Cyclorrhapha

Big-headed fly Eudorylas sp., photographed by Nikola Rahmé.


Belongs within: Brachycera.
Contains: Platypezoidea, Syrphidae, Schizophora.

The Cyclorrhapha are a clade of flies in which the larvae have developed the familiar 'maggot' form, with the head desclerotised and invaginated into the body. The earliest cyclorrhaphans are known from the Cretaceous (Grimaldi & Engel 2005). Living cyclorrhaphans include the Pipunculidae, big-headed flies, which have enormous holoptic eyes that cover almost the entire head; their larvae are parasitoids of other insects, usually Auchenorrhyncha (Hemiptera).

Synapomorphies (from Grimaldi & Engel 2005): Face with pair or more of thick vibrissae; abdominal plaques lost in adults; embryos not developing in amnion; larvae saprophagous 'maggots' with maxilla absent, head desclerotised and invaginated; pupariation in ecdysed cuticle of last larval instar; arista with two small basal segments; proboscis retractile, withdrawn at rest into large oral cavity; female terminalia without acanthophorite spines.

<==Cyclorrhapha [Aschiza, Muscides, Muscomorpha]
    |--Chimeromyia GE05
    `--+--Lonchopterites prisca GE05
       `--+--Platypezoidea WT11
          `--Syrphoidea M90
               |--Syrphidae WT11
               `--+--Schizophora WT11
                  `--Pipunculidae [Dorilaidae] WT11
                       |  i. s.: Alloneura A71
                       |         Collinias RS10
                       |         Beckerias CM91
                       |--Nephrocerinae [Nephrocerini] RS10
                       |    |--Protonephrocerus collini RS10, H87
                       |    `--Nephrocerus RS10
                       |         |--N. daeckei H87
                       |         `--N. slossonae RS10
                       |--Chalarinae RS10
                       |    |--Chalarus spurius H87
                       |    |--Jassidophaga RS10
                       |    `--Verrallia RS10
                       |         |--V. aucta A71
                       |         `--V. virginica RS10
                       `--Pipunculinae RS10
                            |--Tomosvaryella [Tomosvaryellini] RS10
                            |    |--T. nyctias MC13
                            |    `--T. sylvatica RS10
                            |--Microcephalops [Microcephalopsini] RS10
                            |    |--M. latifrons [=Cephalops latifrons] RS10
                            |    `--M. williamsi RS10
                            |--Cephalops WT11 [Cephalopsini RS10]
                            |    |--C. cochleatus RS10
                            |    |--C. longistylis WT11
                            |    `--C. mauritianus A71
                            |--Pipunculini H87
                            |    |--Cephalosphaera H87
                            |    |    |--C. parthenopipis RS10
                            |    |    |--C. (Neocephalosphaera) petila RS10
                            |    |    `--C. (Cephalosphaera) prionotaina RS10
                            |    |--Dorylomorpha H87
                            |    |    |--D. (Dorylomyia) beckeri RS10
                            |    |    |--D. (Pipunculina) borealis RS10
                            |    |    |--D. canadensis RS10
                            |    |    `--D. exilis RS10
                            |    `--Pipunculus Latreille 1802 L02 [incl. Dorilas CM91, Parapipunculus RS10]
                            |         |--*P. campestris L02
                            |         |--P. ater M90
                            |         |--P. cinerascens B88
                            |         |--P. fuscus M90
                            |         |--P. luteicornis RS10
                            |         |--P. sylvaticus K01
                            |         `--P. torus RS10
                            `--Eudorylini RS10
                                 |--Basileunculus rex RS10
                                 |--Claraeola RS10
                                 |--Elmohardyia RS10
                                 |    |--E. atlantica RS10
                                 |    `--E. doelloi RS10
                                 |--Dasydorylas RS10
                                 |    |--D. eucalypti RS10
                                 |    `--D. filiformis Kehlmaier 2005 F05
                                 |--Allomethus RS10
                                 |    |--A. brimleyi RS10
                                 |    |--A. catharinensis RS10
                                 |    `--A. rotundicornis RS10
                                 `--Eudorylas [incl. Metadorylas] RS10
                                      |--E. auctus Kehlmaier 2005 F05
                                      |--E. ibericus Kehlmaier 2005 F05
                                      |--E. moffattensis RS10
                                      |--E. mutillatus RS10
                                      |--E. schreiteri RS10
                                      |--E. venturai Kehlmaier 2005 F05
                                      `--E. zonatus A71

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[F05] Fernández, J. 2005. Noticia de nuevos táxones para la ciencia en el ámbito Íbero-Balear y Macaronésico. Nuevos táxones animales descritos en la península Ibérica y Macaronesia desde 1994 (IX). Graellsia 61 (2): 261–282.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H87] Hardy, D. E. 1987. Pipunculidae. In: McAlpine, J. F. (ed.) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 2 pp. 745–748. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[K01] Kertész, K. 1901. Legyek [Dipteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 179–201. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[MC13] Majer, J. D., S. K. Callan, K. Edwards, N. R. Gunawardene & C. K. Taylor. 2013. Baseline survey of the terrestrial invertebrate fauna of Barrow Island. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 83: 13–112.

