Sheep bot fly Oestrus ovis, photographed by terraincognita96.

Belongs within: Tachinidae.
Contains: Gasterophilinae.

The Oestridae include the bot flies, large flies whose larvae are parasitic on mammals. Larvae of Cuterebrinae and Hypodermatinae occupy a subdermal position in their host whereas Oestrinae infest the naso-pharyngeal area and Gasterophilinae are intestinal.

Characters (from Pape 2010): Large, robust flies (body length 15-25 mm) with reduced mouthparts and body clothed with pilelike setosity. Body colour blackish, yellowish or metallic blue. Antenna usually short. Arista bare, pectinate or plumose. Vein M either almost straight or weakly to strongly bent, vein R1 without knob at level where subcosta joins costa. Legs short and stout, or slender. Abdomen globose or elongate oval. Male terminalia with small and simple sternite 5, cerci and surstyli relatively unmodified or shortened, phallus short and stout, with or without epiphallus.

<==Oestridae [Oestrini]
    |  i. s.: Novoberendtia Z02
    |         Adipterites Z02
    |--Cuterebrinae [Cuterebridae] KP10
    |    |--Dermatobia hominis A71, GE05
    |    |--Alouattamyia W87
    |    |--Pseudogametes W87
    |    |--Rogenhofera W87
    |    |--Ruttenia loxodontis W87
    |    |--Neocuterebra squamosa W87
    |    `--Cuterebra MBJ83
    |         |--C. angustifrons A71
    |         |--C. baeri Shannon & Greene 1926 KP10
    |         |--C. emasculator A71
    |         |--C. fontinella MBJ83
    |         |--C. grisea W87
    |         |--C. hassleri P10
    |         |--C. latifrons A71
    |         |--C. semiatra P10
    |         |--C. tenebrosa P10
    |         `--C. thomomuris Jellison 1949 S69
    `--+--Gasterophilinae KP10
       |--Hypodermatinae KP10
       |    |--Pavlovskiata A71
       |    |--Pallasiomyia A71
       |    |--Przhevalskiana A71
       |    |--Strobiloestrus A71
       |    |--Oestroderma W87
       |    |--Oestromyia W87
       |    |--Portschinskia W87
       |    `--Hypoderma A71
       |         |--H. actaeon P10
       |         |--H. bovis A71
       |         |--H. diana A71
       |         |--H. lineatum A71
       |         `--H. (Oedemagena) tarandi W87
       `--Oestrinae [Cephenemyiinae, Pharyngobolinae, Tracheomyiinae] KP10
            |--Pharyngomyia A71
            |--Kirkioestrus A71
            |--Rhinoestrus purpureus A71, C01
            |--Gedoelstia A71
            |--Cephalopina titillator A71, CM91
            |--Pharyngobolus africanus W87
            |--Tracheomyia macropi Froggatt 1913 A71, M64
            |--Cephenemyia A71
            |    |--C. jellisoni P10
            |    |--C. phobifer WT11
            |    |--C. rufibarbis P10
            |    `--C. trompe A71
            `--Oestrus Linnaeus 1758 L58
                 |--O. bovis Linnaeus 1758 L58
                 |--O. haemorrhoidalis Linnaeus 1758 L58
                 |--O. hominis M66
                 |--O. nasalis linnaeus 1758 L58
                 |--O. ovis Linnaeus 1758 L58
                 `--O. tarandi Linnaeus 1758 L58

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[C01] Csiki, E. 1901. Utivázlat [Reiseskizze]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. xii–xli. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[KP10] Kutty, S. N., T. Pape, B. M. Wiegmann & R. Meier. 2010. Molecular phylogeny of the Calyptratae (Diptera: Cyclorrhapha) with an emphasis on the superfamily Oestroidea and the position of Mystacinobiidae and McAlpine's fly. Systematic Entomology 35: 614–635.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[MBJ83] Munger, J. C., M. A. Bowers & W. T. Jones. 1983. Desert rodent populations: factors affecting abundance, distribution, and genetic structure. Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs 7: 91–116.

[M66] Murie, J. 1866. On the occurrence of Oestrus tarandi, Linn., in a reindeer in the Society’s gardens. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 590–592.

[M64] Mykytowycz, R. 1964. A survey of the endoparasites of the red kangaroo Megaleia rufa (Desmarest). Parasitology 54: 677–693.

[P10] Pape, T. 2010. Oestridae (bot flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1305–1311. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[S69] Steyskal, G. C. 1969. The mistreatment of the Latin genitive case in forming names of parasites. Systematic Zoology 18 (3): 339–342.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690–5695.

[W87] Wood, D. M. 1987. Oestridae. In: McAlpine, J. F. (ed.) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1147–1158. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[Z02] Zherikhin, V. V. 2002. Ecological history of the terrestrial insects. In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 331–388. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

Last updated: 12 August 2017.

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