Pulicidae

Oriental rat flea Xenopsylla cheopis, from here.

Belongs within: Siphonaptera.

The Pulicidae is a family of fleas including some species of the most significance for humans, such as the human flea Pulex irritans, the dog and cat fleas Ctenocephalides spp., and the Oriental rat flea Xenopsylla cheopis. Females of the chigoe flea or jigger Tunga penetrans burrow into the skin of mammals including humans, leaving only the tip of the abdomen exposed for excretion, mating and laying eggs.

Characters (from Brinck-Lindroth & Smit 2007): Terga II-VII each with only one row of setae. Mesonotum without pseudosetae under collar; metanotum and terga without marginal spinelets or ctenidia. Head without anterior tentorial rod. Outer internal ridge of mid coxa absent; hind coxa with a row or group of small spiniform setae on lower part of inner side; hind tibia without an apical tooth on outside. No setae above spiracular fossa of tergum VIII.

<==Pulicidae [Pulicoidea]
    |--Hoplopsyllus anomalus TW05
    |--Typhlopsylla typhlus K01
    |--Spilopsyllus cuniculi DM91
    |--Tunga [Tungidae, Tunginae] GE05
    |    `--T. penetrans GE05
    |--Ctenocephalides GE05
    |    |--C. canis SEC08
    |    `--C. felis (Bouché 1835) H82
    |--Pulex Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |    |--P. echidnae O86
    |    |--P. irritans Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |    |--P. (Pulex) larimerius R02
    |    `--P. penetrans Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--Echidnophaga Olliff 1886 O86
    |    |--*E. ambulans Olliff 1886 O86
    |    |--E. gallinacea GE05
    |    |--E. murina KK54
    |    |--E. myrmecobii DM91
    |    |--E. octotricha DM91
    |    `--E. perilis W91
    `--Xenopsylla GE05
         |--X. astia A71
         |--X. bechuanae SEC08
         |--X. brasiliensis SEC08
         |--X. cheopis GE05
         |--X. cornigera SEC08
         |--X. cryptonella SEC08
         |--X. erilli SEC08
         |--X. hamula SEC08
         |--X. nubica SEC08
         |--X. philoxera SEC08
         |--X. piriei SEC08
         |--X. scopulifer SEC08
         |--X. trifaria SEC08
         |--X. versuta SEC08
         `--X. vexabilis DM91
              |--X. v. vexabilis D70
              `--X. v. meseris D70

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

Brinck-Lindroth, G., & F. G. A. M. Smit. 2007. The Fleas (Siphonaptera) of Fennoscandia and Denmark. Brill.

[D70] Dunnet, G. M. 1970. Siphonaptera (fleas). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 647–655. Melbourne University Press.

[DM91] Dunnet, G. M., & D. K. Mardon. 1991. Siphonaptera (fleas). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 705–716. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H82] Helmore, D. W. 1982. Drawings of New Zealand insects. Bulletin of the Entomological Society of New Zealand 8: 1–52.

[K01] Kertész, K. 1901. Legyek [Dipteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 179–201. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[KK54] Klemmer, K., & H. E. Krampitz. 1954. Zur Kenntnis der Säugetierfauna Siziliens. Senckenbergiana Biologica 35 (3–4): 121–135.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[O86] Olliff, A. S. 1886. Description of a new aphanipterous insect from New South Wales. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (1): 171–172.

[R02] Rasnitsyn, A. P. 2002. Order Pulicida Billbergh, 1820. The fleas (=Aphaniptera). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 240–242. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[SEC08] Shihepo, F., S. Eiseb & P. Cunningham. 2008. Fleas (Insecta: Siphonaptera) associated with small mammals in selected areas in northern Namibia. Journal Namibia Wissenschaftliche Gesellschaft 56: 5–23.

[TW05] Terry, M. D., & M. F. Whiting. 2005. Mantophasmatodea and phylogeny of the lower neopterous insects. Cladistics 21: 240–257.

[W91] Waterhouse, D. F. 1991. Insects and humans in Australia. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 221–235. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

Last updated: 12 August 2017.

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