Araneoidea

Pirate spider Ero furcata, copyright Tone Killick.


Belongs within: Neocribellatae.
Contains: Nesticidae, Theridiidae, Synotaxidae, Cyatholipidae, Nephilidae, Araneidae, Theridiosomatidae, Symphytognathidae, Mysmenidae, Anapidae, Linyphiidae, Tetragnathidae.

The Araneoidea are a clade of spiders that commonly construct elaborate webs for capturing prey such as orb or cob webs.

Synapomorphies (from Jocqué & Dippenaar-Schoeman 2007): Cribellum absent; posterior lateral spinnerets with two aciniform gland spigots flanking flagelliform gland spigot; setae serrate; labium short; lateral eyes juxtaposed at least in males.

<==Araneoidea [Extentae]
    |--+--+--Theridioidea JD-S07
    |  |  |    |--Nesticidae JD-S07
    |  |  |    `--Theridiidae BS09
    |  |  `--Cyatholipoidea JD-S07
    |  |       |--Synotaxidae JD-S07
    |  |       `--Cyatholipidae JD-S07
    |  `--+--Nephilidae BS09
    |     `--+--Araneidae BS09
    |        `--+--Theridiosomatidae S03
    |           `--+--+--Symphytognathidae S03
    |              |  `--Mysmenidae S03
    |              `--+--Anapidae BS09
    |                 `--Synaphridae S03
    |                      |--Crassignatha Wunderlich 1994 S03
    |                      |--Iardinus Simon 1899 S03
    |                      |--Synaphris Simon 1894 S03
    |                      `--Cepheia Simon 1894 S03
    |                           `--C. longiseta Simon 1881 S03
    `--+--Linyphioidea JD-S07
       |    |--Linyphiidae BS09
       |    `--Pimoidae JD-S07
       |         |--Weintrauboa Hormiga 2003 JD-S07
       |         |--Nanoa Hormiga, Buckle & Scharff 2005 JD-S07
       |         `--Pimoa Chamberin & Ivie 1943 JD-S07
       |              |--P. altioculata Chamberlin & Ivie 1943 SC97
       |              `--P. laurae JD-S07
       `--+--Tetragnathidae BS09
          `--+--Malkaridae JD-S07
             |    |--Malkara Davies 1980 [Malkarinae] RRH09
             |    |    `--M. loricata FF99
             |    `--Sternoidinae [Sternodidae, Sternoidini] RRH09
             |         |--Carathea Moran 1986 RRH09
             |         |--Chilenodes Platnick & Forster 1987 RRH09
             |         `--Perissopmeros Butler 1932 (see below for synonymy) RRH09
             |              |--*P. castaneous Butler 1932 RRH09
             |              |--P. darwini Rix, Roberts & Harvey 2009 RRH09
             |              |--*Sternodes’ foraminatus Butler 1929 [=*Sternoides foraminatus] RRH09
             |              `--‘Sternodes’ mullawerringi JD-S07
             `--Mimetidae FF99
                  |--Mimetarchaea gintaras Eskov 1992 SHR08
                  |--Gnolus [Gnoleae, Oarciinae] SC97
                  |--Mimetus Hentz 1832 BS09, JD-S07
                  |    |--M. hesperus R14
                  |    `--M. notius R14
                  |--Australomimetus Heimer 1989 PVD10
                  |    |--A. mendicus (Pickard-Cambridge 1879) PVD10
                  |    `--A. sennio (Urquhart 1891) PVD10
                  `--Ero FF99
                       |--E. aberrans Petrunckevitch 1958 S93
                       |--E. cambridgei Kulczynski 1911 BBM02
                       |--E. carboneana Petrunkevitch 1942 S93
                       |--E. furcata (Villers 1789) BBM02
                       `--E. permunda Petrunkevitch 1942 S93

