Culicomorpha

Specimen of Androprosopa americana, from the Biodiversity Institute of Ontario.


Belongs within: Neoneura.
Contains: Ceratopogonidae, Chironomidae, Simuliidae, Culicidae, Chaoboridae.

The Culicomorpha is a major clade of flies including mosquitoes, midges and related taxa. Most are relatively slender, long-legged flies, but some are more robust, including the Simuliidae, Thaumaleidae and some Ceratopogonidae. The majority of culicomorphs have aquatic larvae, most of which are filter-feeders or gleaners of algae, protozoa and other micro-organisms. Of the two main lineages within the Culicomorpha, adults have wing venation reduced in Chironomoidea relative to that found in the Culicoidea.

Synapomorphies (from Blagoderov et al. 2002): Torsion joint at R kink, radial and axillary hair plates, R2 lost, R3+4 stalk formed, MA vein-like and transverse, M3+4 simple, im lost, Cu base tends to be captured by cu-a, CuP base angled towards 1A, pedicel enlarged, (post)laterocervicale with ventromedian projection, empodium tends to be setiform. Pupa with palpal sheath curved posteromesad, hind leg sheath S-shaped and concealed beneath wing sheath. Larva with labral brush complex, torma and premandible invaginated.

<==Culicomorpha
    |--Chironomoidea M90
    |    |--+--Ceratopogonidae WT11
    |    |  `--Chironomidae WT11
    |    `--+--Simuliidae WT11
    |       `--Thaumaleidae [Orphnephilidae] WT11
    |            |--Mesothaumalea GE05
    |            |--Thaumalea americana SP81
    |            |--Trichothaumalea pluvialis SP81
    |            |--Niphta CM91
    |            |--Afrothaumalea Stuckenberg 1960 S61
    |            |    `--*A. pamelae Stuckenberg 1960 S61
    |            |--Austrothaumalea Tonnoir 1927 S61
    |            |    `--A. neozealandica S61
    |            `--Androprosopa SP81
    |                 |--A. americana WT11
    |                 `--A. larvata SP81
    `--Culicoidea M90
         |--+--Culicidae WT11
         |  `--+--Chaoboridae WT11
         |     `--Corethrellidae [Corethrellinae] WT11
         |          |--Lutzomiops kerrvillensis C81
         |          `--Corethrella B09b
         |               |--C. amazonica WT11
         |               |--C. brakeleyi C81
         |               |--C. calathicola B09b
         |               |--C. dicosimoae B09b
         |               |--C. towadensis B09b
         |               `--C. wirthi BW09
         `--Dixidae WT11
              |  i. s.: Dixella [incl. Dixapuella] P81
              |           |--D. alexanderi P81
              |           |--D. californica P81
              |           |--D. clavata P81
              |           |--D. dyari P81
              |           |--D. naevia P81
              |           |--D. nova P81
              |           `--D. suzukii B09a
              |--Paradixa GE05 [Paradixinae B09a]
              |--Meringodixa P81 [Meringodixinae B09a]
              |    `--M. chalonensis P81
              `--Dixinae BLM02
                   |--Syndixa sibirica BLM02
                   `--Dixa P811
                        |--D. brevis P81
                        |--D. nicholsoni CM91
                        `--D. submaculata WT11

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BLM02] Blagoderov, V. A., E. D. Lukashevich & M. B. Mostovski. 2002. Order Diptera LinnĂ©, 1758. The true flies (=Muscida Laicharting, 1781). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 227–240. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[B09a] Borkent, A. 2009a. Dixidae (meniscus midges). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera, vol. 1 pp. 359–360. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[B09b] Borkent, A. 2009b. Corethrellidae (frog-biting midges). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 361–363. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[BW09] Buck, M., N. E. Woodley, A. Borkent, D. M. Wood, T. Pape, J. R. Vockeroth, V. Michelsen & S. A. Marshall. 2009. Key to Diptera families—adults. In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 95–156. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[C81] Cook, E. F. 1981. Chaoboridae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 335–339. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[M90] McAlpine, J. F. 1990. Insecta: Diptera adults. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1211–1252. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[P81] Peters, T. M. 1981. Dixidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 329–333. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[SP81] Stone, A., & B. V. Peterson. 1981. Thaumaleidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 351–353. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[S61] Stuckenberg, R. R. 1961. Diptera (Nematocera): Thaumaleidae. In: Hanström, B., P. Brinck & G. Rudebeck (eds) South African Animal Life: Results of the Lund University Expedition in 1950–1951 vol. 8 pp. 409–412. Almqvist & Wiksell: Uppsala.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690–5695.

Last updated: 7 May 2018.

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