Cyclorrhapha

Big-headed fly Eudorylas sp., photographed by Nikola Rahmé.


Belongs within: Brachycera.
Contains: Syrphidae, Schizophora, Phoridae.

The Cyclorrhapha are a clade of flies in which the larvae have developed the familiar 'maggot' form, with the head desclerotised and invaginated into the body. The earliest cyclorrhaphans are known from the Cretaceous (Grimaldi & Engel 2005).

Synapomorphies (from Grimaldi & Engel 2005): Face with pair or more of thick vibrissae; abdominal plaques lost in adults; embryos not developing in amnion; larvae saprophagous 'maggots' with maxilla absent, head desclerotised and invaginated; pupariation in ecdysed cuticle of last larval instar; arista with two small basal segments; proboscis retractile, withdrawn at rest into large oral cavity; female terminalia without acanthophorite spines.

<==Cyclorrhapha [Aschiza, Muscomorpha]
    |--Chimeromyia GE05
    `--+--Lonchopterites prisca GE05
       `--+--Syrphoidea M90
          |    |--Syrphidae WT11
          |    `--+--+--Cretophormia fowleri GE05
          |       |  `--Schizophora WT11
          |       `--Pipunculidae [Dorilaidae] WT11
          |            |--Chalarus A71
          |            |--Alloneura A71
          |            |--Verrallia aucta A71
          |            |--Dorylomorpha A71
          |            |--Nephrocerus A71
          |            |--Dasydorylas filiformis Kehlmaier 2005 F05
          |            |--Cephalops WT11
          |            |    |--C. longistylis WT11
          |            |    `--C. mauritianus A71
          |            |--Eudorylas F05
          |            |    |--E. auctus Kehlmaier 2005 F05
          |            |    |--E. ibericus Kehlmaier 2005 F05
          |            |    |--E. venturai Kehlmaier 2005 F05
          |            |    `--E. zonatus A71
          |            `--Pipunculus B88
          |                 |--P. ater M90
          |                 |--P. campestris A71
          |                 |--P. cinerascens B88
          |                 `--P. fuscus M90
          `--Platypezoidea WT11
               |--+--Lonchopteromorpha asetocella GE05
               |  `--Lonchoptera M83 [Lonchopteridae WT11, Lonchopteroidea]
               |       |--L. furcata M83
               |       `--L. uniseta WT11
               `--+--Opetiala shatalkani GE05
                  `--+--Opetiidae WT11
                     |    |--Lithopetia hirsuta GE05
                     |    `--Opetia nigra GE05
                     `--+--+--Electrosania cretica GE05
                        |  `--Platypezidae WT11
                        |       |--Maritulus GE05
                        |       |--Parnassos GE05
                        |       |--Proplatypeza GE05
                        |       |--Lebambromyia acrai GE05
                        |       |--Promittor GE05
                        |       |--Oloplatypeza GE05
                        |       |--Paraplatypeza velutina WT11
                        |       |--Plesioclythia agarici M90
                        |       |--Polypivora M90
                        |       `--Platypeza consobrina M90
                        `--+--Ironomyiidae WT11
                           |    |--Paleopetia laiyangensis GE05
                           |    |--Hermaeomyia GE05
                           |    |--Eridomyia GE05
                           |    |--Cretonomyia pristina GE05
                           |    |--Sinolesta [Sinolestinae] GE05
                           |    `--Ironomyia [Ironomyiinae] GE05
                           |         `--I. nigromaculata WT11
                           `--+--Archisciada lebanensis GE05
                              `--+--Phoridae WT11
                                 `--Sciadoceridae GE05
                                      |--Sciadocera rufomaculata GE05
                                      `--Archiphora GE05
                                           |--A. patagonica GE05
                                           |--A. pria GE05
                                           `--A. robusta GE05

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[F05] Fernández, J. 2005. Noticia de nuevos táxones para la ciencia en el ámbito Íbero-Balear y Macaronésico. Nuevos táxones animales descritos en la península Ibérica y Macaronesia desde 1994 (IX). Graellsia 61 (2): 261-282.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[M83] Martin, N. A. 1983. Miscellaneous observations on a pasture fauna: An annotated species list. DSIR Entomology Division Report 3: 1-98.

[M90] McAlpine, J. F. 1990. Insecta: Diptera adults. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1211-1252. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690-5695.

Schizophora

Geomyza tripunctata, from here.


Belongs within: Cyclorrhapha.
Synapomorphies: Ephydroidea, Calyptratae, Agromyzidae, Sphaeroceridae, Tephritoidea, Nerioidea, Diopsidae, Chloropidae, Sciomyzoidea, Lauxanioidea, Heleomyzidae.

The Schizophora is a major clade of flies distinguished by the presence of the ptilinum, an eversible membrane in the head that is filled with fluid to break the adult fly out of the pupal case. Schizophorans have often been divided for convenience between the Calyptrata and Acalyptrata (defined primarily by the presence or absence of an enlarged calypter at the base of the wing), though 'Acalyptrata' have long been recognised as an artificial group. However, the relationships of many 'acalyptrate' families have only recently begun to be resolved.

Many families of acalyptrate flies are difficult to distinguish without close examination. The Odiniidae are small flies closely associated as adults with trees; their larvae, where known, are often associated with wood- and plant-boring insects such as beetles or caterpillars. The Carnidae are saprophagous as larvae and in many species as adults, but adults of Carnus hemapterus are ectoparasitic on nestling birds, generally losing their wings through breakage.