[M90] McAlpine, J. F. 1990. Insecta: Diptera adults. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1211–1252. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[RS10] Rafael, J. A., & J. H. Skevington. 2010. Pipunculidae (big-headed flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 793–803. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690–5695.

Last updated: 12 August 2017.

Schizophora

Syringogaster sp., from here.


Belongs within: Cyclorrhapha.
Synapomorphies: Ephydroidea, Calyptratae, Odiniidae, Agromyzidae, Sphaeroceridae, Periscelididae, Carnidae, Tephritoidea, Sepsidae, Opomyzidae, Nerioidea, Aulacigastridae, Chloropidae, Milichiidae, Diopsidae, Canacidae, Heleomyzidae, Sciomyzoidea, Lauxanioidea, Ropalomeridae, Asteiidae, Clusiidae, Pallopteridae, Psilidae.

The Schizophora is a major clade of flies distinguished by the presence of the ptilinum, an eversible membrane in the head that is filled with fluid to break the adult fly out of the pupal case. Schizophorans have often been divided for convenience between the Calyptrata and Acalyptrata (defined primarily by the presence or absence of an enlarged calypter at the base of the wing), though 'Acalyptrata' have long been recognised as an artificial group. However, the relationships of many 'acalyptrate' families have only recently begun to be resolved.

Many families of acalyptrate flies are difficult to distinguish without close examination. The Chyromyidae are small, mostly pale yellow flies with convergent postocellar bristles and lacking true vibrissae (though they may have vibrissa-like subvibrissal bristles) (McAlpine 1981). Acartophthalmus is a European genus of small grey or black flies with a pubescent arista. The Neminidae, nobody flies, are minute flies found in the Old World tropics, with a proclinate fronto-orbital bristle present and parallel or divergent postocellar bristles.

Characters (from Grimaldi & Engel 2005): Ptilinum present, adult emerging from puparium via circular sclerite; adult with specialised structure (cardia) between fore- and mid gut.

<==Schizophora (see below for synonymy)
    |  i. s.: Gobrya [Nothybidae] CM91
    |         Paraleucopidae BW09
    |           |--Mallochianamyia BW09
    |           |--Schizostomyia W10a
    |           `--Paraleucopis W10a
    |                |--P. corvina BW09
    |                `--P. mexicana W10a
    |         Anthoclusia CM74
    |--+--+--Ephydroidea WT11
    |  |  `--Calyptratae WT11
    |  `--+--Odiniidae WT11
    |     `--+--+--Agromyzidae WT11
    |        |  `--Sphaeroceridae WT11
    |        `--+--Periscelididae WT11
    |           `--Carnidae WT11
    `--+--Megamerinidae WT11
       `--+--+--Tephritoidea WT11
          |  `--+--Chyromyidae [Chiromyiidae, Chyromyinae] WT11
          |     |    |--Gymnochiromyia concolor WT11, M81
          |     |    |--Gephromyiella electrica M87
          |     |    |--Chyromya [incl. Somatiosoma Frey 1958] M87
          |     |    |    |--C. flava M81
          |     |    |    `--C. nitescens [=C. (*Somatiosoma) nitescens] M87
          |     |    `--Aphaniosoma M81
          |     |         |--A. aldrichi W10b
          |     |         |--A. quadrivittatum W10b
          |     |         `--A. rabida W10b
          |     `--+--+--Sepsidae WT11
          |        |  `--Acartophthalmus [Acartophthalmidae] WT11
          |        |       |--A. bicolor Oldenberg 1910 C-T92
          |        |       `--A. nigrinus (Zetterstedt 1848) C-T92
          |        `--Opomyzidae WT11
          `--+--+--+--+--Nerioidea WT11
             |  |  |  `--Aulacigastridae WT11
             |  |  `--+--Neminidae WT11
             |  |     |    |--Ningulus RM10
             |  |     |    |--Nemo centriseta RM10, CM91
             |  |     |    `--Nemula Freidberg 1994 RM10
             |  |     |         `--N. longarista WT11
             |  |     `--Inbiomyia [Inbiomyiidae] WT11
             |  |          |--I. anemosyris B10
             |  |          |--I. exul B10
             |  |          |--I. mcalpineorum WT11
             |  |          |--I. scoliostylus B10
             |  |          `--I. zeugodonta B10
             |  `--+--+--+--Chloropidae WT11
             |     |  |  `--Milichiidae WT11
             |     |  `--Somatia [Somatiidae] WT11
             |     |       |--S. aestiva WT11
             |     |       |--S. schildi LM10
             |     |       `--S. sophiston LM10
             |     `--+--Diopsidae WT11
             |        `--+--Margo [Marginidae] WT11
             |           `--+--Canacidae WT11
             |              `--Nannodastiidae [Nannodastiinae] WT11
             |                   |--Azorastia mediterranea WT11
             |                   `--Nannodastia M10
             |                        |--N. atlantica M10
             |                        `--N. horni BW09
             `--+--+--Strongylophthalmyia [Strongylophthalmyiidae] WT11
                |  |    |--S. angustipennis M90
                |  |    |--S. pengellyi WT11
                |  |    `--S. ustulata S87
                |  `--Tanypezidae [Tanypezinae] WT11
                |       |--Tanypeza longimana M90
                |       |--Scipopeza grandis AT10
                |       `--Neotanypeza AT10
                |            |--N. apicalis AT10
                |            |--N. elegans BW09
                |            |--N. flavicalx AT10
                |            `--N. ornatipes AT10
                `--+--+--+--Heleomyzidae WT11
                   |  |  `--Teratomyzidae WT11
                   |  |       |--Teratomyza WT11
                   |  |       |--Camur willii BW09
                   |  |       `--Teratoptera CM91
                   |  `--+--+--Sciomyzoidea WT11
                   |     |  `--Lauxanioidea WT11
                   |     `--Heteromyza WT11 [incl. Thelida GP87; Heteromyzidae]
                   |          |--H. atricornis WT11
                   |          |--‘Heteromyiella’ miocenica [=Thelida miocenica] GP87
                   |          `--H. oculata GP87
                   `--+--+--Ropalomeridae WT11
                      |  `--+--+--Australimyza [Australimyzidae, Australimyzinae] WT11
                      |     |  `--Xenasteia [Tunisimyiidae, Xenasteiidae] WT11
                      |     |       `--X. shalam WT11
                      |     `--+--Asteiidae WT11
                      |        `--Fergusonina [Fergusoninidae] WT11
                      |             |--F. nicholsoni N70
                      |             `--F. turneri WT11
                      `--+--+--Clusiidae WT11
                         |  `--+--Pallopteridae WT11
                         |     `--Neurochaetidae WT11
                         |          |--Neurochaeta inversa CM91
                         |          `--Nothoasteia CM91
                         `--+--Psilidae WT11
                            `--Syringogaster [Syringogastridae] WT11
                                 |--S. brunnea BW09
                                 |--S. brunneina MB10
                                 |--S. figurata MB10
                                 |--S. rufa BW09
                                 `--S. subnearctica MB10

