Amaurobioidea

Zorocrates aemulus, copyright Marshal Hedin.


Belongs within: Neocribellatae.
Contains: Stiphidiidae, Agelenidae, Amphinectidae, Desidae, Zodariidae, Amaurobiidae, Cycloctenidae, Pisauridae, Oxyopidae, Lycosidae, Dionycha.

The Amaurobioidea have historically been used to include cribellate spiders with unbranched median tracheae but such a grouping is now recognised as non-monophyletic. Instead, 'amaurobioids' represent basal members of what is commonly referred to as the RTA clade, referring to the presence of a retrolateral tibial apophysis on the male palp. Nested within this clade are the Lycosoidea, a clade of mostly actively hunting spiders united by a notably recurved posterior eyerow and grate-shaped tapeta in the anterior lateral and posterior median eyes (Ramírez 2014).

See also: Amaurobioidea: rummaging through a wastebasket.

Synapomorphies (from Ramírez 2014, as RTA clade): Carapace thoracic fovea a narrow dark longitudinal line; general metatarsal spination pattern x-x-x; more than two metatarsal trichobothria on a leg; tarsus with single trichobothrial row.

<==Amaurobioidea [Agelenoidea, Citigradae] R14
    |--+--Pimus Chamberlin 1947 R14, WZ08
    |  |    `--P. napa R14
    |  `--+--Stiphidiidae R14
    |     `--+--Agelenidae R14
    |        `--+--+--Amphinectidae R14
    |           |  `--Desidae R14
    |           `--+--Zodariidae JD-S07
    |              |--Amaurobiidae R14
    |              `--Cycloctenidae R14
    `--+--Lycosoidea R14
       |    |--Psechridae JD-S07
       |    |    |--Eomatachia latifrons Petrunkevitch 1942 S93
       |    |    |--Fecenia Simon 1887 JD-S07
       |    |    |    `--F. oblonga Rainbow 1913 R13
       |    |    `--Psechrus Thorell 1878 JD-S07 [incl. Lancaria Karsch 1879 K92]
       |    |         |--P. argentatus (Dol. 1857) (see below for synonymy) K92
       |    |         `--P. singaporensis JD-S07
       |    `--Lycosaeformia JD-S07
       |         |--+--Pisauridae R14
       |         |  `--+--Senoculus Taczanowski 1875 R14, JD-S07 [Senoculidae]
       |         |     `--Oxyopidae R14
       |         `--+--Lycosidae JD-S07
       |            `--Trechaleidae JD-S07
       |                 |--Syntrechalea brasilia Carico 2008 FM11
       |                 |--Enna JD-S07
       |                 `--Trechalea Thorell 1870 JD-S07
       |                      |--T. biocellata MC05
       |                      `--T. keyserlingi CM07
       `--+--Tengellidae R14
          |    |--Anachemmis Chamberlin 1919 JD-S07
          |    |--Calamistrula Dahl 1901 JD-S07
          |    |--Titiotus Simon 1897 JD-S07
          |    |--Austrotengella R14
          |    |--Anachemmis R14
          |    |--Socalchemmis Platnick & Ubick 2001 JD-S07
          |    |    `--S. idyllwild R14
          |    |--Tengella Dahl 1901 JD-S07
          |    |    `--T. radiata JD-S07
          |    `--Wiltona Koçak & Kemal 2008 PVD10 [=Haurokoa Forster & Wilton 1973 (preoc.) PVD10, JD-S07]
          |         `--*W. filicicola (Forster & Wilton 1973) [=*Haurokoa filicicola] PVD10
          `--+--*Ciniflella lutea R14
             `--+--Zorocratidae [Zorocratinae] BS09
                |    |--Zorodictyna Simon 1907 GC99, JD-S07
                |    |--Uduba Simon 1880 GC99, JD-S07
                |    |--Campostichomma Karsch 1891 GC99, JD-S07
                |    |    `--*C. manicatum Karsch 1892 K92
                |    `--Zorocrates Simon 1888 R14, JD-S07
                |         |--Z. aemulus R14
                |         |--Z. fuscus BS09
                |         |--Z. gnaphosoides R14
                |         `--Z. unicolor R14
                `--+--+--Dionycha R14
                   |  `--Liocranoides Keyserling 1881 R14, JD-S07
                   |       `--L. unicolor R14
                   `--+--Raecius Simon 1898 R14, JD-S07
                      |    `--R. jocquei JD-S07
                      `--Griswoldia Dippenaar-Schoeman & Jocqué 1997 R14, JD-S07 [Griswoldiinae]
                           |--G. acaenata R14
                           |--G. punctata R14
                           `--G. robusta R14