Characters (from Grimaldi & Engel 2005): Ptilinum present, adult emerging from puparium via circular sclerite; adult with specialised structure (cardia) between fore- and mid gut.

<==Schizophora (see below for synonymy)
    |--+--+--Ephydroidea WT11
    |  |  `--Calyptratae WT11
    |  `--+--Odiniidae WT11
    |     |    |--Neoalticomerus seamansi WT11
    |     |    |--Odinia betulae M81b
    |     |    `--Traginops irroratus [=T. irrorata] BW09
    |     `--+--+--Agromyzidae WT11
    |        |  `--Sphaeroceridae WT11
    |        `--+--Carnidae WT11
    |           |    |--Carnus hemapterus A71
    |           |    |--Meoneura obscurella CW09
    |           |    `--Hemeromyia anthracina KP10
    |           `--Periscelididae WT11
    |                |  i. s.: Periscelis BW09
    |                |           |--P. annulata T81a
    |                |           `--P. flinti BW09
    |                |         Scutops BW09
    |                `--Stenomicrinae BW09
    |                     |--Stenomicra BW09
    |                     `--Planinasus BW09
    `--+--Megamerina [Megamerinidae] WT11
       `--+--+--Tephritoidea WT11
          |  `--+--Chyromyidae WT11
          |     |    |--Gymnochiromyia concolor WT11, M81b
          |     |    |--Chyromya flava M81b
          |     |    `--Aphaniosoma M81b
          |     `--+--Opomyzidae WT11
          |        |    |--Opomyza WT11
          |        |    |    |--O. florum WT11
          |        |    |    `--O. petrei T81b
          |        |    `--Geomyza WT11
          |        |         |--G. apicalis K-P87
          |        |         |--G. balachowskyi T81b
          |        |         |--G. lurida M90
          |        |         `--G. tripunctata WT11
          |        `--+--Acartophthalmus [Acartophthalmidae] WT11
          |           |    `--A. nigrinus WT11
          |           `--Sepsidae [Sepsinae] WT11
          |                |--Orygma luctuosum M90, KP10
          |                |--Nemopoda cylindrica K01
          |                |--Saltella scutellaris K01
          |                |--Palaeosepsis BW09
          |                |--Archisepsis BW09
          |                `--Sepsis WT11
          |                     |--S. cynipsea WT11
          |                     |--S. neocynipsea T90
          |                     `--S. punctum M90
          `--+--+--+--+--Inbiomyia [Inbiomyiidae] WT11
             |  |  |  |    `--I. mcalpineorum WT11
             |  |  |  `--Nemula [Neminidae] WT11
             |  |  |       `--N. longarista WT11
             |  |  `--+--Nerioidea WT11
             |  |     `--Aulacigastridae WT11
             |  |          |--Cyamops nebulosa WT11
             |  |          `--Aulacigaster BW09
             |  |               |--A. leucopeza M81b
             |  |               `--A. neoleucopeza BW09
             |  `--+--+--Diopsidae WT11
             |     |  `--+--Margo [Marginidae] WT11
             |     |     `--+--Nannodastiidae WT11
             |     |        |    |--Azorastia mediterranea WT11
             |     |        |    `--Nannodastia horni BW09
             |     |        `--Canacidae WT11
             |     |             |--Procanace dianneae WT11
             |     |             |--Tethinosoma fulvifrons WT11
             |     |             |--Canacea macateei BW09
             |     |             |--Canaceoides nudatus M81b
             |     |             `--Nocticanace BW09
             |     `--+--Somatia [Somatiidae] WT11
             |        |    `--S. aestiva WT11
             |        `--+--Chloropidae WT11
             |           `--Milichiidae WT11
             |                |--Paramyia nitens WT11
             |                |--Desmometopa m-nigrum M90
             |                |--Madiza glabra M90
             |                |--Leptometopa halteralis M81a
             |                |--Phyllomyza securicornis BW09
             |                |--Aldrichiomyza agromyzina BW09
             |                |--Eusiphona mira BW09
             |                |--Phloeomyia indecora BW09
             |                `--Milichiella BW09
             `--+--+--Strongylophthalmyia [Strongylophthalmyiidae] WT11
                |  |    |--S. angustipennis M90
                |  |    `--S. pengellyi WT11
                |  `--Tanypezidae [Tanypezinae] WT11
                |       |--Neotanypeza elegans BW09
                |       |--Tanypeza longimana M90
                |       `--Calobata cibaria K01
                `--+--+--+--Heteromyza atricornis WT11
                   |  |  `--+--Sciomyzoidea WT11
                   |  |     `--Lauxanioidea WT11
                   |  `--+--Heleomyzidae WT11
                   |     `--Teratomyzidae WT11
                   |          |--Teratomyza WT11
                   |          `--Camur willii BW09
                   `--+--+--Ropalomeridae WT11
                      |  |    |--Willistoniella pleuropunctata WT11
                      |  |    |--Ropalomera femorata M81b
                      |  |    `--Lenkokroeberia BW09
                      |  `--+--+--Australimyza [Australimyzidae] WT11
                      |     |  `--Xenasteia [Xenasteiidae] WT11
                      |     |       `--X. shalam WT11
                      |     `--+--Fergusonina [Fergusoninidae] WT11
                      |        |    `--F. turneri WT11
                      |        `--Asteiidae WT11
                      |             |--Asteia amoena WT11
                      |             |--Leiomyza laevigata M81b
                      |             |--Phlebosotera setipalpis BW09
                      |             |--Loewimyia BW09
                      |             `--Sigaloessa BW09
                      `--+--+--Syringogaster [Syringogastridae] WT11
                         |  |    |--S. brunnea BW09
                         |  |    `--S. rufa BW09
                         |  `--Psilidae [Psilinae] WT11
                         |       |--Chamaepsila hennigi WT11
                         |       |--Loxocera cylindrica T81b
                         |       |--Chyliza BW09
                         |       `--Psila M90
                         |            |--P. gracilis K01
                         |            |--P. nigra K01
                         |            |--P. pallida K01
                         |            `--P. rosae M90
                         `--+--Clusiidae WT11
                            |    |--Clusia lateralis WT11
                            |    |--Clusiodes albimanus M81b
                            |    |--Chaetoclusia bakeri M81b
                            |    `--Sobarocephala BW09
                            |         |--S. flaviseta BW09
                            |         `--S. picta BW09
                            `--+--Neurochaeta [Neurochaetidae] WT11
                               `--Pallopteridae WT11
                                    |--Eurygnathomyia M81a
                                    |--Temnosira subarcuata M81b
                                    `--Palloptera WT11
                                         |--P. claripennis M81b
                                         |--P. superba M81b
                                         `--P. umbellatarum WT11