Schizophora [Acalypterae, Acalyptrata, Agromyzoinea, Asteioidea, Asteioinea, Carnoidea, Chloropoidea, Clusioinea, Conopsariae, Diopsoidea, Heleomyzoidea, Holometopa, Muscaria, Nothyboidea, Opomyzoidea, Opomyzoidea, Pallopteroidea, Sphaeroceroidea] WT11

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AT10] Apigian, K., & F. C. Thompson. 2010. Tanypezidae (tanypezid flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 827–831. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[B10] Buck, M. 2010. Inbiomyiidae (inbiomyiid flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1105–1108. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[BW09] Buck, M., N. E. Woodley, A. Borkent, D. M. Wood, T. Pape, J. R. Vockeroth, V. Michelsen & S. A. Marshall. 2009. Key to Diptera families—adults. In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 95–156. Ottawa, NRC Research Press.

[C-T92] Carles-Tolrá, M. 1992. New and interesting records of Diptera Acalyptrata from Spain. Part I: Acartophthalmidae, Opomyzidae, Anthomyzidae, Asteiidae, Carnidae, Tethinidae, Milichiidae and Cryptochetidae. Bull. Annls Soc. R. Belge Ent. 128: 343–353.

[CM74] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1974. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers. Supplement 1974 pp. 91–96. Melbourne University Press.

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[GP87] Gill, G. D., & B. V. Peterson. 1987. Heleomyzidae. In: McAlpine, J. F. (ed.) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 2 pp. 973–980. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[LM20] Lonsdale, O., & D. K. McAlpine. 2010. Somatiidae (somatiid flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 833–835. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[MB10] Marshall, S. A., & M. Buck. 2010. Syringogastridae (syringogastrid flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 843–846. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[M10] Mathis, W. N. 2010. Nannodastiidae (nannodastiid beach flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1235–1239. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[M81] McAlpine, J. F. 1981. Key to families—adults. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 89–124. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[M87] McAlpine, J. F. 1987. Chyromyidae. In: McAlpine, J. F. (ed.) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 2 pp. 985–988. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[M90] McAlpine, J. F. 1990. Insecta: Diptera adults. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1211–1252. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[N70] Norris, K. R. 1970. General biology. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 107–140. Melbourne University Press.

