Araneidae

Basilica spider Mecynogea lemniscata, copyright Volcano.


Belongs within: Araneoidea.
Contains: Araneinae, Gasteracantha, Argiope, Cyrtophora.

The Araneidae is the largest family of orb-weaving spiders, members of which construct an orb web with a sticky spiral, or a modification thereof (Jocqué & Dippenaar-Schoeman 2007).

Characters (from Jocqué & Dippenaar-Schoeman 2007): Small to large; eight eyes present in two rows with lateral eyes widely separated from median eyes; labium rebordered; legs with three tarsal claws, usually with numerous spines and sustentaculum on tarsus IV; abdomen globose, overhanging the carapace; ecribellate; male palp with mesal cymbium, median apophysis and radix in embolic division; entelegyne.

Araneidae
    |--+--Mastophora phrynosoma BS09
    |  `--Araneinae BS09
    `--+--Gasteracanthinae H39
       |    |--Gasteracantha BS09
       |    `--Risdonius Hickman 1939 H39, W76
       |         `--R. parvus H39
       `--+--Argiope BS09
          `--Cyrtophorinae [Cyrtophoreae] FS09
               |--Cyrtophora BS09
               |--Kapogea Levi 1997 FS09
               |--Manogea Levi 1997 FS09
               |--Cyrtobill Framenau & Scharff 2009 FS09
               |    `--*C. darwini Framenau & Scharff 2009 FS09
               `--Mecynogea Simon 1903 [incl. Hentzia McCook 1894] FS09
                    |--M. lemniscata (Walckenaer 1841) B11
                    `--‘Hentzia’ mitrata (Marx 1883) TF98

Araneidae incertae sedis:
  Acusilas Simon 1895 K02
    |--A. coccineus Simon 1895 K02
    `--A. malaccensis JD-S07
  Hingstepeira Levi 1995 K02
    `--H. folisecens (Hingston 1932) K02
  Milonia Thorell 1890 K02
    `--M. trifasciata Thorell 1890 K02
  Orsinome lagenifera (Urquhart 1888) M83, NS00 [=Linyphia lagenifera NS00]
  Arachnura Vinson 1863 FF99, M54
    |--A. feredayi Koch 1874 (see below for synonymy) NS00
    `--A. higginsii (Koch 1873) [=Epeira higginsii] M54
  Cryptaranea FF99 [incl. Holaranea Court & Forster 1988 (n. n.) NS00]
    |--C. albolineata (Urquhart 1893) [=Epeira albolineata, Holaranea albolineata] NS00
    |--C. atrihastula FF99
    |--C. invisibilis (Urquhart 1892) [=Epeira invisibilis] NS00
    |--C. subalpina FF99
    |--C. subcompta (Urquhart 1887) [=Epeira subcompta; incl. E. peronginia Urquhart 1894] NS00
    `--C. venustula (Urquhart 1891) (see below for synonymy) NS00
  Colaranea FF99
    |--C. melanoviridis FF99
    |--C. verutum (Urquhart 1887) (see below for synonymy) NS00
    `--C. viriditas (Urquhart 1887) [incl. Epeira flavomaculata Urquhart 1890] NS00
  Celaenia FF99
    |--C. atkinsoni B96
    |--C. distincta B96
    |--C. dubia B96
    |--C. excavata G84
    |--C. kinbergi (Thorell 1868) B96
    |--C. olivacea (Urquhart 1885) [=Thlaosoma olivacea] NS00
    `--C. penna (Urquhart 1887) [=Thlaosoma pennum] NS00
  Poecilopachys australasia FF99 [incl. P. bispinosa B96]
  Zealaranea FF99
    |--Z. crassa (Walckenaer 1842) (see below for synonymy) NS00
    |--Z. saxitalis (Urquhart 1887) [=Epeira saxitalis] NS00
    `--Z. trinotata (Urquhart 1890) (see below for synonymy) NS00
  Novaranea laevigata FF99
  Ordgarius Koch & Keyserling 1886 B96, KK84
    |--*O. monstrosus Koch & Keyserling 1886 KK84
    |--O. furcatus B96
    `--O. magnificus (Rainbow 1897) [=Dicrostichus magnificus] B96
  Archemorus curtulus (Simon 1893) B96
  Cladomelea B96
  Micrathena M-L31 [Micratheninae JD-S07]
    |--M. clypeata JD-S07
    |--M. gracilis (Walckenaer 1805) Z02
    |--M. nigrichelis Strand 1908 P-GGJ08
    |--M. paraguayensis Mello-Leitão 1931 M-L31
    `--M. plana E90
  Cyphalonotus HU08
  Parawixia Pickard-Cambridge 1904 AM11
    |--P. kochi (Taczanowski 1873) AM11
    `--P. velutina (Taczanowski 1878) AM11
  Wagneriana Pickard-Cambridge 1904 AM11
  Larinioides Caporiacco 1934 AM11
    |--L. cornutus (Clerck 1757) KJ08
    |--L. patagiatus (Clerck 1757) AM11
    `--L. sclopetarius (Clerck 1757) AM11
  Megaraneus Lawrence 1968 FS09
    `--M. gabonensis (Lucas 1858) [=Cyrtophora gabonensis] FS09
  Gea Koch 1843 FS09
  Caerostris Thorell 1868 GA11
    |--C. darwini Kuntner & Agnarsson 2010 GA11
    |--C. ‘paradoxa’ (Doleschall 1859) [=Epeira paradoxa non Lucas 1846] K92
    `--C. sumatrana Strand 1915 GA11
  Spilasma L-M-HM11
  Alenatea fuscocolorata (Bösenberg & Strand 1906) [=Araneus fuscocoloratus] AM11
  Eriovixia AM11
    |--E. excelsa (Simon 1889) HU08
    |--E. laglaizei (Simon 1877) GA11
    `--E. poonaensis (Tikader & Bal 1981) AM11
  Lariniaria argiopiformis (Bösenberg & Strand 1906) AM11
  Stroemiellus stroemi (Thorell 1870) AM11
  Edricus Pickard-Cambridge 1890 AM11
  Pycnacantha JD-S07
  Poltys Koch 1843 JD-S07, K92 [incl. Pleuromma Doleschall 1859 K92]
    |--P. bimaculatus Koch in Koch & Keyserling 1886 KK84
    |--P. columnaris Thor. 1889-1890 K92
    |--P. coronatus Koch in Koch & Keyserling 1886 KK84
    |--P. illepidus Koch 1843 [incl. *Pleuromma moluccum Doleschall 1859, Po. moluccum] K92
    |--P. keyserlingi Koch in Koch & Keyserling 1886 KK84
    |--P. laciniosus Koch in Koch & Keyserling 1886 KK84
    `--P. mammeatus Koch in Koch & Keyserling 1886 KK84
  Taczanowskia JD-S07
  Paraplectanoides Koch & Keyserling 1886 JD-S07, KK84
    `--*P. crassipes Koch & Keyserling 1886 KK84
  Arciinae JD-S07
  Cyrtarachne Thor. 1868 K92 [Cyrtarachninae JD-S07]
    |--C. bispinosa KK84
    |--‘Gasteracantha (Aranocthra)’ mastoidea KK84
    |--C. perspicillata (Doleschall 1859) [=Epeira perspicillata] K92
    |--C. setosa Koch & Keyserling 1886 KK84
    |--C. speciosa KK84
    `--C. verrucosa KK84
  Austracantha minax MC13