Schizophora incertae sedis:
  Mormotomyia [Mormotomyiidae] GE05
    `--M. hirsuta GE05
  Borborinae K01
    |--Heteroptera acutangula K01
    `--Borborus K01
         |--B. equinus K01
         |--B. oeneus Macquart 1849 E12
         `--B. vitripennis K01
  Nothybidae WBW09
  Paraleucopidae BW09
    |--Paraleucopis corvina BW09
    `--Mallochianamyia BW09

Schizophora [Acalypterae, Acalyptrata, Agromyzoinea, Asteioinea, Carnoidea, Clusioinea, Diopsoidea, Holometopa, Opomyzoidea, Opomyzoidea, Sphaeroceroidea] WT11

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[BW09] Buck, M., N. E. Woodley, A. Borkent, D. M. Wood, T. Pape, J. R. Vockeroth, V. Michelsen & S. A. Marshall. 2009. Key to Diptera families—adults. In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera, vol. 1, pp. 95-156. Ottawa, NRC Research Press.

[CW09] Cumming, J. M., & D. M. Wood. 2009. Adult morphology and terminology. In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera, vol. 1, pp. 9-50. Ottawa, NRC Research Press.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[K01] Kertész, K. 1901. Legyek [Dipteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy], Band II. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy], pp. 179-201. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[K-P87] Kukalová-Peck, J. 1987. New Carboniferous Diplura, Monura, and Thysanura, the hexapod ground plan, and the role of thoracic side lobes in the origin of wings (Insecta). Canadian Journal of Zoology 65: 2327-2345.

[KP10] Kutty, S. N., T. Pape, B. M. Wiegmann & R. Meier. 2010. Molecular phylogeny of the Calyptratae (Diptera: Cyclorrhapha) with an emphasis on the superfamily Oestroidea and the position of Mystacinobiidae and McAlpine's fly. Systematic Entomology 35: 614-635.

[M81a] McAlpine, J. F. 1981a. Morphology and terminology—adults. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1, pp. 9-63. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[M81b] McAlpine, J. F. 1981b. Key to families—adults. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1, pp. 89-124. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[M90] McAlpine, J. F. 1990. Insecta: Diptera adults. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1211-1252. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[T81a] Teskey, H. J. 1981a. Morphology and terminology—larvae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1, pp. 65-88. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[T81b] Teskey, H. J. 1981b. Key to families—larvae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1, pp. 125-147. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[T90] Teskey, H. J. 1990. Insecta: Diptera larvae. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1253-1276. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690-5695.

[WBW09] Woodley, N. E., A. Borkent & T. A. Wheeler. 2009. Phylogeny of the Diptera. In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera, vol. 1, pp. 79-94. Ottawa, NRC Research Press.

Lauxaniidae


Sapromyza sp., copyright frogprince.


Belongs within: Lauxanioidea.
Contains: Trigonometopini.

The Lauxaniidae are a family of flies whose larvae mostly live in fallen leaves and other rotting vegetation. The internal classification of the family is somewhat poorly established; the Eurychoromyiinae have previously been recognised as a separate family due to a reduction in setation but examination at high magnification has found that a number of 'lost' setae are present but greatly reduced (Gaimari & Silva 2010).

Characters (from Colless & McAlpine 1991): One or two fronto-orbital bristles; costa unbroken; Sc complete; Cu+1A discontinued well before margine; vein 2A generally visible beyond alula; anepisternite with one or two mesopleural bristles; tibiae with preapical dorsal bristles; sternite 1 well developed, sclerotised.

Lauxaniidae [Sapromyzidae]
    |--Lauxaniinae P08
    |    |  i. s.: Lauxania cylindricornis K01
    |    `--Trigonometopini P07
    |--Sapromyza [Sapromyzinae] K01
    |    |--S. flavimana CM91
    |    |--S. frontalis GS10
    |    |--S. lupulina K01
    |    |--S. nigrans GS10
    |    |--S. picticornis GS10
    |    |--S. rotundicornis S87
    |    |--S. slossonae GS10
    |    |--S. sororia GS10
    |    `--S. vinnula GS10
    |--Homoneurinae GS10
    |    |--Trypetisoma GS10
    |    |    |--T. sticticum GS10
    |    |    `--T. zacatecasense GS10
    |    `--Homoneura GS10
    |         |  i. s.: H. bispina BW09
    |         |         H. proximella CM91
    |         |--H. (Homoneura) philadelphica GS10
    |         `--H. (Tarsohomoneura) GS10
    |              |--H. (T.) americana GS10
    |              `--H. (T.) ornatipes GS10
    `--Eurychoromyiinae [Eurychoromyiidae] GS10
         |--Eurychoromyia BW09
         |--Tauridion shewelli GS10
         |--Choryeuromyia senisma GS10
         |--Eurystratiomyia GS10
         |--Roryeuchomyia GS10
         |--Euryhendelimyia GS10
         `--Physegeniopsis GS10
              |--P. albeto GS10
              |--P. ankhoidea GS10
              `--P. hadrocara GS10