[RM10] Rung, A., & W. N. Mathis. 2010. Aulacigastridae (aulacigastrid flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1083–1085. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[S87] Steyskal, G. C. 1987. Strongylophthalmyiidae. In: McAlpine, J. F. (ed.) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 2 pp. 777–779. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[W10a] Wheeler, T. A. 2010a. Paraleucopidae (paraleucopid flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1009–1011. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[W10b] Wheeler, T. A. 2010b. Chyromyidae (chyromyid flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1155–1157. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690–5695.

Last updated: 12 August 2017.

Lauxaniidae


Sapromyza sp., copyright frogprince.


Belongs within: Lauxanioidea.
Contains: Trigonometopini.

The Lauxaniidae are a family of flies whose larvae mostly live in fallen leaves and other rotting vegetation. The internal classification of the family is somewhat poorly established; the Eurychoromyiinae have previously been recognised as a separate family due to a reduction in setation but examination at high magnification has found that a number of 'lost' setae are present but greatly reduced (Gaimari & Silva 2010).

Characters (from Colless & McAlpine 1991): One or two fronto-orbital bristles; costa unbroken; Sc complete; Cu+1A discontinued well before margine; vein 2A generally visible beyond alula; anepisternite with one or two mesopleural bristles; tibiae with preapical dorsal bristles; sternite 1 well developed, sclerotised.

<==Lauxaniidae [Sapromyzidae]
    |--Lauxaniinae P08
    |    |  i. s.: Lauxania cylindricornis K01
    |    `--Trigonometopini P07
    |--Sapromyza [Sapromyzinae] K01
    |    |--S. flavimana CM91
    |    |--S. frontalis GS10
    |    |--S. lupulina K01
    |    |--S. nigrans GS10
    |    |--S. picticornis GS10
    |    |--S. rotundicornis S87
    |    |--S. slossonae GS10
    |    |--S. sororia GS10
    |    `--S. vinnula GS10
    |--Homoneurinae GS10
    |    |--Trypetisoma GS10
    |    |    |--T. sticticum GS10
    |    |    `--T. zacatecasense GS10
    |    `--Homoneura GS10
    |         |  i. s.: H. bispina BW09
    |         |         H. proximella CM91
    |         |--H. (Homoneura) philadelphica GS10
    |         `--H. (Tarsohomoneura) GS10
    |              |--H. (T.) americana GS10
    |              `--H. (T.) ornatipes GS10
    `--Eurychoromyiinae [Eurychoromyiidae] GS10
         |--Eurychoromyia BW09
         |--Tauridion shewelli GS10
         |--Choryeuromyia senisma GS10
         |--Eurystratiomyia GS10
         |--Roryeuchomyia GS10
         |--Euryhendelimyia GS10
         `--Physegeniopsis GS10
              |--P. albeto GS10
              |--P. ankhoidea GS10
              `--P. hadrocara GS10