Arachnura feredayi Koch 1874 [incl. A. longicauda Urquhart 1885, A. longicauda var. nigritia Urquhart 1885, A. obtusa Urquhart 1885] NS00

Colaranea verutum (Urquhart 1887) [=Epeira verutum; incl. E. verutum var. hastatum Urquhart 1887, E. verutum var. lineola Urquhart 1887] NS00

Cryptaranea venustula (Urquhart 1891) [=Holaranea venustula; incl. Epeira munda var. inversa Urquhart 1893, E. munda Urquhart 1893] NS00

Zealaranea crassa (Walckenaer 1842) [incl. Epeira albiscutum Urquhart 1890, E. albostricta Urquhart 1890, E. angusticlava Urquhart 1893, E. bialbimaculata Urquhart 1887, E. dubitabilis Urquhart 1890, E. dumicola Urquhart 1889, E. lineaacuta Urquhart 1887, E. purpura Urquhart 1887] NS00

Zealaranea trinotata (Urquhart 1890) [=Epeira trinotata; incl. E. aestiva Urquhart 1890, E. trinotata var. olivinia Urquhart 1890] NS00

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AM11] Araujo, D., V. F. Mattos, A. M. Giroti, M. G. Kraeski, L. S. Carvalho & A. D. Brescovit. 2011. Cytogenetical characterization of six orb-weaver species and review of cytogenetical data for Araneidae. Journal of Arachnology 39 (2): 337–344.

[B11] Blackledge, T. A. 2011. Prey capture in orb weaving spiders: are we using the best metric? Journal of Arachnology 39 (2): 205–210.

[BS09] Blackledge, T. A., N. Scharff, J. A. Coddington, T. Szüts, J. W. Wenzel, C. Y. Hayashi & I. Agnarsson. 2009. Reconstructing web evolution and spider diversification in the molecular era. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 106 (13): 5229–5234.