Lauxaniidae incertae sedis:
  Noonamyiini P07
  Paranomina Hendel 1907 P07
  Lyciella WT11
    |--L. decipiens WT11
    `--L. discolor S87
  Cerastocara ZS10
  Cephaloconus ZS10
  Poecilohetarus ZS10
  Neogriphoneura GS10
    |--N. laevifrons GS10
    |--N. sordida BW09
    |--N. striatifrons GS10
    |--N. striga GS10
    |--N. tertia GS10
    `--N. timida GS10
  Siphonophysa albipes GS10
  Neodeceia cineracea GS10
  Hypagoga GS10
  Oncodometopus umbrosus GS10
  Tricholauxania GS10
  Pseudocalliope GS10
    |--P. eucephala GS10
    |--P. flaviceps GS10
    `--P. longicornis S87
  Poecilominettia macula GS10
  Meiosimyza GS10
  Calliopum quadrisetosum GS10
  Pseudogriphoneura GS10
  Camptoprosopella borealis GS10
  Poecilolycia serrata GS10
  Melanomyza GS10
    |--M. (Melanomyza) GS10
    |    |--M. (M.) gracilipes GS10
    |    `--M. (M.) proana GS10
    `--M. (Lauxaniella) GS10
         |--‘Lauxaniella’ femoralis M81
         `--M. (L.) manuleata GS10
  Trivialia GS10
    |--T. celeste GS10
    |--T. fuscocapitata GS10
    |--T. nigroapicata GS10
    `--T. puella GS10
  Xenochaetina GS10
    |--X. flavipennis GS10
    |--X. muscaria GS10
    `--X. pallida GS10
  Physoclypeus GS10
    |--P. coquilletti GS10
    |--P. hendeli GS10
    |--P. unimaculatus GS10
    `--P. zebrinus GS10
  Xeniconeura costalis GS10
  Trisapromyza vittigera GS10
  Allominettia GS10
    |--A. approximata GS10
    |--A. assimilis GS10
    `--A. geniseta GS10
  Mallochomyza citreifrons GS10
  Steganolauxania latipennis GS10
  Cephalella fumipennis GS10
  Triconopsis GS10
  Asilostoma GS10
    |--A. atriceps GS10
    |--A. flavifacies GS10
    |--A. pallipes GS10
    `--A. palpalis GS10
  Pachyopella GS10
    |--P. flavida GS10
    `--P. ornata GS10
  Stenolauxania GS10
    |--S. nubecula GS10
    `--S. striata GS10
  Minettia WT11 [Minettiinae]
    |--M. aibonito GS10
    |--M. flaveola WT11
    |--M. hubbardii GS10
    `--M. lupulina M90
  Xenopterella GS10
    |--X. beameri GS10
    `--X. obliqua GS10
  Baliopteridion GS10
  Hirtodeceia GS10
  Paracestrotus GS10
  Deutominettia GS10
    |--D. bimaculata GS10
    `--D. geniseta S87
  Scutominettia GS10
    |--S. innuba GS10
    `--S. mallochi GS10
  Griphoneura GS10
  Chaetominettia GS10
    |--C. corollae GS10
    `--C. spinitibia GS10
  Dryomyzothea GS10
  Setulina GS10
    |--S. geminata GS10
    |--S. interjecta GS10
    |--S. prima GS10
    `--S. stata GS10
  Chaetocoelia GS10
    |--C. caloptera GS10
    |--C. distinctissima GS10
    `--C. pallans GS10
  Dryosapromyza GS10
  Sciosapromyza GS10
    |--S. coronata GS10
    |--S. ficulnea GS10
    `--S. tinctinervis GS10
  Pseudominettia platypeza GS10
  Agriphoneura GS10
  Eriurgus GS10
  Ocellominettia GS10
  Celypholauxania GS10
  Procrita pectinata GS10
  Blepharolauxania GS10
  Platygraphium penicillatum GS10
  Freyia nigrita GS10
  Physegenua GS10
  Neoxangelina ornata GS10
  Minilauxania bulbifacies GS10
  Ritaemyia GS10
  Scutolauxania GS10
  Neopachycerina GS10
  Gibbolauxania GS10
    |--G. aliena GS10
    `--G. lateralis GS10
  Deceia GS10
  Marmarodeceia marmorata GS10
  Neominettia contigua GS10
  Depressa striatipennis CM91
  ‘Lonchaea’ senescens S87

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BW09] Buck, M., N. E. Woodley, A. Borkent, D. M. Wood, T. Pape, J. R. Vockeroth, V. Michelsen & S. A. Marshall. 2009. Key to Diptera families—adults. In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 95–156. Ottawa, NRC Research Press.

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[GS10] Gaimari, S. D., & V. C. Silva. 2010. Lauxaniidae (lauxaniid flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 971–995. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[K01] Kertész, K. 1901. Legyek [Dipteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 179–201. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[M81] McAlpine, J. F. 1981. Morphology and terminology—adults. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 9–63. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[M90] McAlpine, J. F. 1990. Insecta: Diptera adults. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1211–1252. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[P07] Papp, L. 2007. A review of the Old World Trigonometopini Becker (Diptera: Lauxaniidae). Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici 99: 129–169.