Amaurobioidea incertae sedis:
  Chumma Jocqué 2001 J01 [Chummidae JD-S07]
    |--*C. inquieta Jocqué 2001 J01
    `--C. gastroperforata Jocqué 2001 J01
  Phryganoporus candidus Do95
  Midgee Davies 1995 Da95
    |--*M. binnaburra Davies 1995 Da95
    |--M. alta Davies 1995 Da95
    |--M. bellendenker Davies 1995 Da95
    |--M. littlei Davies 1995 Da95
    |--M. minuta Davies 1995 Da95
    |--M. monteithi Davies 1995 Da95
    |--M. parva Davies 1995 Da95
    |--M. pumila Davies 1995 Da95
    `--M. thompsoni Davies 1995 Da95
  Manjala Da95
  Bakala Da95
  Malala Da95
  Insecutor [Insecutoridae] S93
    |--I. aculeatus Petrunkevitch 1942 S93
    |--I. mandibulatus Petrunkevitch 1942 S93
    `--I. rufus Petrunkevitch 1942 S93

Psechrus argentatus (Dol. 1857) [=Tegenaria argentata; incl. T. torva Cambr. 1870, Lancaria torva] K92

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BS09] Blackledge, T. A., N. Scharff, J. A. Coddington, T. Szüts, J. W. Wenzel, C. Y. Hayashi & I. Agnarsson. 2009. Reconstructing web evolution and spider diversification in the molecular era. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 106 (13): 5229–5234.

[CM07] Cokendolpher, J. C., & P. G. Mitov. 2007. Natural enemies. In: Pinto-da-Rocha, R., G. Machado & G. Giribet (eds) Harvestmen: The Biology of Opiliones pp. 339–373. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[Da95] Davies, V. T. 1995. A tiny litter spider (Araneae: Amaurobioidea) from Australian rainforests. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 52: 119–129.

[Do95] Downes, M. F. 1995. Australasian social spiders: what is meant by 'social'? Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 52: 25–32.

[FM11] Freire-Jr, G. de B., & P. C. Motta. 2011. Effects of experimental fire regimes on the abundance and diversity of cursorial arachnids of Brazilian savannah (cerrado biome). Journal of Arachnology 39 (2): 263–272.

[GC99] Griswold, C. E., J. A. Coddington, N. I. Platnick & R. R. Forster. 1999. Towards a phylogeny of entelegyne spiders (Araneae, Araneomorphae, Entelegynae). Journal of Arachnology 27: 53–63.

[J01] Jocqué, R. 2001. Chummidae, a new spider family (Arachnida, Araneae) from South Africa. Journal of Zoology 254: 481–493.

[JD-S07] Jocqué, R., & A. S. Dippenaar-Schoeman. 2007. Spider Families of the World. Royal Museum for Central Africa: Tervuren (Belgium).

[K92] Karsch, F. 1892. Arachniden von Ceylon und von Minikoy gesammelt von den Herren Doctoren P. und F. Sarasin. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 36 (2): 267–310.

[MC05] Machado, G., P. C. Carrera, A. M. Pomini & A. J. Marsaioli. 2005. Chemical defense in harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones): do benzoquinone secretions deter invertebrate and vertebrate predators? Journal of Chemical Ecology 31 (11): 2519–2539.

[PVD10] Paquin, P., C. J. Vink & N. Dupérré. 2010. Spiders of New Zealand: annotated family key and species list. Manaaki Whenua Press: Lincoln (New Zealand).

[R14] Ramírez, M. J. 2014. The morphology and phylogeny of dionychan spiders (Araneae: Araneomorphae). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 390: 1–374.

[S93] Selden, P. A. 1993. Arthropoda (Aglaspidida, Pycnogonida and Chelicerata). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 297–320. Chapman & Hall: London.

[WZ08] Wang, X.-P., & M.-S. Zhu. 2008. Himalmartensus, a new genus of the spider family Amaurobiidae from Nepal (Araneae). Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 241–250.

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