Culicomorpha

Specimen of Androprosopa americana, from the Biodiversity Institute of Ontario.

Belongs within: Neoneura.
Contains: Ceratopogonidae, Chironomidae, Simuliidae, Chaoboridae, Anopheles, Culicinae.

The Culicomorpha is a major clade of flies, including mosquitoes, midges and related taxa. Most are relatively slender, long-legged flies, but some are more robust, including the Simuliidae, Thaumaleidae and some Ceratopogonidae. The majority of culicomorphs have aquatic larvae, most of which are filter-feeders or gleaners of algae, protozoa and other micro-organisms.

Synapomorphies (from Blagoderov et al. 2002): Torsion joint at R kink, radial and axillary hair plates, R2 lost, R3+4 stalk formed, MA vein-like and transverse, M3+4 simple, im lost, Cu base tends to be captured by cu-a, CuP base angled towards 1A, pedicel enlarged, (post)laterocervicale with ventromedian projection, empodium tends to be setiform. Pupa with palpal sheath curved posteromesad, hind leg sheath S-shaped and concealed beneath wing sheath. Larva with labral brush complex, torma and premandible invaginated.

<==Culicomorpha
    |--Chironomoidea M90
    |    |--+--Ceratopogonidae GE05
    |    |  `--Chironomidae GE05
    |    `--+--Simuliidae GE05
    |       `--Thaumaleidae GE05
    |            |--Mesothaumalea GE05
    |            |--Thaumalea americana M81a
    |            |--Trichothaumalea pluvialis SP81
    |            |--Afrothaumalea Stuckenberg 1960 S61
    |            |    `--*A. pamelae Stuckenberg 1960 S61
    |            |--Austrothaumalea Tonnoir 1927 S61
    |            |    `--A. neozealandica S61
    |            `--Androprosopa WT11
    |                 |--A. americana WT11
    |                 `--A. larvata SP81
    `--Culicoidea M90
         |--Dixidae GE05
         |    |  i. s.: Paradixa GE05
         |    |         Dixella [incl. Dixapuella] P81
         |    |           |--D. alexanderi P81
         |    |           |--D. californica P81
         |    |           |--D. clavata P81
         |    |           |--D. dyari P81
         |    |           |--D. naevia P81
         |    |           `--D. nova M81b
         |    |         Meringodixa chalonensis P81
         |    |--Eucorethra BLM02 [Eucorethrinae GE05]
         |    |    `--E. underwoodi M81b
         |    `--Dixinae BLM02
         |         |--Syndixa sibirica BLM02
         |         `--Dixa WT11
         |              |--D. brevis M81a
         |              `--D. submaculata WT11
         `--+--+--Chaoboridae WT11
            |  `--Corethrellidae [Corethrellinae] WT11
            |       |--Lutzomiops kerrvillensis C81
            |       `--Corethrella C81
            |            |--C. amazonica WT11
            |            |--C. brakeleyi C81
            |            `--C. wirthi BW09
            `--Culicidae GE05
                 |  i. s.: Theobaldia annulata A71
                 |         Opifex SS05
                 |           |--O. (Nothoskusea) chathamicus (see below for synonymy) SS05
                 |           `--O. fuscus O81
                 |         Runchomyia (Runchomyia) frontosa VSD02
                 |         Chrysoconops acer (Walker 1848) [=Culex acer, Taeniorhynchus acer] T13
                 |         Verrallina RK04
                 |           |--V. carmenti RK04
                 |           |--V. funerea RK04
                 |           `--V. lineata RK04
                 |         Tripteroides RK04
                 |           |--T. bambusa RK04
                 |           `--T. tasmaniensis RK04
                 |--Anopheles GE05
                 `--+--Paleoculicis minutus GE05
                    `--+--Culicinae GE05
                       `--Toxorhynchites GE05 [Toxorhynchitinae S81]
                            |--T. amboensis WT11
                            `--T. (Lynchiella) rutilus S81

Opifex (Nothoskusea) chathamicus [=Aedes (N.) chathamicus, Ochlerotatus (N.) chathamicus] SS05

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[BLM02] Blagoderov, V. A., E. D. Lukashevich & M. B. Mostovski. 2002. Order Diptera Linné, 1758. The true flies (=Muscida Laicharting, 1781). In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 227-240. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[BW09] Buck, M., N. E. Woodley, A. Borkent, D. M. Wood, T. Pape, J. R. Vockeroth, V. Michelsen & S. A. Marshall. 2009. Key to Diptera families—adults. In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera, vol. 1, pp. 95-156. Ottawa, NRC Research Press.

[C81] Cook, E. F. 1981. Chaoboridae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1, pp. 335-339. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[M81a] McAlpine, J. F. 1981a. Morphology and terminology—adults. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1, pp. 9-63. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[M81b] McAlpine, J. F. 1981b. Key to families—adults. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1, pp. 89-124. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[M90] McAlpine, J. F. 1990. Insecta: Diptera adults. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1211-1252. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[O81] O’Brien, C. O. 1981. A. A. Book of New Zealand Wildlife: A guide to the native and introduced animals of New Zealand. Lansdowne Press: Auckland.

[P81] Peters, T. M. 1981. Dixidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1, pp. 329-333. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[RK04] Russell, R. C., & B. H. Kay. 2004. Medical entomology: changes in the spectrum of mosquito-borne disease in Australia and other vector threats and risks, 1972-2004. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 271-282.

[SS05] Snell, A. E., & P. J. Sirvid. 2005. Mosquitoes of the Chatham Islands: Notes on Opifex chathamicus (=Ochlerotatus chathamicus) (Dumbleton) (Diptera: Culicidae). Weta 29: 6-8.

[S81] Stone, A. 1981. Culicidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1, pp. 341-350. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[SP81] Stone, A., & B. V. Peterson. 1981. Thaumaleidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1, pp. 351-353. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[S61] Stuckenberg, R. R. 1961. Diptera (Nematocera): Thaumaleidae. In: Hanström, B., P. Brinck & G. Rudebeck. South African Animal Life: Results of the Lund University Expedition in 1950–1951 vol. 8 pp. 409-412. Almqvist & Wiksell: Uppsala.

[T13] Theobald, F. V. 1913. Culicidae from New Caledonia and the Loyalty Islands. In Nova Caledonia: Forschungen in Neu-Caledonian und auf den Loyalty-Inseln. A. Zoologie vol. 1, Heft III (F. Sarasin & J. Roux, eds) pp. 163-164. C. W. Kreidels Verlag: Wiesbaden.

[VSD02] Villarreal, O., C. Señaris & C. DoNascimiento. 2002. Contribución al conocimiento faunístico del Wei-Assipu-tepui, macizo del Roraima, con énfasis en la anurofauna y opiliofauna. Boletín de la Sociedad Venezolana de Espeleología 36: 46-50.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690-5695.

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