[P08] Papp, L. 2008. Afrotropical species of the genus Diplochasma, subgenus Sauteromyia (Diptera: Lauxaniidae). Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici 100: 307–330.

[S87] Shewell, G. E. 1987. Lauxaniidae. In: McAlpine, J. F. (ed.) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 2 pp. 951–964. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690–5695.

[ZS10] Zborowski, P., & R. Storey. 2010. A Field Guide to Insects in Australia 3rd ed. Reed New Holland: Sydney.

Last updated: 11 June 2017.

Homalorhagida

Pycnophyes calmani, from here.


Belongs within: Ecdysozoa.

The Homalorhagida are a group of marine kinorhynchs distinguished by their triangular cross-section.

Characters (from Higgins 1986): 6-8 neck plates; distinctly triangular in cross-section; spines reduced.

Homalorhagida [Homalorhagae]
    |--Neocentrophyes Higgins 1969 [Neocentrophyidae] H86
    |    |--N. intermedius Higgins 1969 H86
    |    `--N. satyai Higgins 1969 H86
    `--Pycnophyidae H86
         |--Kinorhynchus Sheremetevskij 1974 H86
         |    |--K. anomalus Lang 1953 H86
         |    |--K. apotomus Higgins 1983 H86
         |    |--K. belizensis Higgins 1983 H86
         |    |--K. cataphractus Higgins 1961 H86
         |    |--K. deirophorus Higgins 1983 H86
         |    |--K. distentus Higgins 1983 H86
         |    |--K. erismatus Higgins 1983 H86
         |    |--K. fimbriatus Higgins 1982 H86
         |    |--K. giganteus (Zelinka 1908) H86
         |    |--K. ilyocryptus Higgins 1961 H86
         |    |--K. langi (Higgins 1964) H86
         |    |--K. mainensis (Blake 1930) H86
         |    |--K. paraneapolitanus Sheremetevskij 1974 H86
         |    |--K. phyllotropis Brown & Higgins 1983 H86
         |    |--K. spinosus (Lang 1949) H86
         |    |--K. stenopygus Higgins 1983 H86
         |    `--K. trisetosus Higgins 1983 H86
         `--Pycnophyes Zelinka 1907 H86
              |--P. beaufortensis Higins 1964 H86
              |--P. calmani Southern 1914 H86
              |--P. carinatus Zelinka 1928 H86
              |--P. chiliensis Lang 1953 H86
              |--P. communis Zelinka 1908 H86
              |--P. corrugatus Higgins 1983 H86
              |--P. dentatus (Reinhard 1881) H86
              |--P. echinoderoides Zelinka 1928 H86
              |--P. ecphantor Higgins 1983 H86
              |--P. egyptensis Higgins 1966 H86
              |--P. emarginatus Higgins 1983 H86
              |--P. flagellatus H86
              |--P. flaveolatus Zelinka 1928 H86
              |--P. frequens Blake 1930 H86
              |--P. iniorhaptus Higins 1983 H86
              |--P. kielensis Zelinka 1928 H86
              |--P. longicornis Higgins 1983 H86
              |--P. maximus Reimer 1963 H86
              |--P. odhneri Lang 1953 H86
              |--P. ponticus (Reinhard 1881) H86
              |--P. robustus Zelinka 1928 H86
              |--P. rugosus Zelinka 1928 H86
              |--P. sanjuanensis Higgins 1961 H86
              |--P. sculptus Lang 1949 H86
              `--P. zelinkaei Southern 1914 H86

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[H86] Higgins, R. P. 1986. Kinorhyncha. In Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) (L. Botosaneanu, ed.) pp. 110-118. E. J. Brill / Dr. W. Backhuys: Leiden.

Cyclorhagida

Images of Campyloderes cf. vanhoeffeni from Neuhaus & Sørensen (2012). Original caption: "SEM (A–C, F–H) and DIC images (D, E, J, K) of male (C, J) and female (A, B, D–H, K) Campyloderes cf. vanhoeffeni from the Galápagos area (A, E), Antarctica (B, H) and the Faroe Islands (C, D, F, G, J, K). (A, B) Habitus from left side (A) and ventral side (B). Arrow heads mark sensory spots. (C) Mouth cone in surface view, individual outer oral styles absent. (D, E) Optical section of mouth cone of specimens ZMUC KIN-87 (D) and ZMB 5967i (E). Inner oral styles recognizable in specimen from Galápagos area (E) but not in Faroe specimen (D). Pharynx with alternating circular and radial muscle cells in (E). (F, G). Tip of mouth cone (F) and detail of fused outer oral styles (G). (H) Frontal view of placids. (J, K) Head and placids of specimens ZMUC KIN-95 (J) and KIN-94 (K) in ventral (J) and dorsal view (K). Scale bar in A and B 200 μm, in C and H 20 μm, in D 30 μm (valid for D, E), in F 5 μm, in G 2 μm, in J 30 μm (valid for J, K)."


Belongs within: Ecdysozoa.
Contains: Echinoderes.

The Cyclorhagida is the larger of the two major groups of kinorhynchs, small worm-like animals found mostly in marine sediments.

Characters (from Higgins 1986): 14-16 neck plates; generally round to oval-triangular; usually with numerous lateral middorsal and occasionally midterminal spines.

