Cyclorrhapha

Big-headed fly Eudorylas sp., photographed by Nikola Rahmé.


Belongs within: Brachycera.
Contains: Platypezoidea, Syrphidae, Schizophora.

The Cyclorrhapha are a clade of flies in which the larvae have developed the familiar 'maggot' form, with the head desclerotised and invaginated into the body. The earliest cyclorrhaphans are known from the Cretaceous (Grimaldi & Engel 2005). Living cyclorrhaphans include the Pipunculidae, big-headed flies, which have enormous holoptic eyes that cover almost the entire head; their larvae are parasitoids of other insects, usually Auchenorrhyncha (Hemiptera).

Synapomorphies (from Grimaldi & Engel 2005): Face with pair or more of thick vibrissae; abdominal plaques lost in adults; embryos not developing in amnion; larvae saprophagous 'maggots' with maxilla absent, head desclerotised and invaginated; pupariation in ecdysed cuticle of last larval instar; arista with two small basal segments; proboscis retractile, withdrawn at rest into large oral cavity; female terminalia without acanthophorite spines.

<==Cyclorrhapha [Aschiza, Muscides, Muscomorpha]
    |--Chimeromyia GE05
    `--+--Lonchopterites prisca GE05
       `--+--Platypezoidea WT11
          `--Syrphoidea M90
               |--Syrphidae WT11
               `--+--Schizophora WT11
                  `--Pipunculidae [Dorilaidae] WT11
                       |  i. s.: Alloneura A71
                       |         Collinias RS10
                       |         Beckerias CM91
                       |--Nephrocerinae [Nephrocerini] RS10
                       |    |--Protonephrocerus collini RS10, H87
                       |    `--Nephrocerus RS10
                       |         |--N. daeckei H87
                       |         `--N. slossonae RS10
                       |--Chalarinae RS10
                       |    |--Chalarus spurius H87
                       |    |--Jassidophaga RS10
                       |    `--Verrallia RS10
                       |         |--V. aucta A71
                       |         `--V. virginica RS10
                       `--Pipunculinae RS10
                            |--Tomosvaryella [Tomosvaryellini] RS10
                            |    |--T. nyctias MC13
                            |    `--T. sylvatica RS10
                            |--Microcephalops [Microcephalopsini] RS10
                            |    |--M. latifrons [=Cephalops latifrons] RS10
                            |    `--M. williamsi RS10
                            |--Cephalops WT11 [Cephalopsini RS10]
                            |    |--C. cochleatus RS10
                            |    |--C. longistylis WT11
                            |    `--C. mauritianus A71
                            |--Pipunculini H87
                            |    |--Cephalosphaera H87
                            |    |    |--C. parthenopipis RS10
                            |    |    |--C. (Neocephalosphaera) petila RS10
                            |    |    `--C. (Cephalosphaera) prionotaina RS10
                            |    |--Dorylomorpha H87
                            |    |    |--D. (Dorylomyia) beckeri RS10
                            |    |    |--D. (Pipunculina) borealis RS10
                            |    |    |--D. canadensis RS10
                            |    |    `--D. exilis RS10
                            |    `--Pipunculus Latreille 1802 L02 [incl. Dorilas CM91, Parapipunculus RS10]
                            |         |--*P. campestris L02
                            |         |--P. ater M90
                            |         |--P. cinerascens B88
                            |         |--P. fuscus M90
                            |         |--P. luteicornis RS10
                            |         |--P. sylvaticus K01
                            |         `--P. torus RS10
                            `--Eudorylini RS10
                                 |--Basileunculus rex RS10
                                 |--Claraeola RS10
                                 |--Elmohardyia RS10
                                 |    |--E. atlantica RS10
                                 |    `--E. doelloi RS10
                                 |--Dasydorylas RS10
                                 |    |--D. eucalypti RS10
                                 |    `--D. filiformis Kehlmaier 2005 F05
                                 |--Allomethus RS10
                                 |    |--A. brimleyi RS10
                                 |    |--A. catharinensis RS10
                                 |    `--A. rotundicornis RS10
                                 `--Eudorylas [incl. Metadorylas] RS10
                                      |--E. auctus Kehlmaier 2005 F05
                                      |--E. ibericus Kehlmaier 2005 F05
                                      |--E. moffattensis RS10
                                      |--E. mutillatus RS10
                                      |--E. schreiteri RS10
                                      |--E. venturai Kehlmaier 2005 F05
                                      `--E. zonatus A71

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[F05] Fernández, J. 2005. Noticia de nuevos táxones para la ciencia en el ámbito Íbero-Balear y Macaronésico. Nuevos táxones animales descritos en la península Ibérica y Macaronesia desde 1994 (IX). Graellsia 61 (2): 261–282.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H87] Hardy, D. E. 1987. Pipunculidae. In: McAlpine, J. F. (ed.) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 2 pp. 745–748. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[K01] Kertész, K. 1901. Legyek [Dipteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 179–201. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[MC13] Majer, J. D., S. K. Callan, K. Edwards, N. R. Gunawardene & C. K. Taylor. 2013. Baseline survey of the terrestrial invertebrate fauna of Barrow Island. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 83: 13–112.

[M90] McAlpine, J. F. 1990. Insecta: Diptera adults. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1211–1252. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[RS10] Rafael, J. A., & J. H. Skevington. 2010. Pipunculidae (big-headed flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 793–803. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690–5695.

Last updated: 12 August 2017.

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