Araneoidea incertae sedis:
  Hypopthalma E90
  Juraraneus [Juraraneidae] SHR08
    `--J. rasnitsyni Eskov 1984 SHR08
  Cretaraneus vilaltae Selden 1990 S93
  Acrometidae S93
    |--Pseudoacrometa gracilipes Wunderlich 1986 S93
    |--Cornuanandrus maior Wunderlich 1986 S93
    |--Anandrus S93
    |    |--A. inermis (Petrunkevitch 1942) S93
    |    |--A. quaesitus (Petrunkevitch 1958) S93
    |    `--A. redemptus (Petrunkevitch 1958) S93
    `--Acrometa S93
         |--A. cristata Petrunkevitch 1942 S93
         |--A. minutum (Petrunkevitch 1942) S93
         |--A. robustum (Petrunkevitch 1942) S93
         |--A. samlandica (Petrunkevitch 1942) S93
         |--A. setosus (Petrunkevitch 1942) S93
         `--A. succini Petrunkevitch 1942 S93
  Adjutoridae S93
    |--Ajunctor similis Petrunkevitch 1942 S93
    |--Admissor aculeatus Petrunkevitch 1942 S93
    `--Adjutor S93
         |--A. deformis Petrunkevitch 1958 S93
         `--A. mirabilis Petrunkevitch 1942 S93
  Ephalmator [Ephalmatoridae] S93
    |--E. eximius Petrunkevitch 1958 S93
    `--E. fossilis Petrunkevitch 1958 S93
  Zarqaraneidae W19
  Cretamysmenidae W19

Perissopmeros Butler 1932 [incl. Sternodes Butler 1929 (preoc.), Sternoides Platnick 1998] RRH09

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BS09] Blackledge, T. A., N. Scharff, J. A. Coddington, T. Szüts, J. W. Wenzel, C. Y. Hayashi & I. Agnarsson. 2009. Reconstructing web evolution and spider diversification in the molecular era. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 106 (13): 5229–5234.

[BBM02] Bonte, D., L. Baert & J.-P. Maelfait. 2002. Spider assemblage structure and stability in a heterogeneous coastal dune system (Belgium). Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 331–343.

[E90] Eberhard, W. G. 1990. Early stages of orb construction by Philoponella vicinia, Leucauge mariana, and Nephila clavipes (Araneae, Uloboridae and Tetragnathidae), and their phylogenetic implications. Journal of Arachnology 18: 205–234.

[FF99] Forster, R., & L. Forster. 1999. Spiders of New Zealand and their World-wide Kin. University of Otago Press: Dunedin (New Zealand).

[JD-S07] Jocqué, R. & A. S. Dippenaar-Schoeman. 2007. Spider Families of the World. Royal Museum for Central Africa: Tervuren (Belgium).

[PVD10] Paquin, P., C. J. Vink & N. Dupérré. 2010. Spiders of New Zealand: annotated family key and species list. Manaaki Whenua Press: Lincoln (New Zealand).

[R14] Ramírez, M. J. 2014. The morphology and phylogeny of dionychan spiders (Araneae: Araneomorphae). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 390: 1–374.

[RRH09] Rix, M. G., J. D. Roberts & M. S. Harvey. 2009. The spider families Synotaxidae and Malkaridae (Arachnida: Araneae: Araneoidea) in Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 25 (3): 295–304.

[SC97] Scharff, N., & J. A. Coddington. 1997. A phylogenetic analysis of the orb-weaving spider family Araneidae (Arachnida, Araneae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 120: 355–434.

[S03] Schütt, K. 2003. Phylogeny of Symphytognathidae s.l. (Araneae, Araneoidea). Zoologica Scripta 32 (2): 129–151.

[S93] Selden, P. A. 1993. Arthropoda (Aglaspidida, Pycnogonida and Chelicerata). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 297–320. Chapman & Hall: London.

[SHR08] Selden, P. A., Huang D. & Ren D. 2008. Palpimanoid spiders from the Jurassic of China. Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 306–321.

[W19] Wunderlich, J. 2019. What is a spider? Cretaceous fossils modify strongly phylogenetics as well as diagnoses of families, superfamilies and even suborders of spiders (Araneida) and other arthropods. Beiträge zur Araneologie 12: 1–32.

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