Ephydroidea

Cryptochetum buccatum, copyright Andre Burgers.


Belongs within: Schizophora.
Contains: Tethinidae, Drosophilidae, Diastatidae, Gymnomyzinae, Ephydrinae, Discomyzinae, Hydrelliinae.

The Ephydroidea are a clade of mostly small flies supported by molecular data, members of which possess a single pair of proclinate fronto-orbital bristles and precoxal bridges. Members include the Ephydridae, shore flies, a group of flies with a sclerotised, often protruding face commonly associated with aquatic or semiaquatic habitats (Mathis 2010). The Braulidae, beelice, are minute, wingless flies that live clinging to bees and subsist by inducing the host to regurgitate food (Brown & Thompson 2010). The Cryptochetidae are stout, metallic blue-black flies lacking an arista on the antenna that are endoparasitic as larvae on scale insects (McAlpine & Thompson 2010).

<==Ephydroidea [Drosophiloidea] WT11
    |  i. s.: Tethinidae M90
    |--+--+--Drosophilidae WT11
    |  |  `--+--Braulidae [Brauloidea] WT11
    |  |     |    |--Megabraula BT10
    |  |     |    `--Braula BT10
    |  |     |         |--B. coeca BT10
    |  |     |         |--B. hansruttneri BT10
    |  |     |         `--B. schmitzi BT10
    |  |     `--Cryptochetidae [Cryptochaetidae] WT11
    |  |          |--Librella demetrius MT10
    |  |          |--Phanerochaetum tuxeni MT10
    |  |          `--Cryptochetum MT10
    |  |               |  i. s.: C. iceryae MT10
    |  |               |         C. monophlebi CM91
    |  |               |         C. yokohama MT10
    |  |               `--C. (Cryptochetum) C-T92
    |  |                    |--C. (C.) buccatum Hendel 1933 C-T92
    |  |                    `--C. (C.) jorgepastori Cadahia 1984 C-T92
    |  `--+--Camillidae WT11
    |     |    |--Katacamilla cavernicola M87b
    |     |    |--Protocamilla succini M87b
    |     |    |--Afrocamilla W10
    |     |    |    |--A. arizonica W10
    |     |    |    `--A. bispinosa W10
    |     |    `--Camilla W10
    |     |         |--C. arnaudi W10
    |     |         `--C. glabra W10
    |     `--+--Diastatidae WT11
    |        `--Curtonotidae [Cyrtonotinae] WT11
    |             |--Cyrtona albomacula MK-SK10, M87a
    |             |--Axinota pictiventris MK-SK10, CM91
    |             `--Curtonotum MK-SK10
    |                  |--C. angustipennis O98
    |                  |--C. anus M87a
    |                  |--C. helvum MK-SK10
    |                  `--C. vulpinum MK-SK10
    `--Ephydridae [Parydrinae] WT11
         |  i. s.: Papuama H03
         |         Chlorichaeta tuberculosa A71
         |         Teichomyza fusca RD77
         |         Hyadinini M10
         |           |--Lytogaster granulosus M10
         |           `--Hyadina M10
         |                |--H. albovenosa M10
         |                |--H. binotata M10
         |                |--H. bulbosa M10
         |                `--H. pallipes M10
         |         Risa [Risidae] M10
         |         Gymnomyzinae M10
         |         Ilytheinae M10
         |           |--Philygrini M10
         |           |    |--Garifuna sinuata M10
         |           |    |--Philygria debilis M10
         |           |    `--Nostima approximata M10
         |           `--Ilytheini M10
         |                |--Zeros flavipes M10
         |                `--Ilythea M10
         |                     |--I. caniceps M10
         |                     `--I. spilota M10
         |         Pelina WMV87
         |           |--P. biloba WMV87
         |           `--P. truncatula WMV87
         |         Microlytogaster extera WMV87
         |         Callinapaea aldrichi WMV87
         |         Pseudohyadina longicornis WMV87
         |         Rhinonapaea metallica WMV87
         |         Eutaenionotum guttipennis WMV87
         |         Axysta WMV87
         |         Rhynchopsilopa O98
         |--Ephydrinae WT11
         `--+--Discomyzinae WT11
            `--Hydrelliinae WT11

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[BT10] Brown, B. V., & F. C. Thompson. 2010. Braulidae (beelice). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1097–1099. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[C-T92] Carles-Tolr√°, M. 1992. New and interesting records of Diptera Acalyptrata from Spain. Part I: Acartophthalmidae, Opomyzidae, Anthomyzidae, Asteiidae, Carnidae, Tethinidae, Milichiidae and Cryptochetidae. Bull. Annls Soc. R. Belge Ent. 128: 343–353.

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[H03] Heads, M. 2003. Ericaceae in Malesia: vicariance biogeography, terrane tectonics and ecology. Telopea 10 (1): 311–449.

[MK-SK10] Marshall, S. A., A. H. Kirk-Spriggs & J. Klymko. 2010. Curtonotidae (hunchbacked flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1189–1192. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[M10] Mathis, W. N. 2010. Ephydridae (shore flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1211–1233. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[M87a] McAlpine, J. F. 1987a. Curtonotidae. In: McAlpine, J. F. (ed.) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1007–1010. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[M87b] McAlpine, J. F. 1987b. Camillidae. In: McAlpine, J. F. (ed.) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1023–1025. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[M90] McAlpine, J. F. 1990. Insecta: Diptera adults. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1211–1252. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[MT10] McAlpine, J. F., & F. C. Thompson. 2010. Cryptochetidae (cryptochetid flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1121–1123. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[O98] Oosterbroek, P. 1998. The Families of Diptera of the Malay Archipelago. Brill: Leiden.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms' General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[W10] Wheeler, T. A. 2010. Camillidae (camillid flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1193–1195. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690–5695.

[WMV87] Wirth, W. W., W. N. Mathis & J. R. Vockeroth. 1987. Ephydridae. In: McAlpine, J. F. (ed.) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1027–1047. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

Last updated: 11 July 2021.

No comments:

Post a Comment

Markup Key:
- <b>bold</b> = bold
- <i>italic</i> = italic
- <a href="http://www.fieldofscience.com/">FoS</a> = FoS