuevos táxones para la ciencia en el ámbito Íbero-Balear y Macaronésico. Nuevos táxones animales descritos en la península Ibérica y Macaronesia desde 1994 (IX). Graellsia 61 (2): 261–282.

[FF99] Forster, R., & L. Forster. 1999. Spiders of New Zealand and their World-wide Kin. University of Otago Press: Dunedin (New Zealand).

[FM11] Freire-Jr, G. de B., & P. C. Motta. 2011. Effects of experimental fire regimes on the abundance and diversity of cursorial arachnids of Brazilian savannah (cerrado biome). Journal of Arachnology 39 (2): 263–272.

[H89] Hirst, D. B. 1989. A revision of the genus Pediana Simon (Heteropodidae: Araneae) in Australia. Records of the South Australian Museum 23 (2): 113–126.

[H95] Hirst, D. B. 1995. Further studies on the Australian Heteropodidae (Araneae): a new species of Pediana Simon, and description of the male Zachria flavicoma L. Koch. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 52: 145–149.

[J98] Jäger, P. 1998. Das Typenmaterial der Spinnentiere (Arachnida: Acari, Amblypygi, Araneae, Opiliones, Pseudoscorpiones, Scorpiones, Uropygi) aus dem Museum Wiesbaden. Jahrbuecher des Nassauischen Vereins fuer Naturkunde 119: 81–91.

[J05] Jäger, P. 2005. Seramba Thorell 1887 is a synonym of Thelcticopis Karsch 1884 (Arachnida, Araneae, Sparassidae, Sparianthinae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 85 (1): 57–59.

[J08] Jäger, P. 2008. Revision of the huntsman spider genus Heteropoda Latreille 1804: species with exceptional male palpal conformations from southeast Asia and Australia (Arachnida, Araneae, Sparassidae, Heteropodinae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 88 (2): 239–310.

[JK05] Jäger, P., & D. Kunz. 2005. An illustrated key to genera of African huntsman spiders (Arachnida, Araneae, Sparassidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 85 (2): 163–213.

[JPV06] Jäger, P., B. Pathoumthong & V. Vedel. 2006. First record of the genus Pseudopoda Jäger 2000 in Laos with description of new species (Arachnida, Araneae, Sparassidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 86 (2): 219–228.

[JR08] Jäger, P., & C. A. Rheims. 2008. On the genera Origes Simon 1897, Prusias O. Pickard-Cambridge 1892, Tibelloma Simon 1903 and Paenula Simon 1897 from South and Central America (Arachnida, Araneae, Sparassidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 88 (1): 29–39.

Jocqué, R., & A. S. Dippenaar-Schoeman. 2007. Spider Families of the World. Royal Museum for Central Africa: Tervuren (Belgium).

[K92] Karsch, F. 1892. Arachniden von Ceylon und von Minikoy gesammelt von den Herren Doctoren P. und F. Sarasin. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 36 (2): 267–310.

[K55] Kraus, O. 1955. Spinnen von Korsika, Sardinien und Elba (Arach., Araneae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 36: 371–394.

[M54] Main, B. Y. 1954. Spiders and Opiliones. In: Willis, J. H. (ed.) The Archipelago of the Recherche pp. 37–53. Australian Geographical Society: Melbourne.

[NHJ08] Nørgaard, T., J. R. Henschel & P. Jäger. 2008. Nomenclatural mating: Leucorchestis kochi Lawrence 1965 is a synonym of Leucorchestis arenicola Lawrence 1962 (Arachnida, Araneae, Sparassidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 88 (1): 41–44.

[PVD10] Paquin, P., C. J. Vink & N. Dupérré. 2010. Spiders of New Zealand: annotated family key and species list. Manaaki Whenua Press: Lincoln (New Zealand).

[PO08] Pluess, T., I. Opatovsky, E. Gavish-Regev, Y. Lubin & M. H. Schmidt. 2008. Spiders in wheat fields and semi-desert in the Negev (Israel). Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 368–373.

[R13] Rainbow, W. J. 1913. Arachnida from the Solomon Islands. Records of the Australian Museum 10 (1): 1–16.

[RJ08] Rheims, C. A., & P. Jäger. 2008. Revision of the Neotropical huntsman spider genus Vindullus Simon (Araneae, Sparassidae). Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 221–231.

[S95] Simon, E. 1895. Arachnides recueillis par Mr G. Potanine en Chine et en Mongolie (1876–1879). Izviestĭia Imperatorskoi Akademĭi Nauk” (Bulletin de l’Academie Imperiale des Sciences de St. Pétersbourg), ser. 5, 4: 331–345.

[S10] Strand, E. 1910. Spinnentiere aus Neuguinea (Opiliones, Psechridae und Clubionidae) gesammelt von Dr. Schlaginhaufen. Abhandlungen und Berichte des Königl. Zoologischen und Anthropologisch-Ethnographischen Museums zu Dresden 13 (5): 1–16.

[T13] Taylor, C. K. 2013. Annotated bibliography for Barrow Island terrestrial invertebrates. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 83: 135–144.

[T94] Thorell, T. 1894. Förteckning öfver Arachnider från Java och närgränsande öar, insamlade af docenten D:r Carl Aurivillius; jemte beskrifingar å några sydasiatiska och sydamerikanska Spindlar. Bihang till K. Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademiens Handlingar 20 pt 4 (4): 1–63.

Last updated: 23 June 2017.

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