Cyclorhagida
    |--Cateria Gerlach 1956 [Cateriidae, Cryptorhagae] H86
    |    |--C. gerlachi Higgins 1968 H86
    |    |--C. styx Gerlach 1956 H86
    |    `--C. submersa Gerlach 1969 H86
    |--Semnoderidae [Conchorhagae] H86
    |    |--Sphenoderes Higgins 1969 H86
    |    |    `--S. indicus Higgins 1969 H86
    |    `--Semnoderes Zelinka 1907 H86
    |         |--S. armiger Zelinka 1928 H86
    |         |--S. pacificus Higgins 1967 H86
    |         `--S. ponticus Băcescu & Băcescu 1956 H86
    `--Cyclorhagae H86
         |--Echinoderes H86
         |--Condyloderes Higgins 1969 [Condyloderidae] H86
         |    |--C. multispinosus (McIntyre 1962) H86
         |    `--C. paradoxus Higgins 1969 H86
         `--Centroderidae H86
              |--Centroderes Zelinka 1896 H86
              |    |--C. eisigii Zelinka 1928 H86
              |    `--C. spinosus (Reinhard 1881) H86
              `--Campyloderes Zelinka 1913 H86
                   |--C. adherens Nyholm 1947 H86
                   |--C. macquariae Johnston 1938 H86
                   `--C. vanhoeffeni Zelinka 1913 H86

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[H86] Higgins, R. P. 1986. Kinorhyncha. In Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) (L. Botosaneanu, ed.) pp. 110-118. E. J. Brill / Dr. W. Backhuys: Leiden.

Neuhaus, B., & M. V. Sørensen. In press, 2012. Populations of Campyloderes sp. (Kinorhyncha, Cyclorhagida): one global species with significant morphological variation? Zoologischer Anzeiger.

Conopidae

Physocephala vittata, photographed by Pietro Niolu.


Belongs within: Sciomyzoidea.

The Conopidae is a family of flies of which most members are mimics of wasps. Larvae are endoparasites of other insects. Living conopids are divided between three subfamilies, Dalmanniinae, Myopinae and Conopinae (a fourth subfamily, Stylogastrinae, is probably not monophyletic with other conopids), with a further subfamily Palaeomyopinae known from the fossil record (Skevington et al. 2010).

Characters (from Colless & McAlpine 1991): Mid-coxal prong absent; proboscis usually very slender, often much longer than head; palp small or absent; vein R1 bare; cell CuP acute distally, usually long.

Conopidae [Archischiza, Conopoidea]
    |  i. s.: Leopoldius coronatus A71
    |         Oncomyia K01
    |           |--O. distincta K01
    |           `--O. sundevalli K01
    |         Parazodion schmidti STC10
    |         Tropidomyia bimaculata STC10
    |         Myopella Robineau-Desvoidy 1853 M10
    |         Microconops CM91
    |         Palaeosicus loewi SP87
    |--Palaeomyopa SP87 [Palaeomyopinae STC10]
    |    `--P. tertiaria SP87
    |--Dalmannia A71 [Dalmanniinae STC10]
    |    |--D. nigriceps SP87
    |    `--D. punctata SP87
    |--Myopinae STC10
    |    |--Robertsonomyia palpalis SP87
    |    |--Thecophora SP87
    |    |    |--T. nigripes STC10
    |    |    `--T. occidensis STC10
    |    |--Zodion Latreille 1802 SP87, L02
    |    |    |--*Z. cinereum [=Myopa cinerea] L02
    |    |    |--Z. americanum STC10
    |    |    |--Z. intermedium SP87
    |    |    |--Z. obliquefasciatum STC10
    |    |    `--Z. perlongum STC10
    |    `--Myopa WT11
    |         |--M. buccata SP87
    |         |--M. fasciata STC10
    |         |--M. ferruginea L02
    |         |--M. picta A71
    |         |--M. rubida SP87
    |         `--M. variegata K01
    `--Conopinae STC10
         |--Physocephala [Physocephalini] SP87
         |    |--P. bimarginipennis T81
         |    |--P. chrysorrhoea BM76
         |    |--P. flavipes SP87
         |    |--P. furcillata M81
         |    |--P. inhabilis STC10
         |    |--P. marginata WT11
         |    |--P. rufipes K01
         |    |--P. sagittaria SP87
         |    |--P. texana M90
         |    `--P. vittata BM76
         `--Conopini SP87
              |--Physoconops SP87
              |    |--P. brachyrhynchus M90
              |    |--P. bulbirostris STC10
              |    |--P. fronto STC10
              |    |--P. ornatifrons STC10
              |    `--P. (Gyroconops) sylvosus STC10
              `--Conops Linnaeus 1758 L58
                   |--C. algira Macquart 1849 E12
                   |--C. (Asiconops) bermudensis SP87
                   |--C. buccata Linnaeus 1758 L58
                   |--C. calcitrans Linnaeus 1758 L58
                   |--C. flavipes Linnaeus 1758 L58
                   |--C. fuscipennis Macquart 1849 E12
                   |--C. geminatus STC10
                   |--C. irritans Linnaeus 1758 L58
                   |--C. macrocephala Linnaeus 1758 L58
                   |--C. nobilis STC10
                   |--C. rostrata Linnaeus 1758 L58
                   |--C. rufiventris Macquart 1849 E12
                   `--C. splendidus CM91

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[BM76] Bohart, R. M., & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[K01] Kertész, K. 1901. Legyek [Dipteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 179–201. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[M81] McAlpine, J. F. 1981. Morphology and terminology—adults. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 9–63. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[M90] McAlpine, J. F. 1990. Insecta: Diptera adults. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1211–1252. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[M10] Michelsen, V. 2010. Anthomyiidae (anthomyiid flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1271–1276. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[STC10] Skevington, J. H., F. C. Thompson & S. Camras. 2010. Conopidae (thick-headed flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 847–855. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[SP87] Smith, K. G. V., & B. V. Peterson. 1987. Conopidae. In: McAlpine, J. F. (ed.) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 2 pp. 749–756. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[T81] Teskey, H. J. 1981. Key to families—larvae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 125–147. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690–5695.