Lauxaniidae incertae sedis:
  Noonamyiini P07
  Paranomina Hendel 1907 P07
  Lyciella WT11
    |--L. decipiens WT11
    `--L. discolor S87
  Cerastocara ZS10
  Cephaloconus ZS10
  Poecilohetarus ZS10
  Neogriphoneura GS10
    |--N. laevifrons GS10
    |--N. sordida BW09
    |--N. striatifrons GS10
    |--N. striga GS10
    |--N. tertia GS10
    `--N. timida GS10
  Siphonophysa albipes GS10
  Neodeceia cineracea GS10
  Hypagoga GS10
  Oncodometopus umbrosus GS10
  Tricholauxania GS10
  Pseudocalliope GS10
    |--P. eucephala GS10
    |--P. flaviceps GS10
    `--P. longicornis S87
  Poecilominettia macula GS10
  Meiosimyza GS10
  Calliopum quadrisetosum GS10
  Pseudogriphoneura GS10
  Camptoprosopella borealis GS10
  Poecilolycia serrata GS10
  Melanomyza GS10
    |--M. (Melanomyza) GS10
    |    |--M. (M.) gracilipes GS10
    |    `--M. (M.) proana GS10
    `--M. (Lauxaniella) GS10
         |--‘Lauxaniella’ femoralis M81
         `--M. (L.) manuleata GS10
  Trivialia GS10
    |--T. celeste GS10
    |--T. fuscocapitata GS10
    |--T. nigroapicata GS10
    `--T. puella GS10
  Xenochaetina GS10
    |--X. flavipennis GS10
    |--X. muscaria GS10
    `--X. pallida GS10
  Physoclypeus GS10
    |--P. coquilletti GS10
    |--P. hendeli GS10
    |--P. unimaculatus GS10
    `--P. zebrinus GS10
  Xeniconeura costalis GS10
  Trisapromyza vittigera GS10
  Allominettia GS10
    |--A. approximata GS10
    |--A. assimilis GS10
    `--A. geniseta GS10
  Mallochomyza citreifrons GS10
  Steganolauxania latipennis GS10
  Cephalella fumipennis GS10
  Triconopsis GS10
  Asilostoma GS10
    |--A. atriceps GS10
    |--A. flavifacies GS10
    |--A. pallipes GS10
    `--A. palpalis GS10
  Pachyopella GS10
    |--P. flavida GS10
    `--P. ornata GS10
  Stenolauxania GS10
    |--S. nubecula GS10
    `--S. striata GS10
  Minettia WT11 [Minettiinae]
    |--M. aibonito GS10
    |--M. flaveola WT11
    |--M. hubbardii GS10
    `--M. lupulina M90
  Xenopterella GS10
    |--X. beameri GS10
    `--X. obliqua GS10
  Baliopteridion GS10
  Hirtodeceia GS10
  Paracestrotus GS10
  Deutominettia GS10
    |--D. bimaculata GS10
    `--D. geniseta S87
  Scutominettia GS10
    |--S. innuba GS10
    `--S. mallochi GS10
  Griphoneura GS10
  Chaetominettia GS10
    |--C. corollae GS10
    `--C. spinitibia GS10
  Dryomyzothea GS10
  Setulina GS10
    |--S. geminata GS10
    |--S. interjecta GS10
    |--S. prima GS10
    `--S. stata GS10
  Chaetocoelia GS10
    |--C. caloptera GS10
    |--C. distinctissima GS10
    `--C. pallans GS10
  Dryosapromyza GS10
  Sciosapromyza GS10
    |--S. coronata GS10
    |--S. ficulnea GS10
    `--S. tinctinervis GS10
  Pseudominettia platypeza GS10
  Agriphoneura GS10
  Eriurgus GS10
  Ocellominettia GS10
  Celypholauxania GS10
  Procrita pectinata GS10
  Blepharolauxania GS10
  Platygraphium penicillatum GS10
  Freyia nigrita GS10
  Physegenua GS10
  Neoxangelina ornata GS10
  Minilauxania bulbifacies GS10
  Ritaemyia GS10
  Scutolauxania GS10
  Neopachycerina GS10
  Gibbolauxania GS10
    |--G. aliena GS10
    `--G. lateralis GS10
  Deceia GS10
  Marmarodeceia marmorata GS10
  Neominettia contigua GS10
  Depressa striatipennis CM91
  ‘Lonchaea’ senescens S87

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BW09] Buck, M., N. E. Woodley, A. Borkent, D. M. Wood, T. Pape, J. R. Vockeroth, V. Michelsen & S. A. Marshall. 2009. Key to Diptera families—adults. In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 95–156. Ottawa, NRC Research Press.

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[GS10] Gaimari, S. D., & V. C. Silva. 2010. Lauxaniidae (lauxaniid flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 971–995. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[K01] Kertész, K. 1901. Legyek [Dipteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 179–201. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[M81] McAlpine, J. F. 1981. Morphology and terminology—adults. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 9–63. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[M90] McAlpine, J. F. 1990. Insecta: Diptera adults. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1211–1252. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[P07] Papp, L. 2007. A review of the Old World Trigonometopini Becker (Diptera: Lauxaniidae). Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici 99: 129–169.

[P08] Papp, L. 2008. Afrotropical species of the genus Diplochasma, subgenus Sauteromyia (Diptera: Lauxaniidae). Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici 100: 307–330.

[S87] Shewell, G. E. 1987. Lauxaniidae. In: McAlpine, J. F. (ed.) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 2 pp. 951–964. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690–5695.

[ZS10] Zborowski, P., & R. Storey. 2010. A Field Guide to Insects in Australia 3rd ed. Reed New Holland: Sydney.

Last updated: 11 June 2017.

Homalorhagida

Pycnophyes calmani, from here.


Belongs within: Ecdysozoa.

The Homalorhagida are a group of marine kinorhynchs distinguished by their triangular cross-section.

Characters (from Higgins 1986): 6-8 neck plates; distinctly triangular in cross-section; spines reduced.

