Ephydroidea

Cryptochetum buccatum, copyright Andre Burgers.


Belongs within: Schizophora.
Contains: Tethinidae, Drosophilidae, Diastatidae, Gymnomyzinae, Ephydrinae, Discomyzinae, Hydrelliinae.

The Ephydroidea are a clade of mostly small flies supported by molecular data, members of which possess a single pair of proclinate fronto-orbital bristles and precoxal bridges.

<==Ephydroidea WT11
    |  i. s.: Tethinidae M90
    |--+--+--Drosophilidae WT11
    |  |  `--+--Braulidae [Brauloidea] WT11
    |  |     |    |--Megabraula BT10
    |  |     |    `--Braula BT10
    |  |     |         |--B. coeca WT11
    |  |     |         |--B. hasruttneri BT10
    |  |     |         `--B. schmitzi BT10
    |  |     `--Cryptochetidae WT11
    |  |          |--Librella demetrius CM91, MT10
    |  |          |--Phanerochaetum tuxeni CM91, MT10
    |  |          `--Cryptochetum WT11
    |  |               |  i. s.: C. iceryae M81
    |  |               |         C. monophlebi CM91
    |  |               |         C. yokohama T81b
    |  |               `--C. (Cryptochetum) C-T92
    |  |                    |--C. (C.) buccatum Hendel 1933 C-T92
    |  |                    `--C. (C.) jorgepastori Cadahia 1984 C-T92
    |  `--+--Camillidae WT11
    |     |    |--Katacamilla cavernicola M87b
    |     |    |--Protocamilla succini M87b
    |     |    |--Afrocamilla BW09
    |     |    |    |--A. arizonica W10
    |     |    |    `--A. bispinosa W10
    |     |    `--Camilla WT11
    |     |         |--C. arnaudi BW09
    |     |         `--C. glabra M81
    |     `--+--Diastatidae WT11
    |        `--Curtonotidae [Cyrtonotinae] WT11
    |             |--Cyrtona albomacula M87a
    |             |--Axinota pictiventris CM91
    |             `--Curtonotum WT11
    |                  |--C. anus M87a
    |                  |--C. helvum WT11
    |                  `--C. vulpinum MK-SK10
    `--Ephydridae [Parydrinae] WT11
         |  i. s.: Papuama H03
         |         Chlorichaeta tuberculosa A71
         |         Teichomyza A71
         |         Hyadini M10b
         |           |--Lytogaster granulosus M10b
         |           `--Hyadina M10b
         |                |--H. albovenosa M10b
         |                |--H. binotata M10b
         |                |--H. bulbosa M10b
         |                `--H. pallipes M10b
         |         Risa [Risidae] M10b
         |         Gymnomyzinae M10b
         |         Ilytheinae M10b
         |           |--Philygrini M10b
         |           |    |--Garifuna sinuata M10b
         |           |    |--Philygria debilis M10b
         |           |    `--Nostima approximata M10b
         |           `--Ilytheini M10b
         |                |--Zeros flavipes M10b
         |                `--Ilythea M10b
         |                     |--I. caniceps M10b
         |                     `--I. spilota M10b
         |         Pelina WMV87
         |           |--P. biloba WMV87
         |           `--P. truncatula WMV87
         |         Microlytogaster extera WMV87
         |         Callinapaea aldrichi WMV87
         |         Pseudohyadina longicornis WMV87
         |         Rhinonapaea metallica WMV87
         |         Eutaenionotum guttipennis WMV87
         |         Axysta WMV87
         |--Ephydrinae WT11
         `--+--Discomyzinae WT11
            `--Hydrelliinae WT11

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[BT10] Brown, B. V., & F. C. Thompson. 2010. Braulidae (beelice). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1097–1099. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[BW09] Buck, M., N. E. Woodley, A. Borkent, D. M. Wood, T. Pape, J. R. Vockeroth, V. Michelsen & S. A. Marshall. 2009. Key to Diptera families—adults. In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 95–156. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[C-T92] Carles-Tolr√°, M. 1992. New and interesting records of Diptera Acalyptrata from Spain. Part I: Acartophthalmidae, Opomyzidae, Anthomyzidae, Asteiidae, Carnidae, Tethinidae, Milichiidae and Cryptochetidae. Bull. Annls Soc. R. Belge Ent. 128: 343–353.

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[H03] Heads, M. 2003. Ericaceae in Malesia: vicariance biogeography, terrane tectonics and ecology. Telopea 10 (1): 311–449.

[MK-SK10] Marshall, S. A., A. H. Kirk-Spriggs & J. Klymko. 2010. Curtonotidae (hunchbacked flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1189–1192. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[M10] Mathis, W. N. 2010. Ephydridae (shore flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1211–1233. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[M81] McAlpine, J. F. 1981. Key to families—adults. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 89–124. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[M87a] McAlpine, J. F. 1987a. Curtonotidae. In: McAlpine, J. F. (ed.) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1007–1010. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[M87b] McAlpine, J. F. 1987b. Camillidae. In: McAlpine, J. F. (ed.) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1023–1025. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[M90] McAlpine, J. F. 1990. Insecta: Diptera adults. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1211–1252. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[MT10] McAlpine, J. F., & F. C. Thompson. 2010. Cryptochetidae (cryptochetid flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1121–1123. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[T81] Teskey, H. J. 1981. Key to families—larvae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 125–147. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[W10] Wheeler, T. A. 2010. Camillidae (camillid flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1193–1195. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690–5695.

[WMV87] Wirth, W. W., W. N. Mathis & J. R. Vockeroth. 1987. Ephydridae. In: McAlpine, J. F. (ed.) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1027–1047. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

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