Last updated: 11 June 2017.

Agromyzidae

Serpentine leafminer Liriomyza brassicae, from here.


Belongs within: Schizophora.

The Agromyzidae are a group of mostly small or minute flies, the larvae of which form mines or galls in plants. As a result, some species are economically significant pests, such as the vegetable leafminer Liriomyza sativae and the American serpentine leafminer L. trifolii.

Characters (from Colless & McAlpine 1991): Postvertical bristles divergent; lower fronto-orbital bristles incurved; costa not broken near hm; R1 not setulose; mesopleural bristle present; tibiae without preapical dorsal bristles; female with abdominal segment 7 enlarged, entirely sclerotised.

<==Agromyzidae
    |--Phytoliriomyza cyathea Spencer 1976 M03
    |--Phytobia Z02
    |--Ceradontha australis [=C. denticornis] M83
    |--Chromatomyia horticola B88
    |--Cerodonta dorsalis WT11
    |--Ophiomyia B88
    |    |--O. phaseoli B88
    |    `--O. solanicola B88
    |--Agromyza B88
    |    |--A. angulata G17
    |    |--A. demeijerei A71
    |    `--A. pseudoreptans M90
    |--Phytomyza B88
    |    |--P. atricornis B88
    |    |--P. clematidicola B88
    |    |--P. cytisi A71
    |    |--P. ilicicola WT11
    |    |--P. ilicis A71
    |    `--P. plantaginis M83
    `--Liriomyza B88
         |--L. brassicae B88
         |--L. chenopodii M83
         |--L. helichrysi B88
         |--L. huidobrensis MHG04
         |--L. sativae B88
         `--L. trifolii H91

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia, pp. 717-786. Melbourne University Press.

[G17] Girault, A. A. 1917. Descriptiones hymenopterorum chalcidoidicarum variorum cum observationibus. III. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 102-111).

[H91] Hokkanen, H. M. T. 1991. Trap cropping in pest management. Annual Review of Entomology 36: 119-138.

[M83] Martin, N. A. 1983. Miscellaneous observations on a pasture fauna: An annotated species list. DSIR Entomology Division Report 3: 1-98.

[M03] Martin, N. 2003. Changes in abundance of the silver fern leaf miner. Weta 25: 31-32.

[MHG04] Maynard, G. V., J. G. Hamilton & J. F. Grimshaw. 2004. Quarantine - phytosanitary, sanitary and incursion management: an Australian entomological perspective. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 318-328.

[M90] McAlpine, J. F. 1990. Insecta: Diptera adults. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1211-1252. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690-5695.

[Z02] Zherikhin, V. V. 2002. Insect trace fossils. In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 303-324. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

Drosophila (Drosophila)

Drosophila virilis, photographed by Darren J. Obbard.


Belongs within: Drosophilidae.

Drosophila subgenus Drosophila is one of the major recognised subdivisions of the large genus Drosophila. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that some taxa recognised as separate genera are nested within this subgenus (Robe et al. 2005).

Characters (from Singh et al. 2004): Gena often broad; second oral bristle large; prescutellar acrostichals not, or barely, enlarged; propleural bristle absent; apical bands on anterior abdominal tergites, when present, usually interrupted in midline; usually rather large species.

<==Drosophila (Drosophila)
    |--+--+--D. (D.) nannoptera RV05
    |  |  `--D. (D.) pallidipennis RV05
    |  |       |--D. p. pallidipennis D51
    |  |       `--D. p. centralis D51
    |  `--+--+--D. (D.) robusta RV05
    |     |  `--D. (D.) virilis RV05
    |     `--+--+--+--D. (D.) annulimana RV05
    |        |  |  `--D. (D.) aracatacas RV05
    |        |  `--+--D. (D.) cestri RV05
    |        |     |--D. (D.) flavopilosa RV05
    |        |     `--D. (D.) incompta RV05
    |        `--+--D. (D.) canalinea RV05
    |           `--+--+--D. (D.) camargoi RV05
    |              |  `--D. (D.) dreyfusi RV05
    |              `--+--+--D. (D.) mercatorum RV05
    |                 |  `--+--+--D. (D.) eohydei RV05
    |                 |     |  `--D. (D.) hydei RV05
    |                 |     `--+--D. (D.) buzzati RV05
    |                 |        `--+--D. (D.) borborema RV05
    |                 |           `--D. (D.) serido RV05
    |                 `--+--D. (D.) viracochi RV05
    |                    `--+--+--D. (D.) gaucha RV05
    |                       |  `--D. (D.) pavani RV05
    |                       `--+--D. (D.) mesophragmatica RV05
    |                          `--+--D. (D.) brncici RV05
    |                             `--D. (D.) gasici RV05
    `--+--+--Liodrosophila aerea RV05
       |  `--Zaprionus RV05
       |       |--Z. indianus RV05
       |       `--Z. tuberculatus RV05
       `--+--+--Samoaia leonensis RV05
          |  `--Hirtodrosophila Duda 1923 RV05, SDF04 [=Dasydrosophila Duda 1925 SDF04]
          |       |--*H. latifrontata (Fronta-Pessoa 1945) (see below for synonymy) SDF04
          |       `--H. pictiventris RV05
          `--+--D. (D.) immigrans Sturtevant 1921 RV05, SDF04
             `--+--+--D. (D.) phalerata RV05
                |  `--D. (D.) quinaria RV05
                `--+--+--*D. (D.) funebris (Fabricius 1787) SDF04, RV05, SDF04 [=Musca funebris SDF04]
                   |  `--+--D. (D.) putrida RV05
                   |     `--D. (D.) testacea RV05
                   `--+--D. (D.) nappae [incl. D. angustibucca] RV05
                      `--+--+--D. (D.) polymorpha RV05
                         |  `--+--D. (D.) cardini RV05
                         |     `--+--D. (D.) cardinoides RV05
                         |        `--D. (D.) neocardini RV05
                         `--+--+--D. (D.) tripunctata RV05
                            |  `--+--D. (D.) bandeirantorum RV05
                            |     `--D. (D.) mediopunctata RV05
                            `--+--+--D. (D.) calloptera RV05
                               |  `--+--D. (D.) paramediostriata RV05
                               |     `--+--D. (D.) griseolineata RV05
                               |        `--D. (D.) maculifrons RV05
                               `--+--D. (D.) mediostriata [incl. D. crocina] RV05
                                  `--+--D. (D.) ornatifrons RV05
                                     `--+--D. (D.) guaru RV05
                                        `--D. (D.) subbadia RV05