Homalorhagida [Homalorhagae]
    |--Neocentrophyes Higgins 1969 [Neocentrophyidae] H86
    |    |--N. intermedius Higgins 1969 H86
    |    `--N. satyai Higgins 1969 H86
    `--Pycnophyidae H86
         |--Kinorhynchus Sheremetevskij 1974 H86
         |    |--K. anomalus Lang 1953 H86
         |    |--K. apotomus Higgins 1983 H86
         |    |--K. belizensis Higgins 1983 H86
         |    |--K. cataphractus Higgins 1961 H86
         |    |--K. deirophorus Higgins 1983 H86
         |    |--K. distentus Higgins 1983 H86
         |    |--K. erismatus Higgins 1983 H86
         |    |--K. fimbriatus Higgins 1982 H86
         |    |--K. giganteus (Zelinka 1908) H86
         |    |--K. ilyocryptus Higgins 1961 H86
         |    |--K. langi (Higgins 1964) H86
         |    |--K. mainensis (Blake 1930) H86
         |    |--K. paraneapolitanus Sheremetevskij 1974 H86
         |    |--K. phyllotropis Brown & Higgins 1983 H86
         |    |--K. spinosus (Lang 1949) H86
         |    |--K. stenopygus Higgins 1983 H86
         |    `--K. trisetosus Higgins 1983 H86
         `--Pycnophyes Zelinka 1907 H86
              |--P. beaufortensis Higins 1964 H86
              |--P. calmani Southern 1914 H86
              |--P. carinatus Zelinka 1928 H86
              |--P. chiliensis Lang 1953 H86
              |--P. communis Zelinka 1908 H86
              |--P. corrugatus Higgins 1983 H86
              |--P. dentatus (Reinhard 1881) H86
              |--P. echinoderoides Zelinka 1928 H86
              |--P. ecphantor Higgins 1983 H86
              |--P. egyptensis Higgins 1966 H86
              |--P. emarginatus Higgins 1983 H86
              |--P. flagellatus H86
              |--P. flaveolatus Zelinka 1928 H86
              |--P. frequens Blake 1930 H86
              |--P. iniorhaptus Higins 1983 H86
              |--P. kielensis Zelinka 1928 H86
              |--P. longicornis Higgins 1983 H86
              |--P. maximus Reimer 1963 H86
              |--P. odhneri Lang 1953 H86
              |--P. ponticus (Reinhard 1881) H86
              |--P. robustus Zelinka 1928 H86
              |--P. rugosus Zelinka 1928 H86
              |--P. sanjuanensis Higgins 1961 H86
              |--P. sculptus Lang 1949 H86
              `--P. zelinkaei Southern 1914 H86

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[H86] Higgins, R. P. 1986. Kinorhyncha. In Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) (L. Botosaneanu, ed.) pp. 110-118. E. J. Brill / Dr. W. Backhuys: Leiden.

Cyclorhagida

Images of Campyloderes cf. vanhoeffeni from Neuhaus & Sørensen (2012). Original caption: "SEM (A–C, F–H) and DIC images (D, E, J, K) of male (C, J) and female (A, B, D–H, K) Campyloderes cf. vanhoeffeni from the Galápagos area (A, E), Antarctica (B, H) and the Faroe Islands (C, D, F, G, J, K). (A, B) Habitus from left side (A) and ventral side (B). Arrow heads mark sensory spots. (C) Mouth cone in surface view, individual outer oral styles absent. (D, E) Optical section of mouth cone of specimens ZMUC KIN-87 (D) and ZMB 5967i (E). Inner oral styles recognizable in specimen from Galápagos area (E) but not in Faroe specimen (D). Pharynx with alternating circular and radial muscle cells in (E). (F, G). Tip of mouth cone (F) and detail of fused outer oral styles (G). (H) Frontal view of placids. (J, K) Head and placids of specimens ZMUC KIN-95 (J) and KIN-94 (K) in ventral (J) and dorsal view (K). Scale bar in A and B 200 μm, in C and H 20 μm, in D 30 μm (valid for D, E), in F 5 μm, in G 2 μm, in J 30 μm (valid for J, K)."


Belongs within: Ecdysozoa.
Contains: Echinoderes.

The Cyclorhagida is the larger of the two major groups of kinorhynchs, small worm-like animals found mostly in marine sediments.

Characters (from Higgins 1986): 14-16 neck plates; generally round to oval-triangular; usually with numerous lateral middorsal and occasionally midterminal spines.

Cyclorhagida
    |--Cateria Gerlach 1956 [Cateriidae, Cryptorhagae] H86
    |    |--C. gerlachi Higgins 1968 H86
    |    |--C. styx Gerlach 1956 H86
    |    `--C. submersa Gerlach 1969 H86
    |--Semnoderidae [Conchorhagae] H86
    |    |--Sphenoderes Higgins 1969 H86
    |    |    `--S. indicus Higgins 1969 H86
    |    `--Semnoderes Zelinka 1907 H86
    |         |--S. armiger Zelinka 1928 H86
    |         |--S. pacificus Higgins 1967 H86
    |         `--S. ponticus Băcescu & Băcescu 1956 H86
    `--Cyclorhagae H86
         |--Echinoderes H86
         |--Condyloderes Higgins 1969 [Condyloderidae] H86
         |    |--C. multispinosus (McIntyre 1962) H86
         |    `--C. paradoxus Higgins 1969 H86
         `--Centroderidae H86
              |--Centroderes Zelinka 1896 H86
              |    |--C. eisigii Zelinka 1928 H86
              |    `--C. spinosus (Reinhard 1881) H86
              `--Campyloderes Zelinka 1913 H86
                   |--C. adherens Nyholm 1947 H86
                   |--C. macquariae Johnston 1938 H86
                   `--C. vanhoeffeni Zelinka 1913 H86

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[H86] Higgins, R. P. 1986. Kinorhyncha. In Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) (L. Botosaneanu, ed.) pp. 110-118. E. J. Brill / Dr. W. Backhuys: Leiden.

