Pisauridae

Female nursery web spider Dolomedes minor guarding nursery web, copyright Bryce McQuillan.


Belongs within: Lycosoidea.

The Pisauridae, nursery web spiders, are a cosmopolitan group of spiders in which the females carry the egg-case with the chelicerae underneath the sternum, before placing it in a nursery web constructed on vegetation to house the spiderlings (Jocqué & Dippenaar-Schoeman 2007).

Characters (from Jocqué & Dippenaar-Schoeman 2007): Medium-sized to very large; eight eyes present in two, three or four rows, with at least one pair of eyes on shallow tubercles; legs with three tarsal claws, trochanters deeply notched, tarsi pseudosegmented; abdomen elongated, tapering towards rear; ecribellate; entelegyne.

<==Pisauridae [Halidae]
    |--Euprosthenops proximus Lessert 1916 HD-S02
    |--Afropisaura rothiformis (Strand 1908) [=Pisaura rothiformis] J98
    |--Euprosthenopsis JD-S07
    |--Tolma Jocqué 1994 JD-S07
    |--Rothus JD-S07
    |--Pisaura Simon 1885 JD-S07
    |    `--P. mirabilis (Clerck 1757) K55
    |--Perenethis Koch 1879 K92
    |    `--P. unifasciata (Doleschall 1859) K92, D59 [=Dolomedes unifasciatus K92; incl. P. venusta Koch 1878 K92]
    |--Tetragonophthalma C90
    |    `--‘Birabenia’ taeniata Mello-Leitão 1943 (n. d.) C90
    |--Hala Jocqué 1994 JD-S07
    |    `--H. paulyi JD-S07
    |--Voraptus Simon 1898 JD-S07
    |    `--*V. tenellus (Simon 1893) JD-S07
    |--Ancylometes Bertkau 1880 [incl. Corinoctenus Mello-Leitão 1939] SB01
    |    |--A. bogotensis [incl. Phoneutria niveobarbata Mello-Leitão 1945] SB01
    |    `--A. rufus (Walckenaer 1837) L-M-HG08
    `--Dolomedes BS09
         |--D. albocinctus Doleschall 1859 D59
         |--D. aquaticus Goyen 1888 E07
         |--D. australianus (Koch 1865) B96
         |--D. clercki Simon 1937 K55
         |--D. eberhardarum Strand 1913 J98
         |--D. fimbriatus (Clerck 1757) K55
         |--D. huttoni Hogg 1908 H09
         |--D. lateralis White 1849 W49
         |--D. longimanus Stoliczka 1869 S69
         |--D. minor (Koch 1876) PY07
         |--D. mirificus W49
         |--D. raptor (Bösenberg & Strand 1906) PY07
         |--D. sagittiger White 1849 W49
         |--D. schauinslandi H09
         |--D. sumatranus Strand 1906 J98
         |--D. tenebrosus Hentz 1844 ZO11
         |--D. trippi Hogg 1908 H09
         |--D. triton (Walckenaer 1837) RU14
         `--D. vittatus Walckenaer 1837 SB14

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BS09] Blackledge, T. A., N. Scharff, J. A. Coddington, T. Szüts, J. W. Wenzel, C. Y. Hayashi & I. Agnarsson. 2009. Reconstructing web evolution and spider diversification in the molecular era. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 106 (13): 5229–5234.

[B96] Brunet, B. 1996. Spiderwatch: A Guide to Australian Spiders. Reed New Holland: Sydney.

[C90] Capocasale, R. M. 1990. Las especies de la subfamilia Hippasinae de America del Sur (Araneae, Lycosidae). Journal of Arachnology 18: 131–142.

[D59] Doleschall, C. L. 1859. Tweede Bijdrage tot de kennis der Arachniden van den Indischen Archipel. Verhandelingen der Natuurkundige Vereeniging in Nederlandsch Indie [Acta Societatis Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae] 5 (5): 1-60, pls 1–18.

[E07] Elliott, M. G. 2007. Annotated catalogue of the Pompilidae (Hymenoptera) of Australia. Zootaxa 1428: 1–83.

[HD-S02] Haddad, C. R., & A. S. Dippenaar-Schoeman. 2002. The influence of mound structure on the diversity of spiders (Araneae) inhabiting the abandoned mounds of the snouted harvester termite Trinervitermes trinervoides. Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 403–408.

[H09] Hogg, H. R. 1909. Some New Zealand and Tasmanian Arachnidae. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 42: 273–283.

[J98] Jäger, P. 1998. Das Typenmaterial der Spinnentiere (Arachnida: Acari, Amblypygi, Araneae, Opiliones, Pseudoscorpiones, Scorpiones, Uropygi) aus dem Museum Wiesbaden. Jahrbuecher des Nassauischen Vereins fuer Naturkunde 119: 81–91.

[JD-S07] Jocqué, R., & A. S. Dippenaar-Schoeman. 2007. Spider Families of the World. Royal Museum for Central Africa: Tervuren (Belgium).

[K92] Karsch, F. 1892. Arachniden von Ceylon und von Minikoy gesammelt von den Herren Doctoren P. und F. Sarasin. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 36 (2): 267–310.

[K55] Kraus, O. 1955. Spinnen von Korsika, Sardinien und Elba (Arach., Araneae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 36: 371–394.

[L-M-HG08] Lo-Man-Hung, N. F., T. A. Gardner, M. A. Ribeiro-Júnior, J. Barlow & A. B. Bonaldo. 2008. The value of primary, secondary, and plantation forests for Neotropical epigeic arachnids. Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 394–401.

[PY07] Park, Y. C., J.-S. Yoo, M. P. Schwarz, N. Murphy & J.-P. Kim. 2007. Molecular phylogeny of east Asian wolf spiders (Araneae: Lycosidae) inferred from mitochondrial 12S ribosomal DNA. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 100 (1): 1–8.

[RU14] Rutledge, J. M., & G. W. Uetz. 2014. Juvenile experience and adult female mating preferences in two closely related Schizocosa species. Journal of Arachnology 42 (2): 170–177.

[SB01] Simó, M., & A. D. Brescovit. 2001. Revision and cladistic analysis of the Neotropical spider genus Phoneutria Perty, 1833 (Araneae, Ctenidae), with notes on related Cteninae. Bulletin of the British Arachnological Society 12 (2): 67–82.

[S69] Stoliczka, F. 1869. Contribution to the knowledge of Indian Arachnoidea. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 38 pt 2 (4): 201–251, pls 18–20.

[SB14] Suter, R. B., & K. Benson. 2014. Nocturnal, diurnal, crepuscular: activity assessments of Pisauridae and Lycosidae. Journal of Arachnology 42 (2): 178–191.

[W49] White, A. 1849. Descriptions of apparently new species of Aptera from New Zealand. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 17: 3–6 (reprinted 1850. Annals & Magazine of Natural History series 2, 5: 50–53).

[ZO11] Zakharov, B. P. & V. I. Ovtcharenko. 2011. Morphological organization of the male palpal organ in Australian ground spiders of the genera Anzacia, Intruda, Zelanda, and Encoptarthria (Araneae: Gnaphosidae). Journal of Arachnology 39 (2): 327–336.

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