Drosophila (Drosophila) incertae sedis:
  D. (D.) aldrichi CE79
  D. (D.) americana CE79
    |--D. a. americana CE79
    `--D. a. texana CE79
  D. (D.) analspina Singh & Negi 1995 SDF04
  D. (D.) arizonensis CE79
  D. (D.) bageshwarensis Singh, Dash & Fartyal 2004 SDF04
  D. (D.) bifurca CE79
  D. (D.) bishti Singh & Negi 1995 SDF04
  D. (D.) elongata Singh, Dash & Fartyal 2004 SDF04
  D. (D.) ezoana CE79
  D. (D.) flavomontana CE79
  D. (D.) fulvimacula CE79
  D. (D.) guaramunu RV05
  D. (D.) guarani RV05
  D. (D.) hexaspina Singh, Dash & Fartyal 2004 SDF04
  D. (D.) khansuensis Singh, Dash & Fartyal 2004 SDF04
  D. (D.) kunzei CE79
  D. (D.) lacertosa Okada 1956 SDF04
  D. (D.) lacicola CE79
  D. (D.) littoralis CE79
  D. (D.) lummei CE79
  D. (D.) medioimpressa RV05
  D. (D.) melanopalpa CE79
  D. (D.) meridiana CE79
  D. (D.) micromelanica CE79
  D. (D.) mohavensis CE79
  D. (D.) montana CE79
    |--D. m. montana CE79
    `--D. m. ovivororum CE79
  D. (D.) mulleri CE79
  D. (D.) nainitalensis Singh & Bhatt 1988 SDF04
  D. (D.) nasuta Lamb 1914 SDF04
  D. (D.) navajoa CE79
  D. (D.) neohydei CE79
  D. (D.) nigrohydei RV05
  D. (D.) novamexicana CE79
  D. (D.) pachea CE79
  D. (D.) paharpaniensis Singh, Dash & Fartyal 2004 SDF04
  D. (D.) painii Singh & Negi 1995 SDF04
  D. (D.) paramarginata Singh, Dash & Fartyal 2004 SDF04
  D. (D.) paranaensis CE79
  D. (D.) paunai Singh & Negi 1989 SDF04
  D. (D.) repleta Wollaston 1858 SDF04
  D. (D.) serrata Singh, Dash & Fartyal 2004 SDF04
  D. (D.) sulfurigaster Duda 1923 SDF04
  D. (D.) surangensis Singh, Dash & Fartyal 2004 SDF04
  D. (D.) trisetosa Okada 1966 SDF04
  D. (D.) trizonata Okada 1966 SDF04
  0--D. (D.) mediopicta RV05
  `--+--+--D. (D.) cuaso RV05
     |  `--D. (D.) metzii RV05
     `--+--D. (D.) mediosignata RV05
        `--D. (D.) paraguayensis RV05

*Hirtodrosophila latifrontata (Fronta-Pessoa 1945) [=Drosophila carinata Duda 1923 non Grimshaw 1901, D. (*Hirtodrosophila) latifrontata] SDF04

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[CE79] Coyne, J. A., W. F. Eanes, J. A. M. Ramshaw & R. K. Koehn. 1979. Electrophoretic heterogeneity of α-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase among many species of Drosophila. Systematic Zoology 28 (2): 164-175.

[D51] Dobzhansky, T. 1951. Genetics and the Origin of Species, 3rd ed. Columbia University Press: New York.

[RV05] Robe, L. J., V. L. S. Valente, M. Budnik & E. L. S. Loreto. 2005. Molecular phylogeny of the subgenus Drosophila (Diptera, Drosophilidae) with an emphasis on Neotropical species and groups: a nuclear versus mitochondrial gene approach. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 36: 623-640.

[SDF04] Singh, B. K., S. Dash & R. S. Fartyal. 2004. Revision of the species of the subgenus Drosophila (Drosophila) of the Kumaon region, India, with the description of eight new species. Senckenbergiana Biologica 83 (2): 163-176.