Neuhaus, B., & M. V. Sørensen. In press, 2012. Populations of Campyloderes sp. (Kinorhyncha, Cyclorhagida): one global species with significant morphological variation? Zoologischer Anzeiger.

Conopidae

Physocephala vittata, photographed by Pietro Niolu.


Belongs within: Sciomyzoidea.

The Conopidae is a family of flies of which most members are mimics of wasps. Larvae are endoparasites of other insects. Living conopids are divided between three subfamilies, Dalmanniinae, Myopinae and Conopinae (a fourth subfamily, Stylogastrinae, is probably not monophyletic with other conopids), with a further subfamily Palaeomyopinae known from the fossil record (Skevington et al. 2010).

Characters (from Colless & McAlpine 1991): Mid-coxal prong absent; proboscis usually very slender, often much longer than head; palp small or absent; vein R1 bare; cell CuP acute distally, usually long.

<==Conopidae [Archischiza, Conopoidea]
    |  i. s.: Leopoldius coronatus A71
    |         Oncomyia K01
    |           |--O. distincta K01
    |           `--O. sundevalli K01
    |         Parazodion schmidti STC10
    |         Tropidomyia bimaculata STC10
    |         Myopella Robineau-Desvoidy 1853 M10
    |         Microconops CM91
    |         Palaeosicus loewi SP87
    |--Palaeomyopa SP87 [Palaeomyopinae STC10]
    |    `--P. tertiaria SP87
    |--Dalmannia A71 [Dalmanniinae STC10]
    |    |--D. nigriceps SP87
    |    `--D. punctata SP87
    |--Myopinae STC10
    |    |--Robertsonomyia palpalis SP87
    |    |--Thecophora SP87
    |    |    |--T. nigripes STC10
    |    |    `--T. occidensis STC10
    |    |--Zodion Latreille 1802 SP87, L02
    |    |    |--*Z. cinereum [=Myopa cinerea] L02
    |    |    |--Z. americanum STC10
    |    |    |--Z. intermedium SP87
    |    |    |--Z. obliquefasciatum STC10
    |    |    `--Z. perlongum STC10
    |    `--Myopa WT11
    |         |--M. buccata SP87
    |         |--M. fasciata STC10
    |         |--M. ferruginea L02
    |         |--M. picta A71
    |         |--M. rubida SP87
    |         `--M. variegata K01
    `--Conopinae STC10
         |--Physocephala [Physocephalini] SP87
         |    |--P. bimarginipennis T81
         |    |--P. chrysorrhoea BM76
         |    |--P. flavipes SP87
         |    |--P. furcillata M81
         |    |--P. inhabilis STC10
         |    |--P. marginata WT11
         |    |--P. rufipes K01
         |    |--P. sagittaria SP87
         |    |--P. texana M90
         |    `--P. vittata BM76
         `--Conopini SP87
              |--Physoconops SP87
              |    |--P. brachyrhynchus M90
              |    |--P. bulbirostris STC10
              |    |--P. fronto STC10
              |    |--P. ornatifrons STC10
              |    `--P. (Gyroconops) sylvosus STC10
              `--Conops Linnaeus 1758 L58
                   |--C. algira Macquart 1849 E12
                   |--C. (Asiconops) bermudensis SP87
                   |--C. buccata Linnaeus 1758 L58
                   |--C. calcitrans Linnaeus 1758 L58
                   |--C. flavipes Linnaeus 1758 L58
                   |--C. fuscipennis Macquart 1849 E12
                   |--C. geminatus STC10
                   |--C. irritans Linnaeus 1758 L58
                   |--C. macrocephala Linnaeus 1758 L58
                   |--C. nobilis STC10
                   |--C. rostrata Linnaeus 1758 L58
                   |--C. rufiventris Macquart 1849 E12
                   `--C. splendidus CM91

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[BM76] Bohart, R. M., & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[K01] Kertész, K. 1901. Legyek [Dipteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 179–201. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[M81] McAlpine, J. F. 1981. Morphology and terminology—adults. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 9–63. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[M90] McAlpine, J. F. 1990. Insecta: Diptera adults. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1211–1252. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[M10] Michelsen, V. 2010. Anthomyiidae (anthomyiid flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1271–1276. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[STC10] Skevington, J. H., F. C. Thompson & S. Camras. 2010. Conopidae (thick-headed flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 847–855. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[SP87] Smith, K. G. V., & B. V. Peterson. 1987. Conopidae. In: McAlpine, J. F. (ed.) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 2 pp. 749–756. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[T81] Teskey, H. J. 1981. Key to families—larvae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 125–147. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690–5695.