[B96] Brunet, B. 1996. Spiderwatch: A Guide to Australian Spiders. Reed New Holland: Sydney.

[E90] Eberhard, W. G. 1990. Early stages of orb construction by Philoponella vicinia, Leucauge mariana, and Nephila clavipes (Araneae, Uloboridae and Tetragnathidae), and their phylogenetic implications. Journal of Arachnology 18: 205–234.

[FF99] Forster, R., & L. Forster. 1999. Spiders of New Zealand and their World-wide Kin. University of Otago Press: Dunedin (New Zealand).

[FS09] Framenau, V. W., & N. Scharff. 2009. Cyrtobill darwini, a new species in a new orb-weaving spider genus from Australia (Araneae: Araneidae: Cyrtophorinae). Records of the Western Australian Museum 25 (3): 315–328.

[G84] Gauld, I. D. 1984. An Introduction to the Ichneumonidae of Australia. British Museum (Natural History).

[GA11] Gregorič, M., I. Agnarsson, T. A. Blackledge & M. Kuntner. 2011. Darwin's bark spider: giant prey in giant orb webs (Caerostris darwini, Araneae: Araneidae)? Journal of Arachnology 39 (2): 287–295.

[H39] Hickman, V. V. 1939. Opiliones and Araneae. British, Australian and New Zealand Antarctic Research Expedition Reports Series B 4: 157–188.

[HU08] Hore, U., & V. P. Uniyal. 2008. Diversity and composition of spider assemblages in five vegetation types of the Terai Conservation Area, India. Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 251–258.

[JD-S07] Jocqué, R., & A. S. Dippenaar-Schoeman. 2007. Spider Families of the World. Royal Museum for Central Africa: Tervuren (Belgium).

[K92] Karsch, F. 1892. Arachniden von Ceylon und von Minikoy gesammelt von den Herren Doctoren P. und F. Sarasin. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 36 (2): 267–310.

[KJ08] Kawamoto, T. H., & H. F. Japyassú. 2008. Tenacity and silk investment of two orb weavers: considerations about diversification of the Araneoidea. Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 418–424.

[KK84] Koch, L., & E. Keyserling. 1884–1890. Die Arachniden Australiens nach der Natur beschrieben und abgebildet vol. 2. Bauer & Raspe: Nürnberg.

[K02] Kuntner, M. 2002. The placement of Perilla (Araneae, Araneidae) with comments on araneid phylogeny. Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 281–287.

[L-M-HM11] Lo-Man-Hung, N. F., R. Marichal, D. F. Candiani, L. S. Carvalho, R. P. Indicatti, A. B. Bonaldo, D. H. R. Cobo, A. Feijoo M., S. Tselouiko, C. Praxedes, G. Brown, E. Velasquez, T. Decaëns, J. Oszwald, M. Martins & P. Lavelle. 2011. Impact of different land management on soil spiders (Arachnida: Araneae) in two Amazonian areas of Brazil and Colombia. Journal of Arachnology 39 (2): 296–302.

[M54] Main, B. Y. 1954. Spiders and Opiliones. In: Willis, J. H. (ed.) The Archipelago of the Recherche pp. 37–53. Australian Geographical Society: Melbourne.

[MC13] Majer, J. D., S. K. Callan, K. Edwards, N. R. Gunawardene & C. K. Taylor. 2013. Baseline survey of the terrestrial invertebrate fauna of Barrow Island. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 83: 13–112.

[M83] Martin, N. A. 1983. Miscellaneous observations on a pasture fauna: An annotated species list. DSIR Entomology Division Report 3: 1–98.

[M-L31] Mello-Leitão, C. F. de. 1931. Notas sobre arachnideos argentinos. Annaes da Academia Brasileira de Sciencias 3 (2): 83–97.

[NS00] Nicholls, D. C., P. J. Sirvid, S. D. Pollard & M. Walker. 2000. A list of arachnid primary types held in Canterbury Museum. Records of the Canterbury Museum 14: 37–48.

[P-GGJ08] Penna-Gonçalves, V., C. R. M. Garcia & H. F. Japyassú. 2008. Homology in a context dependent predatory behavior in spiders (Araneae). Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 352–359.

[TF98] Townsend, V. R., Jr., & B. E. Felgenhauer. 1998. The cuticular scales of lynx spiders (Araneae, Oxyopidae). Journal of Morphology 236: 223–231.

[W76] Wunderlich, J. 1976. Spinnen aus Australien. 1. Uloboridae, Theridiosomatidae und Symphytognathidae (Arachnida: Araneida). Senckenbergiana Biologica 57 (1–3): 113–124.

[Z02] Zschokke, S. 2002. Ultraviolet reflectance of spiders and their webs. Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 246–254.

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