Last updated: 11 June 2017.

Agromyzidae

Melanagromyza sp., copyright Patrick Murray.


Belongs within: Schizophora.
Contains: Agromyza, Phytomyza, Cerodontha, Liriomyza.

The Agromyzidae are a group of mostly small or minute flies, the larvae of which form mines or galls in plants. As a result, some species are economically significant pests. Agromyzids are divided between the subfamilies Agromyzinae, in which the subcostal vein fuses with vein R1 before reaching the costa, and Phytomyzinae, in which the two veins reach the costa independently.

Characters (from Colless & McAlpine 1991): Postvertical bristles divergent; lower fronto-orbital bristles incurved; costa not broken near hm; R1 not setulose; mesopleural bristle present; tibiae without preapical dorsal bristles; female with abdominal segment 7 enlarged, entirely sclerotised.

<==Agromyzidae
    |  i. s.: Ceratomyza lateralis K01
    |         Selachops G10
    |         Aulagromyza B10
    |           |--A. nitida B10
    |           `--A. orbitalis B10
    |         Xeniomyza S87
    |         Penetagromyza S87
    |         Gymnophytomyza S87
    |--Agromyzinae B10
    |    |--Agromyza B10
    |    |--Tropicomyia Spencer 1973 S87
    |    |--Hexomyza S87
    |    |--Ophiomyia B10
    |    |    |--O. aberrans S87
    |    |    |--O. labiatarum S87
    |    |    |--O. lantanae B10
    |    |    |--O. maura B10
    |    |    |--O. phaseoli B88
    |    |    `--O. solanicola B88
    |    |--Japanagromyza B10
    |    |    |--J. jamaicensis B10
    |    |    |--J. maculata [=Geratomyza maculata] B10
    |    |    |--J. nebulifera B10
    |    |    |--J. orbitalis B10
    |    |    |--J. phaseoli B10
    |    |    |--J. polygoni B10
    |    |    `--J. spadix [=Geratomyza spadix] B10
    |    `--Melanagromyza B10
    |         |--M. caerulea B10
    |         |--M. caucensis B10
    |         |--M. cyrtorchidis B10
    |         |--M. laetifica B10
    |         |--M. martini S87
    |         |--M. phaseolivora B10
    |         |--M. rosales B10
    |         `--M. tomaterae B10
    `--Phytomyzinae B10
         |--Phytomyza WT11
         |--Haplopeodes B10
         |--Galiomyza B10
         |--Cerodontha B10
         |--Liriomyza B10
         |--Metopomyza S87
         |--Napomyza lateralis S87, K01
         |--Paraphytomyza S87
         |    |--P. nitida S87
         |    `--P. orbitalis S87
         |--Pseudonapomyza B10
         |    |--P. asiatica B10
         |    |--P. cingulata B88
         |    `--P. lacteipennis B10
         |--Nemorimyza B10
         |    |--N. maculosa B10
         |    |--N. posticata B10
         |    `--N. ranchograndensis B10
         |--Amauromyza B10 [incl. Campanulomyza S87, Melanophytobia S87, Trilobomyza S87]
         |    |--A. abnormalis B10
         |    |--A. boliviensis B10
         |    |--A. (Trilobomyza) flavifrons S87
         |    |--A. karli S87
         |    `--A. (Catalpomyza) pleuralis S87
         |--Calycomyza B10
         |    |--C. devia B10
         |    |--C. illustris B10
         |    |--C. menthae S87
         |    |--C. meridiana B10
         |    `--C. obscura B10
         |--Phytoliriomyza B10 [incl. Lemurimyza S87, Nesomyza S87, Pteridomyza S87]
         |    |--P. conjunctimontis B10
         |    |--P. costaricensis B10
         |    |--P. cyathea Spencer 1976 M03
         |    |--P. hilarella S87
         |    |--P. leechi B10
         |    `--P. pacifica S87
         `--Phytobia B10
              |--P. coylesi S87
              |--P. guatemalensis B10
              |--P. kallima B10
              |--P. mentula B10
              |--P. pipinna B10
              |--P. rabelloi B10
              `--P. unica B10

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[B10] Boucher, S. 2010. Agromyzidae (leaf-mining flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1057–1071. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia pp. 717-786. Melbourne University Press.

[G10] Gaimari, S. D. 2010. Odiniidae (odiniid flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1049–1055. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[K01] Kertész, K. 1901. Legyek [Dipteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 179–201. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[M03] Martin, N. 2003. Changes in abundance of the silver fern leaf miner. Weta 25: 31–32.

[S87] Spencer, K. A. 1987. Agromyzidae. In: McAlpine, J. F. (ed.) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 2 pp. 869–879. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690–5695.

Last updated: 12 August 2017.